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Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Robust Optimization for Performances of Noise & Vibration and Impact Hardness & Memory Shake

This paper demonstrates the benefit of using simulation and robust optimization for the problem of balancing vehicle noise, vibration, and ride performance over road impacts. The psychophysics associated with perception of vehicle performance on an impact is complex because the occupants encounter both tactile and audible stimuli. Tactile impact vibration has multiple dimensions, such as impact hardness and memory shake. Audible impact sound also affects occupant perception of the vehicle quality. This paper uses multiple approaches to produce the similar, robust, optimized tuning strategies for impact performance. A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project was established to help identify a balanced, optimized solution. The CAE simulations were combined with software tools such as iSIGHT and internally developed Kriging software to identify response surfaces and find optimal tuning.
Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study on Power Steering Shudder

Shudder vibration of a hydraulic power steering system during parking maneuver was studied with numerical and experimental methods. To quantify vibration performance of the system and recognize important stimuli for drivers, a shudder metric was derived by correlation between objective measurements and subjective ratings. A CAE model for steering wheel vibration analysis was developed and compared with measured data. In order to describe steering input dependency of shudder, a new dynamic friction modeling method, in which the magnitude of effective damping is determined by average velocity, was proposed. The developed model was validated using the measured steering wheel acceleration and the pressure change at inlet of the steering gear box. It was shown that the developed model successfully describes major modes by comparing the calculated FRF of the hydraulic system with measured one from the hydraulic excitation test.
Technical Paper

Gear Mesh Excitation Models for Assessing Gear Rattle and Gear Whine of Torque Transmission Systems with Planetary Gear Sets

This paper presents four methodologies for modeling gear mesh excitations in simple and compound planetary gear sets. The gear mesh excitations use simplified representations of the gear mesh contact phenomenon so that they can be implemented in a numerically efficient manner. This allows the gear mesh excitations to be included in transmission system-level, multibody dynamic models for the assessment of operating noise and vibration levels. After presenting the four approaches, a description is made regarding how they have been implemented in software. Finally, example models are used to do a comparison between the methods
Technical Paper

Hybrid Technique Based on Finite Element and Experimental Data for Automotive Applications

This paper presents the hybrid technique application in identifying the noise transfer paths and the force transmissibility between the interfaces of the different components in the vehicle. It is the stiffness based formulation and is being applied for the low to mid frequency range for the vibration and structure borne noise. The frequency response functions such as dynamic compliance, mobility, inertance, and acoustic sensitivity, employed in the hybrid method, can either be from the test data or finite element solution or both. The Source-Path-Receiver concept is used. The sources can be from the road surface, engine, transmission, transfer case, prop-shaft, differential, rotating components, chain drives, pumps, etc., and the receiver can be driver/passenger ears, steering column, seats, etc.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Dynamics of Steering Wheel Torsional Vibration on Smooth Roads

Steering Wheel Torsional Vibration (SWTV) at highway speed on smooth roads is one important attribute affecting vehicle refinement. To ensure desirable SWTV performance, achieve the best design compromises and minimize the development cost, specific design targets need to be defined and the proposed design needs to be assessed very early in the vehicle development cycle. In this paper, the fundamental dynamics of SWTV are analyzed and examples are given to demonstrate the strategies to reduce the SWTV response. Influence of design parameters on the SWTV response is predicted for four vehicle platforms. General guidelines for designing suspension and steering systems are discussed to ensure achieving SWTV targets.
Technical Paper

An Approach for Improving Correlation of Solid Finite Element Models

The quest to simulate noise problems has led to the building of larger and more detailed finite element models in order to perform vibration solutions to higher frequencies. This leads to the building of solid finite element models of complex geometries, such as castings, which might previously have contained less detail or even been built with shell elements. Unfortunately, detailed geometric representations used to build models do not always agree with as built parts and lead to discrepancies between analysis results and test data. This paper presents an approach that reduces the time and cost necessary to identify these differences.
Technical Paper

Vibration Modeling and Correlation of Driveline Boom for TFWD/AWD Crossover Vehicles

Reducing the high cost of hardware testing with analytical methods has been highly accelerated in the automotive industry. This paper discusses an analytical model to simulate the driveline boom test for the transverse engine with all wheel drive configuration on a front-wheel drive base (TFWD/AWD). Driveline boom caused by engine firing frequency that excites the bending mode of the propeller shaft becomes a noise and vibration issue for the design of TFWD/AWD driveline. The major source of vibrations and noise under the investigation in this paper is the dominant 3rd order engine torque pulse disturbance that excites the bending of the propeller shaft, the bending of the powertrain and possible the bending of the rear halfshaft. All other excitation sources in this powertrain for a 60° V6 engine with a pushrod type valvetrain are assessed and NVH issues are also considered in this transient dynamic model.
Technical Paper

Vibration Characteristics of Cardboard Inserts in Shells

A study has been conducted to determine the noise and vibration effect of inserting a cardboard liner into a thin, circular cross-sectioned, cylindrical shell. The relevance of such a study is to improve the understanding of the effects when a cardboard liner is used in a propeller shaft for noise and vibration control purposes. It is found from the study that the liner adds significant modal stiffness, while an increase in modal mass is also observed for a particular shell type of mode. Further, the study has shown that the additional modal damping provided by the liner is not appropriately modeled by Coulomb friction damping, a damping model often intuitively associated with cardboard materials. Rather, the damping is best modeled as proportional viscous damping.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Panel Vibro-Acoustic Behavior and Damping

Damping treatments are widely used in passenger vehicles, but the knowledge of damping treatments is often fragmentary in the industry. In this study, vibro-acoustics behavior of a set of vehicle floor and dash panels with various types of damping treatments was investigated. Sound transmission loss, sound radiation efficiency as well as damping loss factor were measured. The damping treatments ranged from laminated steel construction (thin viscoelastic layer) and doubler plate construction (thick viscoelastic layer) to less structural “bake-on” damping and self-adhesive aluminum foil-backed damping treatments. In addition, the bare vehicle panels were tested as a baseline and the fully carpeted floor panel was tested as a reference. The test data were then examined together with analytical modeling of some of the test configurations. As expected, the study found that damping treatments add more than damping. They also add mass and change body panel stiffness.
Technical Paper

Brake Groan Simulation for a McPherson Strut Type Suspension

Brake groan noise and vibration occurs in a stopped vehicle by the simultaneous application of torque to the wheel and the gradual release of brake pressure. Eventually the torque load breaks the friction between pad and rotor causing slippage and energy release. If the torque load is not large enough to maintain slippage, a sustained stick-slip vibration, called groan, can occur which transmits a low frequency noise to the vehicle interior. In some cases the noise levels caused by groan can be objectionable, thus procedures for developing remedial designs are needed. To this end, a project was performed to analytically simulate groan vibration in a vehicle with a McPherson strut type suspension. The goal was to demonstrate that analytical models could be used to simulate groan behavior and to identify suspension components that affect the groan behavior. The ADAMS software was used to model a brake/suspension system.
Technical Paper

Power Steering Pump Sound Quality and Vibration - Test Stand Development

The quietness of the interior of automobiles is perceived by consumers as a measure of quality and luxury. Great strides have been achieved in isolating interiors from noise sources. As noise is reduced, in particular wind and power train noise, other noise sources become evident. Noise reduction efforts are now focused on components like power steering pumps. To understand the contribution of power steering pumps a world-class noise and vibration test stand was developed. This paper describes the development of the test stand as well as it's objective to understand and improve the sound quality of power steering pumps.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Mobility Relationship to the Dynamic Properties of the Structure-Borne Vibration Path within the Power Train and Vehicle

The structure-borne vibration paths within the power train and the vehicle are complicated and have been studied for years. This complication is a result of multiple attachment locations, and directions that exhibit flexural resonance in both the source-side and response-side of the path. To aid understanding in discussion of the dynamic properties of an individual vibration path, simplified mechanical mobility models are employed. These models are typically more simplified by assigning classical elemental properties to the individual components represented in the model. An analysis was performed to understand the significance of more “real-like” component mobility properties on system response and isolation, consistent with the conversational mathematical interpretation. Components within the vibration path are modeled as multiple lumped-parameter elements.
Technical Paper

Minimization of Error for Enforced Motion in FEM

Several methods are currently used to enforce motion in different types of noise and vibration models. Experimentally based FRF models often use a matrix inversion technique to enforce motion. In finite element models, the large mass method is one that is very commonly used. A literature review has shown few guidelines for determining the size of these large masses. In this paper, the relationship between the matrix inversion technique and the large mass method is derived. From this relationship, conditions necessary for these large mass FEM models to converge to the same answers as the matrix inversion technique are derived. These conditions are then used to develop a criterion for determining a smallest possible large mass. Results from a simple model are presented to demonstrate the criterion.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Vehicle Concept Finite-Element Model for Predicting Structural Vibration

A vehicle concept finite-element model is experimentally assessed for predicting structural vibration to 50 Hz. The vehicle concept model represents the body structure with a coarse mesh of plate and beam elements, while the suspension and powertrain are modeled with a coarse mesh of rigid-links, beams, and lumped mass, damping, and stiffness elements. Comparisons are made between the predicted and measured frequency-response-functions (FRFs) and modes of (a) the body-in-white, (b) the trimmed body, and (c) the full vehicle. For the full vehicle, the comparisons are with a comprehensive set of measured FRFs from 63 tests of nominally identical vehicles that demonstrate the vehicle-to-vehicle variability of the measured FRF response.
Technical Paper

Application of Elastomeric Components for Noise and Vibration Isolation in the Automotive Industry

Elastomeric isolators are used in a variety of different applications to reduce noise and vibration. To use isolators effectively requires the product design and development engineer to satisfy multiple objectives, which typically include packaging restrictions, environmental criteria, limitations on motion control, load requirements, and minimum fatigue life, in addition to vibration isolation performance. An understanding of elastomeric material properties and the methods used to characterize elastomeric component behavior is necessary to achieve desired performance. Typical design criteria and functional objectives for various isolator applications, including powertrain mounts, suspension control arm bushings, shock absorber bushings, exhaust hangers, flexible couplings, cradle mounts, body mounts and vibration dampers are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Development and Experimental Evaluation of a Vehicle Structural-Acoustic Trimmed-Body Model

A structural-acoustic finite-element model of an automobile trimmed-body is developed and experimentally evaluated for predicting body vibration and interior noise for frequencies up to 200 Hz. The structural-acoustic model is developed by coupling finite element models of trimmed-body structure and the passenger-compartment acoustic cavity. Frequency-response-function measurements of the structural vibration and interior acoustic response for shaker excitation of a trimmed body are used to assess the accuracy of the structural-acoustic model.