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Technical Paper

Thoracic Injury Risk Curves for Rib Deflections of the SID-IIs Build Level D

2016-11-07
2016-22-0016
Injury risk curves for SID-IIs thorax and abdomen rib deflections proposed for future NCAP side impact evaluations were developed from tests conducted with the SID-IIs FRG. Since the floating rib guide is known to reduce the magnitude of the peak rib deflections, injury risk curves developed from SID-IIs FRG data are not appropriate for use with SID-IIs build level D. PMHS injury data from three series of sled tests and one series of whole-body drop tests are paired with thoracic rib deflections from equivalent tests with SID-IIs build level D. Where possible, the rib deflections of SID-IIs build level D were scaled to adjust for differences in impact velocity between the PMHS and SID-IIs tests. Injury risk curves developed by the Mertz-Weber modified median rank method are presented and compared to risk curves developed by other parametric and non-parametric methods.
Technical Paper

Injury Risk Curves for the WorldSID 50th Male Dummy

2009-11-02
2009-22-0016
The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonized dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full-scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria).
Journal Article

Reducing Power Demand for Heavy Suspension Tests

2008-04-14
2008-01-0690
Competitive pressures, globalization of markets, and integration of new materials and technologies into heavy vehicle suspension systems have increased demand for durability validation of new designs. Traditional Proving Ground and on-road testing for suspension development have the limitations of extremely long test times, poor repeatability and the corresponding difficultly in getting good engineering level data on failures. This test approach requires a complete vehicle driven continuously over severe Proving Ground events for extended periods. Such tests are not only time consuming but also costly in terms of equipment, maintenance, personnel, and fuel. Ideally multiple samples must be tested to accumulate equivalent millions of kilometers of operation in highly damaging environments.
Technical Paper

Virtual Manufacturing of Automotive Body Side Outers Using Advanced Line Die Forming Simulation

2007-04-16
2007-01-1688
As a virtual manufacturing press line, line die forming simulation provides a full range math-based engineering tool for stamping die developments of automotive structure and closure panels. Much beyond draw-die-only formability analysis that has been widely used in stamping simulation community during the last decade, the line die formability analysis allows incorporating more manufacturing requirements and resolving more potential failures before die construction and press tryout. Representing the most difficult level in formability analysis, conducting line die formability analysis of automotive body side outers exemplifies the greatest technological challenge to stamping CAE community. This paper discusses some critical issues in line die analysis of the body side outers, describes technical challenges in applications, and finally demonstrates the impact of line die forming simulation on the die development.
Technical Paper

From Algorithms to Software - A Practical Approach to Model-Driven Design

2007-04-16
2007-01-1622
The value of model-based design has been attempted to be communicated for more than a decade. As methods and tools have appeared and disappeared from a series of different vendors it has become apparent that no single vendor has a solution that meets all users’ needs. Recently standards (UML, MDA, MOF, EMF, etc.) have become a dominant force and an alternative to vendor-specific languages and processes. Where these standards have succeeded and vendors have failed is in the realization that they do not provide the answer, but instead provide the foundation to develop the answer. It is in the utilization of these standards and their capability to be customized that companies have achieved success. Customization has occurred to fit organizations, processes, and architectures that leverage the value of model-driven design.
Technical Paper

Tuning Guide for Deflected-Disc Suspension Dampers

2006-04-03
2006-01-1380
This paper presents an empirical-based model which explains the force-deflection characteristics of disc stacks commonly used in automotive suspension dampers. The model provides tools for comparing different disc stacks to understand their effect on damper performance. Load-deflection data is presented on a variety of discs and combinations of discs. The data is analyzed to show how the diameter, thickness and relative position of discs in a stack can affect the stack stiffness throughout the range of disc deflections. A model is developed to show how changes in the disc stack will affect damper performance at different velocities. An example is provided that shows predicted changes in disc stack force-deflection characteristics and the resulting changes in a damper force-velocity curve. Ride results are also presented that confirm the validity of the model.
Technical Paper

Custom Real-Time Interface Blockset Development in Matlab/Simulink for On-Target Rapid Prototyping

2006-04-03
2006-01-0169
In GM R&D Powertrain/Engine Control Group, rapid prototyping controller (RPC) systems with Matlab/Simulink are used extensively to design, simulate and implement advanced engine control algorithms and models. However, those RPC systems use powerful microprocessors with large amounts of RAM contrary to engine control modules (ECM) in production vehicles. Therefore, a thorough analysis on the comparatively much more complicated algorithms and models cannot be performed during the research stage, since there are not enough tools to enable the smooth transition from Matlab/Simulink to the production type processor. The Real-Time Interface (RTI) Blockset for a production like microprocessor would close the transition gap between rapid prototyping controller systems and production type microprocessors by leveraging the power and popularity of Matlab/Simulink in control engineering world and automatic code generation tools.
Technical Paper

Music Analogy: An Alternative Strategy for Sound Quality Requirements

2005-05-16
2005-01-2477
In recent years a predominant strategy for setting sound quality (SQ) requirements has been the sensory correlation approach (also called sensory evaluation or sensory science). Some users of this approach have reported their progress in numerous papers. Other SQ practitioners have made presentations on specific topics that show the linkage to music and musical notation. These specific links point to an alternative general strategy - “the Music Analogy for Sound Quality.” This paper begins by comparing the general methods of the music analogy and sensory correlation. Some major differences will be identified and implications discussed. Some existing specific tools for the music analogy will be identified as well as some gaps that need to be filled. Finally, reasons will be presented concerning why the music analogy should be considered when developing sound quality requirements.
Technical Paper

Model-Driven Product Line Software Development Process

2005-04-11
2005-01-1288
The past 10 years have created such buzzwords as “model-based development” and “auto-code generation”. Conveniently absent from the tool literature on model-based development are the equally, or more important concepts of Software Architecture and Process. When developing product line software, the process and architecture form a critical foundation to base reusable products and components. The development process can no longer be viewed as “model-based”, but rather as “model-driven”, due to the reliance on the models as the source artifact as opposed to the creators of the source artifacts. A model-driven product line software development process allows capturing of behavior, for commonality across different products, and having a different implementation for a specific product release.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Automatic Fire Suppression Systems in Full Scale Vehicle Fire Tests and Static Vehicle Fire Tests

2005-04-11
2005-01-1788
A prototype fire suppression system was tested in one full-scale vehicle crash tests and three static vehicle fire tests. The prototype fire suppression system consisted of 2 Solid Propellant Gas Generators and two optical detectors. These components were installed on the hood of the test vehicle. A vehicle crash test and a series of static vehicle fire tests were performed to determine the effectiveness of this prototype fire suppression systems in extinguishing fires in the engine compartment of a crashed vehicle
Technical Paper

A Subsystem Crash Test Methodology for Retention of Convenience Organizer Equipment System in Rear Impact

2005-04-11
2005-01-0735
Any equipment system or vehicle component like the Convenience Organizer storage system needs to be retained within the cargo compartment without intruding into the passenger compartment for occupant safety during a high speed impact. This paper outlines a test method to evaluate the retention of such a system in a rear impact environment. The method utilizes a low speed barrier to simulate a high speed RMB (Rear Moving Barrier) impact. The content of the low speed RMB impact test setup was developed utilizing DYNA3D analytical simulation results from a full vehicle model subjected to high-speed RMB impact. The retention of the equipment developed through this test method was confirmed on a full scale rear impact test.
Technical Paper

Design of a Full-Scale Impact System for Analysis of Vehicle Pedestrian Collisions

2005-04-11
2005-01-1875
The complexity of vehicle-pedestrian collisions necessitates extensive validation of pedestrian computational models. While body components can be individually simulated, overall validation of human pedestrian models requires full-scale testing with post mortem human surrogates (PMHS). This paper presents the development of a full-scale pedestrian impact test plan and experimental design that will be used to perform PMHS tests to validate human pedestrian models. The test plan and experimental design is developed based on the analysis of a combination of literature review, multi-body modeling, and epidemiologic studies. The proposed system has proven effective in testing an anthropometrically correct rescue dummy in multiple instances. The success of these tests suggests the potential for success in a full-scale pedestrian impact test using a PMHS.
Technical Paper

A Multi-hop Mobile Networking Test-bed for Telematics

2005-04-11
2005-01-1484
An onboard vehicle-to-vehicle multi-hop wireless networking system has been developed to test the real-world performance of telematics applications. The system targets emergency and safety messaging, traffic updates, audio/video streaming and commercial announcements. The test-bed includes a Differential GPS receiver, an IEEE 802.11a radio card modified to emulate the DSRC standard, a 1xRTT cellular-data connection, an onboard computer and audio-visual equipment. Vehicles exchange data directly or via intermediate vehicles using a multi-hop routing protocol. The focus of the test-bed is to (a) evaluate the feasibility of high-speed inter-vehicular networking, (b) characterize 5.8GHz signal propagation within a dynamic mobile ad hoc environment, and (c) develop routing protocols for highly mobile networks. The test-bed has been deployed across five vehicles and tested over 400 miles on the road.
Technical Paper

e-Thermal: A Vehicle-Level HVAC/PTC Simulation Tool

2004-03-08
2004-01-1510
This paper describes a vehicle-level simulation model for climate control and powertrain cooling developed and currently utilized at GM. The tool was developed in response to GM's need to speed vehicle development for HVAC and powertrain cooling to meet world-class program execution timing (18 to 24 month vehicle development cycles). At the same time the simulation tool had to complement GM's strategy to move additional engineering responsibility to its HVAC suppliers. This simulation tool called “e-Thermal” was quickly developed and currently is in widespread (global) use across GM. This paper describes GM's objectives and requirements for developing e-Thermal. The structure of the tool and the capabilities of the simulation tool modules (refrigeration, front end airflow, passenger compartment, engine, transmission, Interior air handling …) is introduced. Model data requirements and GM's strategy for acquiring component data are also described.
Technical Paper

Significant Factors in Height of Force Measurements for Vehicle Collision Compatibility

2004-03-08
2004-01-1165
The concept of height of force has been suggested by some researchers as one possible parameter defining the structural interaction probability between vehicles of different sizes. This proposed parameter was defined as the vertical centroid of forces exerted on a flat barrier surface when a vehicle crashes into the barrier. It is therefore measured as a function of elapsed time since crash. In this paper, the height of force is obtained from theoretical calculations and also measured in crash tests at 56 km/h against barriers instrumented with an array of load cells. It is observed that the measured values of height of force have significant errors which are dependent on factors other than the crash conditions and the properties of the vehicle's structure and geometry. These factors need to be taken into account in future discussions of using the height of force or the average height of force as an indicator of vehicle compatibility.
Technical Paper

Integration of Physical and Virtual Tools for Virtual Prototype Validation and Model Improvement

2003-10-27
2003-01-2813
Hyundai Motor Company has combined physical and virtual testing tools to validate a full vehicle virtual prototype. Today a large number of physical tests are still required because the cycle of “design-build-test-change” relies on complex models of components and systems that typically are not easily validated. In order to shorten the development cycles, engineers perform multi-body simulations to dynamically excite components and systems and thereby estimate their durability under dynamic loads. The approach described herein demonstrates the feasibility of correlating the output from the corresponding physical and virtual prototype. Both synthetic and road load events are employed to excite physical and virtual vehicles, reveal difference in response, and ultimately improve the predictive capability of the model.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Airborne Road Noise Reduction of a Passenger Vehicle

2003-05-05
2003-01-1407
This paper presents a case study on reducing road noise of a passenger vehicle. SEA, insertion loss and sound intensity measurements were the tools used in the study. A SEA model was constructed to predict the primary paths (panels or area) contributing to the overall interior sound field. Insertion loss measurements were used to verify the primary contributing paths identified using SEA. To provide further details of the primary paths, intensity maps of identified panels were measured allowing detailed reconstruction of the contributory panels. The SEA model, insertion loss, and intensity maps aided in providing possible design fixes that will effectively reduce road noise. Finally, comparisons of predicted results versus actual results at both a subsystem and a full vehicle level are included in this paper.
Technical Paper

Tools for Integration of Analysis and Testing

2003-05-05
2003-01-1606
The automotive vehicle design process has relied for many years on both analytical studies and physical testing. Testing remains to be required due to the inherent complexities of structures and systems and the simplifications made in analytical studies. Simulation test methods, i.e. tests that load components with forces derived from actual operating conditions, have become the accepted standard. Advanced simulation tools like iterative deconvolution methods have been developed to address this need. Analytical techniques, such as multi body simulation have advanced to the degree that it is practical to investigate the dynamic behavior of components and even full vehicles under the influence of operational loads. However, the approach of testing and analysis are quite unique and no seamless bridge between the two exists. This paper demonstrates an integrated approach to combine testing and analysis together in the form of virtual testing.
Technical Paper

An Examination of the Effect of Seat Free-Play on Modal Analysis Results

2003-05-05
2003-01-1598
With the amount of adjustability present in today's automotive seat, it is a given that some form of looseness and free-play will exist in the structure. The automotive seat community is commonly faced with free-play issues; this is a significant issue where modal analysis is concerned. Free-play creates a non-linear situation, causing a violation of the linear mathematics that modal analysis is based on. Obviously, this situation is not the ideal circumstances under which to perform modal testing and analysis, but 99.9% of the time, the receipt of better samples (reduced free-play) is not a likely option, and the test must still go on. Ideally, you would want to test this structure using random excitation with a shaker to minimize the nonlinearities and provide a repeatable input force.
Technical Paper

Quasi-Static and Impact Strength of Fatigue Damaged Spot Welds

2003-03-03
2003-01-0610
As the automotive industry becomes more concerned with the crash performance of automobiles, the behavior of used vehicles becomes an interesting subject. In this work, the effect of aging on spot welded joints was simulated by applying fatigue loading to the samples. Samples were then subjected to quasi-static and impact tests to measure the effect of fatigue aging to the strength of the samples. The results show (a) a reduction in the strength of the test samples under impact conditions, (b) no obvious reduction in quasi-static conditions, and (c) significant reduction in strength if cracks in the welds were initiated during the fatigue aging process.
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