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Technical Paper

Thermal-Mechanical Durability of DOC and DPF After-treatment System for Light Heavy Pickup Truck Application

2009-11-02
2009-01-2707
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s heavy duty diesel emission standard was tightened beginning from 2007 with the introduction of ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel. Most heavy duty diesel applications were required to equip Particulate Matter (PM) after-treatment systems to meet the new tighter, emission standard. Systems utilizing Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed-Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) are a mainstream of modern diesel PM after-treatment systems. To ensure appropriate performance of the system, periodic cleaning of the PM trapped in DPF by its oxidation (a process called “regeneration”) is necessary. As a result, of this regeneration, DOC’s and DPF’s can be exposed to hundreds of thermal cycles during their lifetime. Therefore, to understand the thermo-mechanical performance of the DOC and DPF is an essential issue to evaluate the durability of the system.
Technical Paper

Application of Hydraulic Body Mounts to Reduce the Freeway Hop Shake of Pickup Trucks

2009-05-19
2009-01-2126
When pickup trucks are driven on concrete paved freeways, freeway hop shake is a major complaint. Freeway hop shake occurs when the vehicle passes over the concrete joints of the freeway which impose in-phase harmonic road inputs. These road inputs excite vehicle modes that degrade ride comfort. The worst shake level occurs when the vehicle speed is such that the road input excites the vehicle 1st bending mode and/or the rear wheel hop mode. The hop and bending mode are very close in frequency. This phenomenon is called freeway hop shake. Automotive manufacturers are searching for ways to mitigate freeway hop shake. There are several ways to reduce the shake amplitude. This paper documents a new approach using hydraulic body mounts to reduce the shake. A full vehicle analytical model was used to determine the root cause of the freeway hop shake.
Technical Paper

Opportunities and Challenges for Blended 2-Way SCR/DPF Aftertreatment Technologies

2009-04-20
2009-01-0274
Diesel engines offer better fuel economy compared to their gasoline counterpart, but simultaneous control of NOx and particulates is very challenging. The blended 2-way SCR/DPF is recently emerging as a compact and cost-effective technology to reduce NOx and particulates from diesel exhaust using a single aftertreatment device. By coating SCR catalysts on and inside the walls of the conventional wall-flow filter, the 2-way SCR/DPF eliminates the volume and mass of the conventional SCR device. Compared with the conventional diesel aftertreatment system with a SCR and a DPF, the 2-way SCR/DPF technology offers the potential of significant cost saving and packaging flexibility. In this study, an engine dynamometer test cell was set up to repeatedly load and regenerate the SCR/DPF devices to mimic catalyst aging experienced during periodic high-temperature soot regenerations in the real world.
Technical Paper

Stability Analysis of Solid Axle, Torque Arm Suspension Vehicles under Heavy Acceleration and Braking Events

2008-04-14
2008-01-1144
Power-hop is a self-excited and potential locally unstable torsional vibration of a vehicle's driveline, caused by stick and slip of the tire. It is especially prevalent in high-powered cars and trucks, under heavy acceleration. Torque arms have been used to reduce power-hop for many solid axle suspension vehicles, mostly trucks and old rear wheel drive sports cars. It has long been known that the shortest torque arm easily reduces power-hop, but will increase hop under braking (braking-hop). The fundamental mechanism of torque arm effects on solid axle suspension vehicles, however, has not yet been fully explained. This study explains the stability of solid axle, torque arm suspension vehicles under heavy acceleration and braking. Analytical techniques utilize conventional linear analysis and a non-linear coupling force in a 4 degree of freedom dynamic model.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Cu-Based SCR/DPF Technology for Diesel Exhaust Emission Control

2008-04-14
2008-01-0072
Recently, a new technology, termed 2-way SCR/DPF by the authors, has been developed by several catalyst suppliers for diesel exhaust emission control. Unlike a conventional emission control system consisting of an SCR catalyst followed by a catalyzed DPF, a wall-flow filter is coated with SCR catalysts for controlling both NOx and PM emissions in a single catalytic converter, thus reducing the overall system volume and cost. In this work, the potential and limitations of the Cu/Zeolite-based SCR/DPF technology for meeting future emission standards were evaluated on a pick-up truck equipped with a prototype light-duty diesel engine.
Journal Article

Reducing Power Demand for Heavy Suspension Tests

2008-04-14
2008-01-0690
Competitive pressures, globalization of markets, and integration of new materials and technologies into heavy vehicle suspension systems have increased demand for durability validation of new designs. Traditional Proving Ground and on-road testing for suspension development have the limitations of extremely long test times, poor repeatability and the corresponding difficultly in getting good engineering level data on failures. This test approach requires a complete vehicle driven continuously over severe Proving Ground events for extended periods. Such tests are not only time consuming but also costly in terms of equipment, maintenance, personnel, and fuel. Ideally multiple samples must be tested to accumulate equivalent millions of kilometers of operation in highly damaging environments.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Moving Mesh CFD Study of Semi-truck Passing a Stationary Vehicle with Hood Open

2007-04-16
2007-01-0111
This paper examines the aerodynamic forces on the open hood of a stationary vehicle when another large vehicle, such as an 18-wheel semi-truck, passes by at high speed. The problem of semi-truck passing a parked car with hood open is solved as a transient two-vehicle aerodynamics problem with a Dynamic Moving Mesh (DMM) capability in commercial CFD software package FLUENT. To assess the computational feasibility, a simplified compact car / semi-truck geometry and CFD meshes are used in the first trial example. At 70 mph semi-truck speed, the CFD results indicate a peak aerodynamic force level of 20N to 30N on the hood of the car, and the direction of the net forces and moments on the hood change multiple times during the passing event.
Technical Paper

Future Truck Steering Effort Optimization

2007-04-16
2007-01-1155
In an endeavor to improve upon historically subjective and hardware-based steering tuning development, a team was formed to find an optimal and objective solution using Design For Six Sigma (DFSS). The goal was to determine the best valve assembly design within a hydraulic power-steering assist system to yield improved steering effort and feel robustness for all vehicle models in a future truck program. The methodology utilized was not only multifaceted with several Design of Experiments (DOEs), but also took advantage of a CAE-based approach leveraging modeling capabilities in ADAMS for simulating full-vehicle, On-Center Handling behavior. The team investigated thirteen control factors to determine which minimized a realistic, compounded noise strategy while also considering the ideal steering effort function (SEF) desired by the customer. In the end, it was found that response-dependent variability dominated the physics of our valve assembly design concept.
Technical Paper

Virtual Manufacturing of Automotive Body Side Outers Using Advanced Line Die Forming Simulation

2007-04-16
2007-01-1688
As a virtual manufacturing press line, line die forming simulation provides a full range math-based engineering tool for stamping die developments of automotive structure and closure panels. Much beyond draw-die-only formability analysis that has been widely used in stamping simulation community during the last decade, the line die formability analysis allows incorporating more manufacturing requirements and resolving more potential failures before die construction and press tryout. Representing the most difficult level in formability analysis, conducting line die formability analysis of automotive body side outers exemplifies the greatest technological challenge to stamping CAE community. This paper discusses some critical issues in line die analysis of the body side outers, describes technical challenges in applications, and finally demonstrates the impact of line die forming simulation on the die development.
Technical Paper

From Algorithms to Software - A Practical Approach to Model-Driven Design

2007-04-16
2007-01-1622
The value of model-based design has been attempted to be communicated for more than a decade. As methods and tools have appeared and disappeared from a series of different vendors it has become apparent that no single vendor has a solution that meets all users’ needs. Recently standards (UML, MDA, MOF, EMF, etc.) have become a dominant force and an alternative to vendor-specific languages and processes. Where these standards have succeeded and vendors have failed is in the realization that they do not provide the answer, but instead provide the foundation to develop the answer. It is in the utilization of these standards and their capability to be customized that companies have achieved success. Customization has occurred to fit organizations, processes, and architectures that leverage the value of model-driven design.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Brake Lining Life Using an Energy-Based CAE Approach

2007-04-16
2007-01-1019
Due to competitive pressures and the need to rapidly develop new products for the automotive marketplace, the automotive industry has to rapidly develop and validate automotive subsystems and components. While many CAE tools are employed to decrease the time needed for a number of brake engineering tasks such as stress analysis, brake system sizing, thermo-fluid analysis, and structural dynamics, brake lining wear and the associated concept of “lining life” are still predominantly developed and validated through resource intensive public road vehicle testing. The goal of this paper is to introduce and detail an energy-based, lumped-parameter CAE approach to predict brake lining life in passenger cars and light trucks.
Technical Paper

Custom Real-Time Interface Blockset Development in Matlab/Simulink for On-Target Rapid Prototyping

2006-04-03
2006-01-0169
In GM R&D Powertrain/Engine Control Group, rapid prototyping controller (RPC) systems with Matlab/Simulink are used extensively to design, simulate and implement advanced engine control algorithms and models. However, those RPC systems use powerful microprocessors with large amounts of RAM contrary to engine control modules (ECM) in production vehicles. Therefore, a thorough analysis on the comparatively much more complicated algorithms and models cannot be performed during the research stage, since there are not enough tools to enable the smooth transition from Matlab/Simulink to the production type processor. The Real-Time Interface (RTI) Blockset for a production like microprocessor would close the transition gap between rapid prototyping controller systems and production type microprocessors by leveraging the power and popularity of Matlab/Simulink in control engineering world and automatic code generation tools.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Dynamics of Steering Wheel Torsional Vibration on Smooth Roads

2006-04-03
2006-01-0564
Steering Wheel Torsional Vibration (SWTV) at highway speed on smooth roads is one important attribute affecting vehicle refinement. To ensure desirable SWTV performance, achieve the best design compromises and minimize the development cost, specific design targets need to be defined and the proposed design needs to be assessed very early in the vehicle development cycle. In this paper, the fundamental dynamics of SWTV are analyzed and examples are given to demonstrate the strategies to reduce the SWTV response. Influence of design parameters on the SWTV response is predicted for four vehicle platforms. General guidelines for designing suspension and steering systems are discussed to ensure achieving SWTV targets.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Component Fatigue Analysis Considering Largest Overall Loop for Multiple Surfaces

2006-04-03
2006-01-0979
In the automotive industry, vehicle durability analysis is based on test schedule encompassing multiple road surfaces (events) including rough roads, potholes, etc. Traditionally, in the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) world, road load data for various road surfaces are measured/predicted and fatigue life is predicted for each individual road surface. Fatigue life for the complete test schedule is then calculated with Miner’s rule by summing fatigue damage for each road surface with an appropriate number of repetitions. A major pitfall of this approach is that it does not consider the effect of the largest rainflow range across the entire test schedule. The method described in this paper was developed to perform fatigue analysis of structures subjected to diverse road surfaces and also consider the case in which the maximum overall peak and minimum overall valley do not occur over the same road surface.
Technical Paper

Tuning Guide for Deflected-Disc Suspension Dampers

2006-04-03
2006-01-1380
This paper presents an empirical-based model which explains the force-deflection characteristics of disc stacks commonly used in automotive suspension dampers. The model provides tools for comparing different disc stacks to understand their effect on damper performance. Load-deflection data is presented on a variety of discs and combinations of discs. The data is analyzed to show how the diameter, thickness and relative position of discs in a stack can affect the stack stiffness throughout the range of disc deflections. A model is developed to show how changes in the disc stack will affect damper performance at different velocities. An example is provided that shows predicted changes in disc stack force-deflection characteristics and the resulting changes in a damper force-velocity curve. Ride results are also presented that confirm the validity of the model.
Technical Paper

Music Analogy: An Alternative Strategy for Sound Quality Requirements

2005-05-16
2005-01-2477
In recent years a predominant strategy for setting sound quality (SQ) requirements has been the sensory correlation approach (also called sensory evaluation or sensory science). Some users of this approach have reported their progress in numerous papers. Other SQ practitioners have made presentations on specific topics that show the linkage to music and musical notation. These specific links point to an alternative general strategy - “the Music Analogy for Sound Quality.” This paper begins by comparing the general methods of the music analogy and sensory correlation. Some major differences will be identified and implications discussed. Some existing specific tools for the music analogy will be identified as well as some gaps that need to be filled. Finally, reasons will be presented concerning why the music analogy should be considered when developing sound quality requirements.
Technical Paper

Design of the Milford Road Course

2005-04-11
2005-01-0385
The Milford Road Course is a new 2.9 mi (4.6 km), 20 turn, configurable closed course with 135 ft (41 m) of elevation change, constructed at the General Motors Proving Ground in Milford, MI, USA. This facility provides a convenient and safe venue for engineers to evaluate vehicle limit performance over extensive combinations of vertical, lateral and longitudinal acceleration at a wide range of speeds. This paper discusses the vehicle dynamics aspects of the facility design, simulation and construction.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulations for Flow Over Pickup Trucks

2005-04-11
2005-01-0547
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate the flow field over a pickup truck. The simulation was based on a steady state formulation and the focus of the simulation was to assess the capabilities of the currently used CFD tools for vehicle aerodynamic development for pickup trucks. Detailed comparisons were made between the CFD simulations and the existing experiments for a generic pickup truck. It was found that the flow structures obtained from the CFD calculations are very similar to the corresponding measured mean flows. Furthermore, the surface pressure distributions are captured reasonably well by the CFD analysis. Comparison for aerodynamic drags was carried out for both the generic pickup truck and a production pickup truck. Both the simulations and the measurements show the same trends for the drag as the vehicle geometry changes, This suggests that the steady state CFD simulation can be used to aid the aerodynamic development of pickup trucks.
Technical Paper

A Subsystem Crash Test Methodology for Retention of Convenience Organizer Equipment System in Rear Impact

2005-04-11
2005-01-0735
Any equipment system or vehicle component like the Convenience Organizer storage system needs to be retained within the cargo compartment without intruding into the passenger compartment for occupant safety during a high speed impact. This paper outlines a test method to evaluate the retention of such a system in a rear impact environment. The method utilizes a low speed barrier to simulate a high speed RMB (Rear Moving Barrier) impact. The content of the low speed RMB impact test setup was developed utilizing DYNA3D analytical simulation results from a full vehicle model subjected to high-speed RMB impact. The retention of the equipment developed through this test method was confirmed on a full scale rear impact test.
Technical Paper

Further Assessment of Closed-Wall Wind Tunnel Blockage Using CFD

2005-04-11
2005-01-0868
The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based wind tunnel blockage correction method proposed in [1] was extended in the present study to production vehicles with detailed underhood and underbody components, fascia and grills. Three different types of vehicles (sedan, SUV, and pickup truck) were considered in the study. While the previous CFD based wind tunnel blockage correction method was for vehicle aerodynamic drag, the blockage effect on vehicle cooling airflow is also included in the present study, and a CFD based blockage correction method for vehicle cooling airflow is proposed. Comparisons were made between the blockage effects for the production vehicles and the blockage effects for the generic vehicles.
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