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Technical Paper

Springback Prediction Improvement Using New Simulation Technologies

Springback is a major concern in stamping of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The existing computer simulation technology has difficulty predicting this phenomenon accurately even though it is well developed for formability simulations. Great efforts made in recent years to improve springback predictions have achieved noticeable progress in the computational capability and accuracy. In this work, springback simulation studies are conducted using FEA software LS-DYNA®. Various parametric sensitivity studies are carried out and key variables affecting the springback prediction accuracy are identified. Recently developed simulation technologies in LS-DYNA® are implemented including dynamic effect minimization, smooth tool contact and newly developed nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material models. Case studies on lab-scale and full-scale industrial parts are provided and the predicted springback results are compared to the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Application of Model-Based Design Techniques for the Control Development and Optimization of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
Journal Article

A Scientific Approach for Designing Conservative Tests in Vehicle Development

This paper suggests a scientific approach to designing conservative tests based on computer simulation of the influence of the sources of variations. The idea is to design the conservative test so that, even in the presence of variation, there is a high probability that a random test will have a better result than the conservative test. Therefore, if the conservative test meets the requirement, one has a scientific reason to believe that any random test would have a high probability of meeting it. This new approach is illustrated for FMVSS301 80 kph 70% rear offset deformable barrier impact.
Technical Paper

Integrated Simulation of the Engine and Control System of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine

Over the last decade significant efforts have been made in the automotive industry to move into a math-based control development approach where much of the development could be done off-line using computer simulations. High-fidelity simulation of an engine and control system helps to shorten controller development time with reduced risk. This requires the integration of a detailed engine model with a representative controller model. This paper describes the development and validation of an integrated engine and controller model of a turbocharged diesel engine. The integrated model incorporates a detailed engine model in GT-Power and a comprehensive controller model in Simulink with functionalities like the production ECM. The focus of this study is a non-real time simulation and analysis of the control of EGR, turbocharger, and fueling with engine performance.
Technical Paper

Design of a Full-Scale Impact System for Analysis of Vehicle Pedestrian Collisions

The complexity of vehicle-pedestrian collisions necessitates extensive validation of pedestrian computational models. While body components can be individually simulated, overall validation of human pedestrian models requires full-scale testing with post mortem human surrogates (PMHS). This paper presents the development of a full-scale pedestrian impact test plan and experimental design that will be used to perform PMHS tests to validate human pedestrian models. The test plan and experimental design is developed based on the analysis of a combination of literature review, multi-body modeling, and epidemiologic studies. The proposed system has proven effective in testing an anthropometrically correct rescue dummy in multiple instances. The success of these tests suggests the potential for success in a full-scale pedestrian impact test using a PMHS.
Technical Paper

Development of the 2002 Buick Rendezvous Body Structure

This paper documents the development of the 2002 Buick Rendezvous body structure for optimum noise & vibration performance. Accelerated vehicle development timing demanded clearly defined body structure vibration performance targets, with critical dependence on math based modeling. The 2002 Buick Rendezvous was truly a fast-to-math program enabled partially by borrowing some of its structural features from the recently launched Pontiac Aztek Competitive performance data collected for the Aztek was tailored to the Rendezvous for setting major global body structure targets. Architectural differences in overall vehicle size and body opening configuration led to adjustments in body matchboxing, bending and torsional requirements. The frequency domain “mode map” was modified to these requirements taking into account the Buick Brand Character. Computer simulation models were used exclusively to predict body structural performance.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Compatibility - Analysis of the Factors Influencing Side Impact Occupant Injury

This paper discusses a study conducted by GM to better understand the factors that influence injury potential in vehicle-to-vehicle side impacts. A number of other studies have been done which focus primarily on frontal vehicle-to-vehicle compatibility. GM focused on side impact compatibility in this study due to the risk of harm generally associated with this type of crash. Real world field performance was studied through an extensive six-state field analysis of recent model year (‘94+) vehicles. Of particular interest in this study was an efficacy analysis of the MVSS 214 dynamic side impact standard, which was phased-in starting with some 1994 model year passenger cars. Physical side impact crash testing of a 1997 passenger car was used to investigate the relationship of impacting mass, speed, geometric profile and stiffness on side impact intrusion and occupant injury.
Technical Paper

Design of a Dual Wall Air Gap Exhaust Manifold

The new regulations to reduce emissions have resulted in the development of new techniques to maintain or enhance competitive performance. A requirement for the manifold is to help meet the reduction in cold start emissions, particularly during the transient conditions from start to 100 seconds following the Federal Test Procedures for vehicle emissions. Finite element computer models were developed to predict inner and outer wall temperatures, and to determine structural soundness. Tests were performed to assure that noise levels were minimized. Dynamometer lab and field tests were performed to verify that the manifold would meet the design requirements. From the results of these tests and analyses, modifications were made to the weld and manufacturing techniques to improve product life and reduce noise. Dual wall manifolds have proven durability to meet high exhaust gas temperatures up to 1650°F (900°C), while meeting the performance, noise, and weight reduction goals.
Technical Paper

Automobile Exterior Water Flow Analysis Using CFD and Wind Tunnel Visualization

This paper presents an innovative automobile application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) as a complement to wind tunnel experimentation for the evaluation of rain water and wiper wash flow on the exterior of a moving vehicle. In addition to calculating the air flow around a car, a multi-phase CFD code was used to simulate rain drops in the air stream, rain drops impinging on the vehicle, and the transport of the “thin liquid film” of water on the vehicle surfaces. Time-dependent results for the location, velocity, and height of the water film on the windshield, A-pillar, and side glass were obtained. The CFD results compared favorably with a wind tunnel procedure. The variation of the calculated water film corresponded with observed patterns of water streaks on test vehicles. Design iterations performed on the computational model also agreed with similar test configurations.
Technical Paper


A comprehensive cycle analysis has been developed for four-stroke spark-ignited engines from which the indicated performance of a single cylinder engine was computed with a reasonable degree of accuracy. The step-wise cycle calculations were made using a digital computer. This analysis took into account mixture composition, dissociation, combustion chamber shape (including spark plug location), flame propagation, heat transfer, piston motion, engine speed, spark advance, manifold pressure and temperature, and exhaust pressure. A correlation between the calculated and experimental performance is reported for one engine at a particular operating point. The calculated pressure-time diagram was in good agreement with the experimental one in many respects. The calculated peak pressure was 10 per cent lower and the thermal efficiency 0.8 per cent higher than the measured values. Thus this calculational procedure represents a significant improvement over constant volume cycle approximations.