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Technical Paper

Development of the Anti-Lift-Control for Motorcycle

2018-10-30
2018-32-0076
In motorcycle market, there is demand for technology that makes it possible to drive fast safely. One such technology has already been commercialized; control that prevents front lift while enabling maximum acceleration performance. We have developed a more accurate version of this control. In order to maximize acceleration performance, it is necessary to keep front lift angle as close to zero as possible. Reducing output driving force helps to keep the front lift angle low, but if output driving force is reduced too much, it will degrade acceleration performance. Feedback control that reduces output driving force when front lift is detected is effective for optimizing this trade off, but increasing feedback gain too much to reduce front lift angle will cause output driving force to change suddenly, making for a less comfortable ride.
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Flow and Stratified Mixture on HCCI Combustion in High Load

2018-10-30
2018-32-0016
The purpose of this paper is to find a way to extend the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. This paper presents the effect of in-cylinder flow and stratified mixture on HCCI combustion by experiments and three-dimensional computer fluid dynamics coupled with a detailed chemical reaction calculation. The first study was conducted using a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM) equipped with a flow generation plate to create in-cylinder turbulent flow and with a control unit of in-cylinder wall temperature to create in-cylinder temperature distribution. The study assesses the effect of the turbulent flow and the temperature distribution on HCCI combustion. In the second study, the numerical simulation of HCCI combustion was conducted using large eddy simulation coupled with a detailed chemical reaction calculation. The study analyzes the interaction between in-cylinder turbulent flow and mixture distribution and HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Road Simulation Techniques for Reproducing Vehicle Behavior at Motocross Running on a Track

2018-10-30
2018-32-0051
A Road Simulator was developed with the aim of reproducing actual vehicle behavior while running on motocross (MX) track in a laboratory. Vehicle behavior while running on an MX track is influenced by various inertial forces, such as jump landing, acceleration at full throttle, reduced speed at full braking and so on, and also load input from the rider to handlebars and footrests. As all influences must be considered, these inertial force and external force should be applied to a vehicle in laboratory tests. To reproduce various inertial forces such as falling inertia at jump landing, longitudinal inertia during acceleration or deceleration, and rider body action on the vehicle, Active restraint systems must be added instead of the traditional method of Road Simulator that controls wheel axle’s vertical and longitudinal directions with actuators.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Cooling and Warm-Up Performance of Oil-Cooled Engine with Fin-Shaped Oil Jacket

2018-10-30
2018-32-0036
An oil-cooled engine has been developing to achieve better warm-up performance. The oil-cooled engine has an oil jacket that pass through around the exhaust port and the cylinder liner. Fins were installed inside the oil jacket to enhance cooling performance. The result of a bench test shows that the fins enhance the cooling performance with slight loss of warm-up performance. The aim of this study is to clarify effects of the fins. This study conducted two simulations. One is a cooling simulation that was conducted to clarify the reason why the fins enhanced the cooling performance. The other is a warm-up simulation that was conducted to clarify the reason why the fins almost maintained the warm-up performance. The cooling simulation was conducted by steady flow simulation. It simulated a full-load operation of the bench test. It compared converged temperature between the engines with/without the fins. The warm-up simulation was conducted by unsteady flow simulation.
Technical Paper

Active Sound Quality Control Based on Subjective Preference

2017-11-05
2017-32-0034
Recent years, ANC (Active Noise Control) technology has been paying attention. However, rather than the noise measures, the noise gives us the impression even running sound for motorcycles. That is, the control method of the engine sound is shifted from the noise reduction to sound design in each manufactures. Therefore, we proposed a method to design the engine sound using Active Sound Quality Control (ASQC) based on the ANC. Specifically, we proposed the algorithm amplifying and reducing the engine specific order components. From the simulation results, the engine specific order components can be amplified and reduced like an equalizer with the proposed algorithm. And, auditory impressions of engine sound controlled by ASQC were investigated using psychoacoustic measurements. 13 stimuli were obtained by applying ASQC for several order components to amplify or reduce their levels.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical Study of Interaction between Platinum and Oxide Support for Exhaust-Gas Purification Catalyst

2017-11-05
2017-32-0009
We investigated the interaction between the platinum and oxide support based on the HSAB (Hard-Soft-Acid-Base) concept to obtain guidelines for a superior exhaust-gas purification catalyst. The Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation provided the chemical potential (μ) and chemical hardness (η) via the eigenvalue of the Valence Band Maximum and Conduction Band Minimum. Moreover, it was found that the interaction depends on the μ and η, e.g., the metallic Pt cluster (Pt1, Pt3) had a greater interaction with the oxide supports having a lower η, on the other hand, the oxidized Pt cluster (Pt1O1, Pt1O2, Pt1O3, Pt1O4, Pt3O6) tends to be stabilized on the oxide support with a higher μ. These results could be explained by the HSAB concept. It was also found that the oxidation energy of the supported Pt cluster well corresponds to the actual valency of the supported Pt, furthermore, the particle size of the Pt after the thermal treatment depends on the μ of the oxide supports.
Technical Paper

Parallel Active Control of Acceleration Noise

2017-11-05
2017-32-0068
The number of people experiencing psychological discomfort due to the increasing amount of noise emanating from motor vehicles has been on the rise. Legal regulations define the permissible level of vehicle noise in a given area. Active noise control (ANC) is a noise cancellation method that reduces low-frequency sounds, such as engine noise, effectively. Furthermore, this method is suitable for controlling engine noise because the equipment necessary to perform it is small and does not require a large space for installation. Advances in digital processing technology have increased the scope of ANC’s applications, and it is no longer restricted to use in motor vehicles. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in reducing the motor vehicle engine noise produced during acceleration. In this study, we attempt to control the engine sounds from a vehicle with a four-cylinder four-stroke engine.
Technical Paper

Thoracic Injury Risk Curves for Rib Deflections of the SID-IIs Build Level D

2016-11-07
2016-22-0016
Injury risk curves for SID-IIs thorax and abdomen rib deflections proposed for future NCAP side impact evaluations were developed from tests conducted with the SID-IIs FRG. Since the floating rib guide is known to reduce the magnitude of the peak rib deflections, injury risk curves developed from SID-IIs FRG data are not appropriate for use with SID-IIs build level D. PMHS injury data from three series of sled tests and one series of whole-body drop tests are paired with thoracic rib deflections from equivalent tests with SID-IIs build level D. Where possible, the rib deflections of SID-IIs build level D were scaled to adjust for differences in impact velocity between the PMHS and SID-IIs tests. Injury risk curves developed by the Mertz-Weber modified median rank method are presented and compared to risk curves developed by other parametric and non-parametric methods.
Technical Paper

Age-Specific Injury Risk Curves for Distributed, Anterior Thoracic Loading of Various Sizes of Adults Based on Sternal Deflections

2016-11-07
2016-22-0001
Injury Risk Curves are developed from cadaver data for sternal deflections produced by anterior, distributed chest loads for a 25, 45, 55, 65 and 75 year-old Small Female, Mid-Size Male and Large Male based on the variations of bone strengths with age. These curves show that the risk of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury increases with the age of the person. This observation is consistent with NASS data of frontal accidents which shows that older unbelted drivers have a higher risk of AIS ≥ 3 chest injury than younger drivers.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical and Scaling Basis for Frontal and Side Impact Injury Assessment Reference Values

2016-11-07
2016-22-0018
In 1983, General Motors Corporation (GM) petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to allow the use of the biofidelic Hybrid III midsize adult male dummy as an alternate test device for FMVSS 208 compliance testing of frontal impact, passive restraint systems. To support their petition, GM made public to the international automotive community the limit values that they imposed on the Hybrid III measurements, which were called Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs). During the past 20 years, these IARVs have been updated based on relevant biomechanical studies that have been published and scaled to provide IARVs for the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies. Limit values have also been developed for the biofidelic side impact dummies, BioSID, ES-2 and SID-IIs.
Journal Article

CVJ and Knuckle Design Optimization to Protect Inboard Wheel Bearing Seals from Splash

2016-09-18
2016-01-1956
For higher mileage vehicles, noise from contaminant ingress is one of the largest durability issues for wheel bearings. The mileage that wheel bearing sealing issues increase can vary due to multiple factors, such as the level of corrosion for the vehicle and the mating components around the wheel bearing. In general, sealing issues increase after 20,000 to 30,000 km. Protecting the seals from splash is a key step in extending bearing life. Benchmarking has shown a variety of different brake corner designs to protect the bearing from splash. This report examines the effect of factors from different designs, such as the radial gap between constant velocity joint (CVJ) slinger and the knuckle, knuckle labyrinth height and varying slinger designs to minimize the amount of splash to the bearing inboard seal. This report reviews some of the bearing seal failure modes caused by splash.
Technical Paper

Disc Brake Pad Corrosion Adhesion: Test-to-Field Issue Correlation, and Exploration of Friction Physical Properties Influence to Adhesion Break-Away Force

2016-09-18
2016-01-1926
Brake pad to rotor adhesion following exposure to corrosive environments, commonly referred to as “stiction”, continues to present braking engineers with challenges in predicting issues in early phases of development and in resolution once the condition has been identified. The goal of this study took on two parts - first to explore trends in field stiction data and how testing methods can be adapted to better replicate the vehicle issue at the component level, and second to explore the impacts of various brake pad physical properties variation on stiction propensity via a controlled design of experiments. Part one will involve comparison of various production hardware configurations on component level stiction tests with different levels of prior braking experience to evaluate conditioning effects on stiction breakaway force.
Journal Article

Vehicle Level Brake Drag Target Setting for EPA Fuel Economy Certification

2016-09-18
2016-01-1925
The strong focus on reducing brake drag, driven by a historic ramp-up in global fuel economy and carbon emissions standards, has led to renewed research on brake caliper drag behaviors and how to measure them. However, with the increased knowledge of the range of drag behaviors that a caliper can exhibit comes a particularly vexing problem - how should this complex range of behaviors be represented in the overall road load of the vehicle? What conditions are encountered during coastdown and fuel economy testing, and how should brake drag be measured and represented in these conditions? With the Environmental Protection Agency (amongst other regulating agencies around the world) conducting audit testing, and the requirement that published road load values be repeatable within a specified range during these audits, the importance of answering these questions accurately is elevated. This paper studies these questions, and even offers methodology for addressing them.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Optimization Analysis of Small Vehicle Deceleration to Reduce Occupant Injury at Frontal Collision

2015-11-17
2015-32-0705
Due to environmental problems, number of small vehicles with fuel efficiency increases. Since the small vehicles have small deformation space, it is difficult for them to achieve good crashworthiness at a frontal impact accident. Small deformation space usually yields high vehicle deceleration to absorb kinetic energy of the vehicle. The high vehicle deceleration may produce high occupant deceleration and lead to high occupant injury value. For example, North America, Japan and Europe specify head and chest injury value at vehicle's frontal collision. Those injury values tend to be improved if vehicle deceleration decreases. Deceleration of small vehicle with a little deformation space must be adjusted in order to prevent increase of the occupant injury value. A vehicle deceleration is expressed by 9, 18 or 36 discrete variables. A vehicle, an occupant and restraint systems such as seat belts are modeled by masses and a spring to simulate a frontal collision.
Technical Paper

Weight Reduction of Connecting Rod by Using High Strength Steel

2015-09-01
2015-01-1975
Recently, further weight reduction of the car components are demanded for the purpose of fuel-efficient. In particular, the weight reduction of moving parts such as the connecting rod is indispensable for the weight reduction of neighboring parts. The lightweight connecting rod can be accomplished by decrease in cross section of rod part by using high strength steel. However, conventional high strength steel has bad machinability. Therefore, we developed a new high strength steel for connecting rod. The developed steel is based on middle carbon microalloyed steel, and vanadium content is increased to obtain the high yield ratio. As a result, strength of developed steel is 10% higher than the conventional steel. And a weight of new connecting rod can be reduced 8% by using developed steel. This connecting rod had been mass-produced for automobile engine from 2013.
Journal Article

Power Dense and Robust Traction Power Inverter for the Second-Generation Chevrolet Volt Extended-Range EV

2015-04-14
2015-01-1201
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. First generation Chevrolet Volts were driven over half a billion miles in North America from October 2013 through September 2014, 74% of which were all-electric [1, 12]. For 2016, GM has developed the second-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. By significantly re-engineering the traction power inverter module (TPIM) for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle (EREV), we were able to meet all performance targets while maintaining extremely high reliability and environmental robustness. The power switch was re-designed to achieve efficiency targets and meet thermal challenges. A novel cooling approach enables high power density while maintaining a very high overall conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Cabin Air Humidity Model and its Application

2015-04-14
2015-01-0369
In addition to the thermal comfort of the vehicle occupants, their safety by ensuring adequate visibility is an objective of the automotive climate control system. An integrated dew point and glass temperature sensor is widely used among several other technologies to detect risk of fog formation on the cabin side (or inner) surface of the windshield. The erroneous information from a sensor such as the measurement lag can cause imperfect visibility due to the delayed response of the climate control system. Also the high value, low cost vehicles may not have this sensor due to its high cost. A differential equation based model of the cabin air humidity is proposed to calculate in real-time specific humidity of the passenger compartment air. The specific humidity is used along with the windshield surface temperature to determine relative humidity of air and therefore, the risk of fog formation on the interior surface of a windshield.
Technical Paper

Least-Enthalpy Based Control of Cabin Air Recirculation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0372
The vehicle air-conditioning system has significant impact on fuel economy and range of electric vehicles. Improving the fuel economy of vehicles therefore demand for energy efficient climate control systems. Also the emissions regulations motivate the reduced use of fuel for vehicle's cabin climate control. Solar heat gain of the passenger compartment by greenhouse effect is generally treated as the peak thermal load of the climate control system. Although the use of advanced glazing is considered first to reduce solar heat gain other means such as ventilation of parked car and recirculation of cabin air also have impetus for reducing the climate control loads.
Journal Article

Fast and Efficient Detection of Shading of the Objects

2015-04-14
2015-01-0371
The human thermal comfort, which has been a subject of extensive research, is a principal objective of the automotive climate control system. Applying the results of research studies to the practical problems require quantitative information of the thermal environment in the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The exposure to solar radiation is known to alter the thermal environment in the passenger compartment. A photovoltaic-cell based sensor is commonly used in the automotive climate control system to measure the solar radiation exposure of the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The erroneous information from a sensor however can cause thermal discomfort to the occupants. The erroneous measurement can be due to physical or environmental parameters. Shading of a solar sensor due to the opaque vehicle body elements is one such environmental parameter that is known to give incorrect measurement.
Technical Paper

Study of Supercharged Gasoline HCCI Combustion by Using Spectroscopic Measurements and FT-IR Exhaust Gas Analysis

2014-11-11
2014-32-0004
One issue of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines that should be addressed is to suppress rapid combustion in the high-load region. Supercharging the intake air so as to form a leaner mixture is one way of moderating HCCI combustion. However, the specific effect of supercharging on moderating HCCI combustion and the mechanism involved are not fully understood yet. Therefore, experiments were conducted in this study that were designed to moderate rapid combustion in a test HCCI engine by supercharging the air inducted into the cylinder. The engine was operated under high-load levels in a supercharged state in order to make clear the effect of supercharging on expanding the stable operating region in the high-load range. HCCI combustion was investigated under these conditions by making in-cylinder spectroscopic measurements and by analyzing the exhaust gas using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.
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