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Journal Article

Power Dense and Robust Traction Power Inverter for the Second-Generation Chevrolet Volt Extended-Range EV

2015-04-14
2015-01-1201
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. First generation Chevrolet Volts were driven over half a billion miles in North America from October 2013 through September 2014, 74% of which were all-electric [1, 12]. For 2016, GM has developed the second-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. By significantly re-engineering the traction power inverter module (TPIM) for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle (EREV), we were able to meet all performance targets while maintaining extremely high reliability and environmental robustness. The power switch was re-designed to achieve efficiency targets and meet thermal challenges. A novel cooling approach enables high power density while maintaining a very high overall conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Switching Roller Finger Follower Meets Lifetime Passenger Car Durability Requirements

2012-09-10
2012-01-1640
An advanced variable valve actuation (VVA) system is characterized following end-of-life testing to enable fuel economy solutions for passenger car applications. The system consists of a switching roller finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve that are integrated into a four cylinder gasoline engine. The SRFF provides discrete valve lift capability on the intake valves. The motivation for designing this type of VVA system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during part load engine operation. This paper addresses the durability of a SRFF for meeting passenger car durability requirements. Extensive durability tests were conducted for high speed, low speed, switching, and cold start operation. High engine speed test results show stable valvetrain dynamics above 7000 engine rpm. System wear requirements met end-of-life criteria for the switching, sliding, rolling and torsion spring interfaces.
Technical Paper

Application of Principle Component Analysis to Low Speed Rear Impact - Design for Six Sigma Project at General Motors

2009-04-20
2009-01-1204
This study involves an application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) conducted in support of a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project. Primary focus of the project is to optimize seat parameters that influence Low Speed Rear Impact (LSRI) whiplash performance. During the DFSS study, the project team identified a need to rank order critical design factors statistically and establish their contribution to LSRI performance. It is also required to develop a transfer function for the LSRI rating in terms of test response parameters that can be used for optimization. This statistical approach resulted in a reliable transfer function that can applied across all seat designs and enabled us to separate vital few parameters from several many.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Robust Optimization for Performances of Noise & Vibration and Impact Hardness & Memory Shake

2009-04-20
2009-01-0341
This paper demonstrates the benefit of using simulation and robust optimization for the problem of balancing vehicle noise, vibration, and ride performance over road impacts. The psychophysics associated with perception of vehicle performance on an impact is complex because the occupants encounter both tactile and audible stimuli. Tactile impact vibration has multiple dimensions, such as impact hardness and memory shake. Audible impact sound also affects occupant perception of the vehicle quality. This paper uses multiple approaches to produce the similar, robust, optimized tuning strategies for impact performance. A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project was established to help identify a balanced, optimized solution. The CAE simulations were combined with software tools such as iSIGHT and internally developed Kriging software to identify response surfaces and find optimal tuning.
Journal Article

Shudder Durability of a Wet Launch Clutch Part II - Durability Study

2009-04-20
2009-01-0330
Under the initiative of the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR§) Transmission Working Group, a collaborative effort was made with LuK USA LLC to study the influence of the friction interface parameters on the shudder durability of a wet launch clutch. Clutch configurations with different combinations of four friction materials (A, B, C and D), three groove patterns (waffle, radial and waffle-parallel) and two separator plate conditions (nitrided and non-nitrided) were considered. Durability testing consisted of a test profile, with 110 kJ energy per test cycle, developed earlier in this project. Materials A, B and C with nitrided separator plates reached the end of test criteria for the torque gradient and showed shudder. Materials B and C were more wear resistant as compared to materials A and D. The loss of friction coefficient (μ) was lower for materials B, C and D as compared to material A.
Technical Paper

Shudder Durability of a Wet Launch Clutch Part I – Thermal Study and Development of Durability Test Profile

2009-04-20
2009-01-0329
Under the initiative of the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR§) Transmission Working Group, a collaborative effort was made with LuK USA LLC to study the influence of the friction interface parameters on the shudder durability of a wet launch clutch. A test bench was designed. Clutch configurations with different combinations of four friction materials (A, B, C and D), three groove patterns (waffle, radial and waffle–parallel) and two separator plate conditions (nitrided and non–nitrided) were considered. Considerable improvement in performance was seen by changing from CVT fluid* to DCT fluid*. A thermal analysis based on thermal model predictions and measurement correlations was conducted. Comparisons of clutch configurations with four and five friction plates were done. The waffle and radial groove pattern showed better heat transfer than the waffle–parallel groove pattern.
Technical Paper

Designing Automotive Subsystems Using Virtual Manufacturing and Distributed Computing

2008-04-14
2008-01-0288
Adopting robust design principles is a proven methodology for increasing design reliability. General Motors Powertrain (GMPT) has incorporated robust design principles into their Signal Delivery Subsystem (SDSS) development process by moving traditional prototype manufacturing and test functions from hardware to software. This virtual manufacturing technique, where subsystems are built and tested using simulation software, increases the number of possible prototype iterations while simultaneously decreasing the time required to gather statistically meaningful test results. This paper describes how virtual manufacturing was developed using distributed computing.
Journal Article

Reducing Power Demand for Heavy Suspension Tests

2008-04-14
2008-01-0690
Competitive pressures, globalization of markets, and integration of new materials and technologies into heavy vehicle suspension systems have increased demand for durability validation of new designs. Traditional Proving Ground and on-road testing for suspension development have the limitations of extremely long test times, poor repeatability and the corresponding difficultly in getting good engineering level data on failures. This test approach requires a complete vehicle driven continuously over severe Proving Ground events for extended periods. Such tests are not only time consuming but also costly in terms of equipment, maintenance, personnel, and fuel. Ideally multiple samples must be tested to accumulate equivalent millions of kilometers of operation in highly damaging environments.
Technical Paper

Robust Assessment of USCAR Electrical Connectors Using Standardized Signal-To-Noise

2008-04-14
2008-01-0364
Robust assessment using standardized signal-to-noise (SS/N) is a Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology used to assess the mating quality of USCAR electrical connectors. When the insertion force vs. distance relationship is compared to a standard under varying environmental and system-related noise conditions, the ideal function is transformed into a linear relationship between actual and ideal force at the sample points acquired during the mating displacement. Since the ideal function used in the robust assessment of competing designs has a linear slope of 1 through the origin, the SS/N function used is of the form 10 log (1/σ2), also known as nominal-the-best type 2. Using this assessment methodology, designs are compared, with a higher SS/N indicating lower variation from the standard.
Technical Paper

Improving a Vehicle Theft Deterrent System's Communication Using Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)

2007-04-16
2007-01-0800
General Motors' vehicles are designed with an engine immobilizer theft deterrent system. An engine immobilizer theft deterrent system only allows starting of the vehicle engine after assuring the key is the correct key. The communication link from the vehicle to the key is a critical interface for the starting of the engine. This communication link must be reliable. The vehicle theft deterrent system's ability to communicate between the vehicle and transponder in the key is measured by the coupling factor. There are a number of physical interfaces that affect the coupling factor. The focus of this work is to understand the physics and critical design parameters involved in achieving optimal coupling factor to improve the first time quality in future designs. Achieving this objective will lead to designs robust to variances in material and packaging design and result in less testing. The process used in the past on these systems was the Design-Test-Fix approach.
Technical Paper

Future Truck Steering Effort Optimization

2007-04-16
2007-01-1155
In an endeavor to improve upon historically subjective and hardware-based steering tuning development, a team was formed to find an optimal and objective solution using Design For Six Sigma (DFSS). The goal was to determine the best valve assembly design within a hydraulic power-steering assist system to yield improved steering effort and feel robustness for all vehicle models in a future truck program. The methodology utilized was not only multifaceted with several Design of Experiments (DOEs), but also took advantage of a CAE-based approach leveraging modeling capabilities in ADAMS for simulating full-vehicle, On-Center Handling behavior. The team investigated thirteen control factors to determine which minimized a realistic, compounded noise strategy while also considering the ideal steering effort function (SEF) desired by the customer. In the end, it was found that response-dependent variability dominated the physics of our valve assembly design concept.
Technical Paper

Optimum Design of Hood Ajar Switch For Quality

2006-04-03
2006-01-0735
The Hood ajar sensing system provides customer feedback regarding the latch positional state of hood. If the sensing system is not robust to variation due to manufacturing, thermal conditions, and assembly, diagnostic failures can result. Executing various elements of the design for six sigma process can reduce the potential for diagnostic failures. This paper presents a method for achieving quality improvements by developing transfer functions, and using them for sensitivity and variance analysis. Control parameters were optimized to minimize non-conformal situations in the presence of various noise conditions.
Technical Paper

The Future of NVH Testing - An End User's Perspective

2005-05-16
2005-01-2270
The role of NVH testing has evolved from a firefighting role and a period of exploration to a well defined standard test role in the product development and validation process. Integral to this process is robust engineering, which drives the need to execute many tests quickly, efficiently and accurately. This allows the NVH specialist to concentrate on interpretation of results and spend less time on the acquisition of data. As the volume of data grows, this creates the opportunity to data mine an NVH database to compare results from large sample sizes and focus on product variation. Today's NVH laboratory is accountable for producing high quality, consistent, timely, and cost effective test reports. The basic core of the test has to be easy to set up and execute for a novice, yet still allow for exploratory tests by specialists as necessary. The NVH laboratory is now subject to the same budgetary pressures and quality audits as other testing operations.
Technical Paper

Automation of Structural Fatigue/Reliability Assessment Using iSIGHT, MSC/Nastran and nCode

2005-04-11
2005-01-0823
The goal was to automate the entire analytical process of structural fatigue life variation assessment with respect to the variations associated with the geometry such as thickness, material properties and loading conditions. Consequently, the structural reliability is evaluated systematically. This process automation has been realized by using an internally developed software package called Structural Fatigue/Reliability Sensitivity II (i.e. FRS II). The package is a bundle of MSC/Nastran, nCode, iSIGHT, and internally developed program scripts.
Technical Paper

Optimum Customer Based Specification: Part of DFSS Case Study

2005-04-11
2005-01-1209
Maximizing customer satisfaction is one key factor for marketing success. It is crucial to have engineering specifications reflecting customer expectations. This paper describes the strategy and methodologies used to generate optimum engineering specification in a case study. This study is part of the DFSS project, which focused on electrical delay time prior to engine crank.
Technical Paper

Full Vehicle Finite Element Model 4-Post Durability Analysis

2005-04-11
2005-01-1402
4-Post durability test simulations using a nonlinear FEA model have been executed by engineers responsible for structural durability performance and validation. An integrated Body and Chassis, full FEA model has been used. All components of the test load input were screened and only the most damaging events were incorporated in the simulation. These events included the Potholes, Belgian Block Tracks, Chatter Bump Stops, Twist Ditches, and Driveway Ramps. The CAE technology Virtual Proving Ground (eta/VPG®*) was used to model the full system and the 4-Post test fixtures. The nonlinear dynamic FE solver LS-DYNA** was used in this analysis. The fatigue damage of each selected event was calculated separately and then added together according to the test schedule. Due to the lack of stress/strain information from hardware test, only the analyzed fatigue damage results of the baseline model were scaled to correlate with physical test data.
Technical Paper

Supplementation of Measured Vehicle Road Loads to Study Vehicle Configuration Changes

2005-04-11
2005-01-1403
Measured vehicle loads, taken during durability events, are commonly used to drive in-lab vehicle subsystem validation testing. The use of measured loads can be problematic due to (a) off-nominal characteristics of the test vehicle, (b) post-test changes to vehicle tuning - bushings, springs, and shocks for example, (c) scheduling, timing and weather requirements, (d) modification of vehicle characteristics by the inclusion of transducers and (e) the cost of executing tests. A general process for supplementing and rationalizing measured vehicle data through the use of correlated multi-body dynamic simulations is presented. Difficulties in modeling tires and other components, as well as difficulties in model correlation for abusive load events are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Robust Design of Glass Run-Channel Seal

2004-03-08
2004-01-1687
Glass run-channel seals are located between DIW (Door in White) and window glass. They are designed to allow window glass to move smoothly while other two major requirements are met; (1) Provide insulation to water leakage and noise, and (2) Stabilize the window glass during glass movement, door slamming and vehicle operation. For a robust glass guidance system, it is critical to minimize the variation of seal compression force. In addition, it is desired to maintain a low seal compression force, which meets the minimum requirement for insulating water leakage/noise and stabilizing the window glass, for enhancing the durability of glass guidance system. In this paper, a robust synthesis and design concepts on the glass run-channel seal is presented. The developed concept is demonstrated with test data.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Durability Analysis Method and Application to a Battery Support Subsystem

2004-03-08
2004-01-0874
The battery support in a small car is an example of a subsystem that lends itself to mounted component dynamic fatigue analysis, due to its weight and localized attachments. This paper describes a durability analysis method that was developed to define the required enforced motion, stress response, and fatigue life for such subsystems. The method combines the large mass method with the modal transient formulation to determine the dynamic stress responses. The large mass method was selected over others for its ease of use and efficiency when working with the modal formulation and known accelerations from a single driving point. In this example, these known accelerations were obtained from the drive files of a 4-DOF shake table that was used for corresponding lab tests of a rear compartment body structure. These drive files, originally displacements, were differentiated twice and filtered to produce prescribed accelerations to the finite element model.
Technical Paper

Integration of Physical and Virtual Tools for Virtual Prototype Validation and Model Improvement

2003-10-27
2003-01-2813
Hyundai Motor Company has combined physical and virtual testing tools to validate a full vehicle virtual prototype. Today a large number of physical tests are still required because the cycle of “design-build-test-change” relies on complex models of components and systems that typically are not easily validated. In order to shorten the development cycles, engineers perform multi-body simulations to dynamically excite components and systems and thereby estimate their durability under dynamic loads. The approach described herein demonstrates the feasibility of correlating the output from the corresponding physical and virtual prototype. Both synthetic and road load events are employed to excite physical and virtual vehicles, reveal difference in response, and ultimately improve the predictive capability of the model.
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