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Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study on Power Steering Shudder

2008-04-14
2008-01-0501
Shudder vibration of a hydraulic power steering system during parking maneuver was studied with numerical and experimental methods. To quantify vibration performance of the system and recognize important stimuli for drivers, a shudder metric was derived by correlation between objective measurements and subjective ratings. A CAE model for steering wheel vibration analysis was developed and compared with measured data. In order to describe steering input dependency of shudder, a new dynamic friction modeling method, in which the magnitude of effective damping is determined by average velocity, was proposed. The developed model was validated using the measured steering wheel acceleration and the pressure change at inlet of the steering gear box. It was shown that the developed model successfully describes major modes by comparing the calculated FRF of the hydraulic system with measured one from the hydraulic excitation test.
Journal Article

Reducing Power Demand for Heavy Suspension Tests

2008-04-14
2008-01-0690
Competitive pressures, globalization of markets, and integration of new materials and technologies into heavy vehicle suspension systems have increased demand for durability validation of new designs. Traditional Proving Ground and on-road testing for suspension development have the limitations of extremely long test times, poor repeatability and the corresponding difficultly in getting good engineering level data on failures. This test approach requires a complete vehicle driven continuously over severe Proving Ground events for extended periods. Such tests are not only time consuming but also costly in terms of equipment, maintenance, personnel, and fuel. Ideally multiple samples must be tested to accumulate equivalent millions of kilometers of operation in highly damaging environments.
Technical Paper

An Approach for Improving Correlation of Solid Finite Element Models

2005-05-16
2005-01-2370
The quest to simulate noise problems has led to the building of larger and more detailed finite element models in order to perform vibration solutions to higher frequencies. This leads to the building of solid finite element models of complex geometries, such as castings, which might previously have contained less detail or even been built with shell elements. Unfortunately, detailed geometric representations used to build models do not always agree with as built parts and lead to discrepancies between analysis results and test data. This paper presents an approach that reduces the time and cost necessary to identify these differences.
Technical Paper

The Future of NVH Testing - An End User's Perspective

2005-05-16
2005-01-2270
The role of NVH testing has evolved from a firefighting role and a period of exploration to a well defined standard test role in the product development and validation process. Integral to this process is robust engineering, which drives the need to execute many tests quickly, efficiently and accurately. This allows the NVH specialist to concentrate on interpretation of results and spend less time on the acquisition of data. As the volume of data grows, this creates the opportunity to data mine an NVH database to compare results from large sample sizes and focus on product variation. Today's NVH laboratory is accountable for producing high quality, consistent, timely, and cost effective test reports. The basic core of the test has to be easy to set up and execute for a novice, yet still allow for exploratory tests by specialists as necessary. The NVH laboratory is now subject to the same budgetary pressures and quality audits as other testing operations.
Technical Paper

Integration of Physical and Virtual Tools for Virtual Prototype Validation and Model Improvement

2003-10-27
2003-01-2813
Hyundai Motor Company has combined physical and virtual testing tools to validate a full vehicle virtual prototype. Today a large number of physical tests are still required because the cycle of “design-build-test-change” relies on complex models of components and systems that typically are not easily validated. In order to shorten the development cycles, engineers perform multi-body simulations to dynamically excite components and systems and thereby estimate their durability under dynamic loads. The approach described herein demonstrates the feasibility of correlating the output from the corresponding physical and virtual prototype. Both synthetic and road load events are employed to excite physical and virtual vehicles, reveal difference in response, and ultimately improve the predictive capability of the model.
Technical Paper

Brake Groan Simulation for a McPherson Strut Type Suspension

2003-05-05
2003-01-1627
Brake groan noise and vibration occurs in a stopped vehicle by the simultaneous application of torque to the wheel and the gradual release of brake pressure. Eventually the torque load breaks the friction between pad and rotor causing slippage and energy release. If the torque load is not large enough to maintain slippage, a sustained stick-slip vibration, called groan, can occur which transmits a low frequency noise to the vehicle interior. In some cases the noise levels caused by groan can be objectionable, thus procedures for developing remedial designs are needed. To this end, a project was performed to analytically simulate groan vibration in a vehicle with a McPherson strut type suspension. The goal was to demonstrate that analytical models could be used to simulate groan behavior and to identify suspension components that affect the groan behavior. The ADAMS software was used to model a brake/suspension system.
Technical Paper

Excitation Control for Consistent Modal Parameters When Testing Nonlinear Structures

2003-05-05
2003-01-1629
Many structures of practical interest exhibit a significant degree of nonlinearity. In such cases, the modal frequencies, damping, and amplitudes will change depending upon the excitation force level, response level and spectrum shape. When reporting the measured modal parameters from an artificial excitation test, the excitation conditions and response levels should be specified, and different modal models may be needed to represent the structural dynamics at different response amplitude levels. If the frequency responses are measured by moving accelerometers in multiple test runs, then it is important to maintain a consistent response level for all test runs. This paper describes a method to eliminate the variability of the response level between data sets by means of closed-loop control of the RMS level. The amplitude control program uses a nonlinear gain estimation technique to set the gain on a “proportional-integral” controller.
Technical Paper

Power Steering Pump Sound Quality and Vibration - Test Stand Development

2003-05-05
2003-01-1662
The quietness of the interior of automobiles is perceived by consumers as a measure of quality and luxury. Great strides have been achieved in isolating interiors from noise sources. As noise is reduced, in particular wind and power train noise, other noise sources become evident. Noise reduction efforts are now focused on components like power steering pumps. To understand the contribution of power steering pumps a world-class noise and vibration test stand was developed. This paper describes the development of the test stand as well as it's objective to understand and improve the sound quality of power steering pumps.
Technical Paper

Sound Decomposition - A Key to Improved Sound Simulation

2003-05-05
2003-01-1423
The sound field in a vehicle is one of the most complex environments being a mixture of multiple, correlated and uncorrelated sound sources. The simulation of vehicle interior sound has traditionally been produced by combining multiple test results where the influence of one source is enhanced while the other sources are suppressed, such as towing the vehicle on a rough surface for road noise, or measuring noise in a wind tunnel. Such methods are costly and provide inherent inaccuracies due to source contamination and lack of synchronization between sources. In addition they preclude the addition of analytical predictions into the simulation. The authors propose an alternative approach in which the component sounds are decomposed or separated from a single operating measurement and which provide the basis for accurate sound synthesis.
Technical Paper

Mode Coupling Phenomenon of Brake Squeal Dynamics

2003-05-05
2003-01-1624
Many analytical approaches have been proposed in the literatures to evaluate the brake squeal dynamics, the complex eigenvalue approach probably being the most popular. Although this method is generally accepted, it suffers from several drawbacks. One is that the analysis does not provide a clear indication of the squeal mechanism. Another is that the predictions are sensitive to slight changes to the system model. For this reason, a variation of the complex eigenvalue approach has been developed that is more robust and provides insight into the squeal mechanism. In this paper, the new method is used to identify the types of modal coupling mechanisms that lead to squeal. Based on this investigation, the authors present three different types of mode coupling conditions that cause squeal.
Technical Paper

Tools for Integration of Analysis and Testing

2003-05-05
2003-01-1606
The automotive vehicle design process has relied for many years on both analytical studies and physical testing. Testing remains to be required due to the inherent complexities of structures and systems and the simplifications made in analytical studies. Simulation test methods, i.e. tests that load components with forces derived from actual operating conditions, have become the accepted standard. Advanced simulation tools like iterative deconvolution methods have been developed to address this need. Analytical techniques, such as multi body simulation have advanced to the degree that it is practical to investigate the dynamic behavior of components and even full vehicles under the influence of operational loads. However, the approach of testing and analysis are quite unique and no seamless bridge between the two exists. This paper demonstrates an integrated approach to combine testing and analysis together in the form of virtual testing.
Technical Paper

A Practical Implementation of ASAM-GDI on an Automated Model Based Calibration System

2003-03-03
2003-01-1030
The paper addresses the connectivity issues related to integrating an Automated Model Based Calibration System (MTS Atlas) to a dynamometer test bed data acquisition system using an ASAM-GDI Interface. The GDI (Generic Device Interface) implementation was chosen over other ASAM interfaces due to its real-time capabilities and the ability to host new GDI drivers as these drivers become available. A structured migration process is developed showing how a new interface standard can be implemented that integrates with legacy test equipment, yet provides a simple low cost mechanism allowing replacement of old or redundant equipment.
Technical Paper

Various Errors in Substructure Testing

2001-04-30
2001-01-1404
A frequency domain substructure method is employed for deriving the motion transmissibility equation on a coupled structure. Various errors in its experimental implementation are investigated by numerical calculations in order to identify the most important source of errors so that future effort can be more focused. The interfaces with and without the tangential and rotational DOF's are taken into account when the DOF deficiency error is studied. By decomposing the DOF deficiency error into different components, it is shown that all six interfacial DOF's must be taken into account for general structures. The bias, noise, and underflow errors are investigated and their relative importance is compared with the DOF-deficiency error. It reveals that these three errors are moderate in nature and can be handled with traditional methods while there is no simple way to compensate for the DOF deficiency error.
Technical Paper

Using Modal Parameters to Monitor Vehicle Changes During a Durability Test

2000-12-01
2000-01-3159
The objective of this work was to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of road simulation testing with an emphasis on obtaining more information from the laboratory test system. Attaining the objective was evaluated by the criteria: 1) was vehicle damage detected before a major failure, 2) were changes in test conditions that would result in over- or under-testing detected, 3) were vehicle and test system components that require maintenance detected and 4) did the changes detected provide a better understanding of the test specimen and analytical predictions. The tools used for this process were not integrated. An integrated set of tools would be required to make this a general-purpose technique
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