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Technical Paper

Development of the Direct Nonmethane Hydrocarbon Measurement Technique for Vehicle Testing

The Automotive Industry/Government Emissions Research CRADA (AIGER) has been working to develop a new methodology for the direct determination of nonmethane hydrocarbons (DNMHC) in vehicle testing. This new measurement technique avoids the need for subtraction of a separately determined methane value from the total hydrocarbon measurement as is presently required by the Code of Federal Regulations. This paper will cover the historical aspects of the development program, which was initiated in 1993 and concluded in 2002. A fast, gas chromatographic (GC) column technology was selected and developed for the measurement of the nonmethane hydrocarbons directly, without any interference or correction being caused by the co-presence of sample methane. This new methodology chromatographically separates the methane from the nonmethane hydrocarbons, and then measures both the methane and the backflushed, total nonmethane hydrocarbons using standard flame ionization detection (FID).
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Commercially Available Chemiluminscence Analyzer for Low Level NOx Measurement

As automotive exhaust emission levels reduce, there is a need for increased sensitivity of the NOx measurement. This paper documents work performed to increase the sensitivity of the existing Rosemount NGA 2000 CLD Analyzer. The effects of sample flow rate, ozone flow rate and ozone supply gas were explored. Limit of Detection (LOD) and Converter Efficiency were evaluated. The goal of this optimization has been to provide a cost effective and expeditious method to improve the low level NOx measurement. Changing the ozone generator supply gas from air to oxygen and increasing the sample and ozone flow rates resulted in a LOD improvement from 17 ppb to 8 ppb.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of New Bag Sampling Materials for Low Level Emissions Measurements

Copolymer materials have been used for the collection of vehicle exhaust gas samples since the inception of regulatory standards. Some of these copolymers contain N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), which is added to improve the physical properties of the copolymer and eliminate manufacturing problems. DMA is highly soluble in water, and in effect is rinsed from the emission bag surface by humid exhaust gas samples. This study shows that DMA can thus incorrectly add to test vehicle overall hydrocarbon emissions. The DMA contribution can be significant for lower level emission vehicles. This study introduces a new bag material, KYNAR®, which significantly reduces this interference.