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Technical Paper

The Development of Urea-SCR Technology for US Heavy Duty Trucks

Prototype selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems using urea have been demonstrated on diesel trucks in Europe in recent years. In view of upcoming stringent emissions control standards for US HD diesel engines, urea-SCR is being evaluated by US engine and truck manufacturers. The authors and their companies have worked jointly on a project to develop, test, and demonstrate urea-SCR on a US HD diesel engine and Class-8 truck. A prototype urea-SCR system was applied to a 12-liter HD diesel engine. The engine model selected is rated at 350 bhp and is common for highway trucks. The only engine modifications were changes to the injection timing control map in order to better suit the application of the urea-SCR system. This paper details two demonstration phases of the project as follows. The first phase includes recent emissions cell tests using a new compact SCR catalyst and an engine calibration optimized for lower NOX.
Technical Paper

Case History: Engine Timing Gear Noise Reduction

This paper describes the procedures used to reduce the tonal noise of a class eight truck engine timing gear train that was initially found to be objectionable under idle operating conditions. Initial measurements showed that the objectionable sounds were related to the fundamental gear mesh frequency, and its second and third harmonics. Experimental and computational procedures used to study and trouble-shoot the problem include vibration and sound measurements, transmission error analysis of the gears under light load condition, and a dynamic analysis of the drive system. Detail applications of these techniques are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Mack Trucks' New E7 Diesel Engine

Mack Trucks' E7 direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine is a four cycle, in-line six cylinder design. The 728 cu in. (12 1) engine is turbocharged and chassis mounted air-to-air aftercooled. The E7 is being introduced in 1989 with power ratings of 250 hp to 400 hp (186 kW to 298 kW) at 1700 to 1800 rpm, calibrated to 1990 EPA standards. Highlights of the E7 engine's design, development and performance are presented. Information is included which illustrates the strategies utilized to attain program goals of controlling weight and cost while extending power ratings, reducing emissions levels, and improving fuel economy, serviceability, durability and reliability.
Technical Paper

Particulate Traps: Some Progress; Some Problems

Two ceramic monolith wall flow diesel particulate traps, incorporating a new split flow design with a base metal catalytic coating were tested on line haul highway trucks to investigate their performance characteristics. The trucks were equipped with a 300 HP turbocharged and after-cooled engine. After-cooler by-pass was used to effect the regeneration of the trap and an elapsed-time scheme was employed to control the regeneration process. Tests were terminated after one trap completed 147,500 miles of operation on the truck for in-depth examination of the trap to determine the cause of substantial increase in back pressure. Tests with the second trap of identical design was also terminated due to filtering efficiency loss, the cause of which was traced to a flaw in the canning arrangement. This arrangement permitted exhaust flow to by-pass the element and led to melt down of the trap, due to reduced flow during regeneration.
Technical Paper

Air Isolation of Class 8 Highway Tractor Cabs

A foundation of highway truck ride and cab suspension historical evolution is laid describing the influence of marketplace demands, highway conditions, and government laws. Ride quality test methods are revealed along with variables tried and conclusions drawn. These data and techniques are then used to design cab suspension systems for a new line of truck products including both conventional and COE cabs.
Technical Paper

Development Of A Laboratory Gear Oil Spalling Test

This paper describes development of a full-scale laboratory truck axle test used to predict the field performance of gear lubricants in heavy truck use. The relationship between laboratory results and known field performance will be described, as will a unique way of analyzing laboratory results. Data will also be presented which will show the laboratory test to be both repeatable and reproducible. Finally, data will be presented which shows lubricant additive type to play a vital role in defining field performance.
Technical Paper

Mack's E9 Series V8 Engines With Chassis Mounted Charge Air Cooling

A new 998 CID V8 engine series has been developed by Mack Trucks, Inc. to supplement its line of heavy duty diesel engines. These engines, the E9 Series, are available in two configurations--a 400 bhp (298 kW) high torque rise version and a 440 bhp (328 kW) conventional torque backup version. Increased horsepower and improved fuel economy were achieved through the development of a chassis mounted charge air cooler and a new four-valve cylinder head. In addition, significant durability improvements were obtained due to the reduced thermal loadings resulting from the lower charge air temperatures. Additional noteworthy features include a new injection pump, improved lube oil system, advanced piston design, and proper selection of seals and gasket materials.
Technical Paper

A Process Control System for Production Diesel Engine Testing

Current technology, especially in our dynamic industry, demands more reliable and up-to-date information in order to operate efficiently. Data of many kinds, from many sources, must be collected, analyzed, and rapidly transmitted into information which can be used to optimize performance and improve our product. To meet these needs in production diesel engine testing, a process control system has been developed around the basic objective of establishing an accurate and regimented test program, which will provide more reliable information for analysis and action, increased test capacity, accurate history data, and a higher quality product. This paper describes the basic design of such a system, the advantages to be gained, and the overall operation.
Technical Paper

Flywheel Power Takeoffs - Continuous Power for Truck Mounted Equipment

The truck flywheel power takeoff has proven itself as a reliable means of supplying continuous power to a variety of mounted equipment. The features of available units are described in detail in an effort to provide the design and application engineer with complete information regarding their function and application, and to stimulate expanded usage of this constant power source.