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Technical Paper

Impact of different types of glazing on Air- Conditioning system performance of vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-1249
Due to intense peak summer temperatures and sunny summers in tropical countries like India, achieving the required cabin temperature in vehicle without compromising on fuel efficiency is becoming increasingly challenging. The major source of heat load on vehicle is solar load. Therefore, a study has been conducted to evaluate the heat load on vehicle cabin due to solar radiations and its impact on vehicle Air-Conditioning system performance with various combinations of door glasses and windscreen. The glasses used for this study are classified as Green, Dark Green, Dark Gray, Standard PVB (Polyvinyl Butyral) Windscreen and PVB Windscreen having Infrared Cut particles. For each glass, part level evaluation was done to find out the percentage transmittance of light of different wavelengths and percentage transmittance of heat flux through each glass.
Technical Paper

A Methodology to Enhance the Directional Load Bearing Performance of Cowl Cover and its Effect on Pedestrian Head Impact

2020-04-14
2020-01-0911
In the modern automobile scenario in developing countries, the customers are getting more meticulous and the market more competitive. Now even the budget vehicle customer expects desirable vehicle performance in specific use cases of the vehicle that were previously not focused by designers. Hence, the focus on perceived quality challenges automobile engineers to go the extra mile when it comes to the cost-effective design of parts that are tangible to the customer. A vehicle's cowl cover is one such exterior component. The primary functions of this part are to provide air intake opening for the HVAC system and cover the components like wiper motor. The aesthetic function is to cover the gaps between windshield, hood, and fender as seamlessly as possible. A specific role of cowl cover, which calls for a designer's attention, is its load-bearing capability.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Strength Co-Simulation of Valve Train Mechanism Design Virtual Validation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0949
As the automotive market is very dynamic and vehicle manufactures tries to reduce the vehicle development cycle time, more focus is being given to CAE simulation technologies to reduce the design cycle time and number of physical tests. CAE engineers are continuously working on improving the accuracy of CAE simulation, such as using flexible body dynamic simulation in place of linear static analysis. Strength calculation under dynamic condition is more accurate as compared to static condition as it gives more clear understanding of stress variation with motion, contacts and mass inertia. Failure has been observed in new development of valve train pivot screw under test conditions. As per linear static analysis, design was judged OK. Normal linear static analysis is a two stage process. In 1st stage loads are calculated by hand or peak loads are taken from Multi body dynamic (MBD) rigid body analysis.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation of Transmission for Lubrication Oil Flow Validation and Churning Loss Reduction

2020-04-14
2020-01-1089
Rapidly changing emission and fuel efficiency regulations are pushing the design optimization boundaries further in the Indian car market which is already a very cost conscious. Fuel economy can be improved by reducing moving parts friction and weight optimization. Driveline or Transmission power losses are major factor in overall efficiency of rotating parts in a vehicle. Transmission efficiency can be improved by using low viscosity oil, reducing oil quantity and reducing churning losses in Car Transmission. Changes like low viscosity and reduced oil volume give rise to challenges like compromised lubrication and durability of rotating parts. This further leads to extended design cycles for launching new cars with better transmission efficiency and fuel economy into the market. Design cycle time can be reduced by using CFD simulation for oil flow validation in the early design stage.
Technical Paper

Improving Rough Road NVH by Hydraulic Mount Design Optimization

2020-04-14
2020-01-0422
Vehicle cabin comfort creates or emphasizes a specific image of a brand and its product quality. Low frequency power train induced noise and vibration levels are a major contributor affecting comfort inside passenger cabin. Thus, using hydraulic mount is a natural choice. Introduction of lighter body panels coupled with cost effective hydraulic mounts has resulted in some additional noises on rough road surfaces which are challenging to identify during design phase. This paper presents a novel approach to identify two such noises i.e. Cavitation noise and Mount membrane hitting noise based on component level testing which are validated at vehicle experimentally. These noises are encountered at 20~30 kmph on undulated road surfaces. Sound quality aspect of such noises is also studied to evaluate the solution effectiveness.
Technical Paper

Abatement of passenger vehicle judder through optimized engine mounting design

2020-04-14
2020-01-0420
The modern automobile industry has experienced a paradigm shift in recent years. Product sales are no longer driven by manufacturers’ offerings but by the customer expectations. Even budget vehicles strive to offer a superior driving experience so as to distinguish them from competition. Also, there is an enhanced focus on fuel efficiency as regulations are getting more stringent by the day. The focus on fuel efficiency demands the engine idle rpm to be lowered. Also, during vehicle take-off, the engine rpm drops further in case of partial clutch engagement, resulting in sudden vibrations called vehicle judder. This judder phenomenon can be countered either through ECU calibration with additional torque during clutch release, or through engine mount optimization. The former requires additional fuel supply thus reducing fuel efficiency. This paper emphasizes on the latter methodology to contain judder through design modification of engine mounting.
Technical Paper

Entry Level Connected Infotainment Unit with Smartphone and Vehicle Integration

2019-11-21
2019-28-2434
As we transition towards Internet of Things (IoT) - humans are connected to each other & outside world through the smartphone. Customers tend to use smartphones for varied purposes ranging from communication to entertainment. However, the concern of distraction exists due to poor visibility & accessibility of the phone’s screen in driving condition. One of the repercussion of being connected to smartphone particularly in driving condition includes higher number of road accidents due to distraction. This paper explains one of the key initiatives taken by Maruti Suzuki India Limited to address the same.
Technical Paper

SmartPlay Studio: A Connected Infotainment Development

2019-11-21
2019-28-2440
Infotainment has always been an important aspect of life which has made its way to car design. The cars today are much more advanced compared to their predecessors. The in-vehicle Infotainment advancements have followed the consumer electronics market in terms of technologies such as Touchscreen; App based Navigation, Voice Assistant and other multimedia services. This trend is going to expand further as smartphones have revolutionized the Infotainment domain with awareness and accessibility to customers. The Infotainment system in the cars are expected to be connected not only to the cloud but various vehicle controllers to display host of information & controls at customer`s fingertips. To design a system that supports connectivity to both cloud and vehicle is challenging in terms of cost and design for the OEMs. With focus on Indian market condition and global trends, this paper analyzes the customer expectation for Connected Infotainment system.
Technical Paper

Study of Handling Behavior of a Passenger Vehicle after Addition of CNG Tank

2019-11-21
2019-28-2405
The objective of this paper is to study the change in handling behaviour of the dual-fuel vehicle fitted with a CNG tank to that of its single fuel (gasoline) counterpart. A validated CarSim model is run through steady state and transient state handling tests before and after the addition of CNG tank. The simulation results are used to compare the handling characteristics of the CNG vehicle with the reference vehicle. Further based on these results the suspension parameters are changed to find an optimum set-up for the actual CNG vehicle.
Technical Paper

Approach for CO2 Reduction in India’s Automotive Sector

2019-11-21
2019-28-2388
India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Trunk Lid Torsion Bar Type Trunk Lid Pop Up Mechanism

2019-10-11
2019-28-0111
Trunk lid (TL) can be opened using hydraulic or pneumatic balancers, coil springs, torsion bars or combination of the above. TL Opening Mechanism specific to Trunk Lid Torsion Bar (TLTB) is being discussed in the paper. After de-latching, TL should open smoothly and stop at such a height that it is visible from driver seat. The system consists of a four bar linkage mechanism, in which the fixed link is formed by BIW Bracket. Connecting link, TL Hinge Arm and Torsion bar arm form the other three links. Hinge has its one end attached to TL and the other end to BIW bracket. Torsion bar arm transfers torque to TL hinge through the connecting link. Major challenges in designing TLTB mechanism are part tolerances, C.G position and Weight variations in individual parts, Torsion bar Raw Material variation, uncertain friction in the system etc.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Front Hood Structure for Meeting Pedestrian Headform Protection in an Existing Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0615
Automotive industry today faces the unprecedented challenges both in terms of adapting to changing customer demands in terms of vehicle aesthetics, features or performance as well as meeting the mandatory regulatory requirements, which are being regularly upgraded and becoming stringent day by day. Vehicle hood, being part of vehicle front fascia, needs to fulfill the requirement of vehicle aesthetics as its primary condition. At the same time, every automobile manufacturer has a lineup of older platforms, which are in production and needs to comply with upcoming stricter safety norms, having a structure in under hood area designed as per older philosophy, which further reduces the space available for energy absorption. This makes the structure optimization in vehicle hood area much more challenging. Pedestrian protection - an upcoming regulation in India, has seen some major development in recent times.
Technical Paper

Valve Opening and Closing Event Finalization for Cost Effective Valve Train of Gasoline Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1191
With more stringent emission norm coming in future, add more pressure on IC engine to improve fuel efficiency for survival in next few decades. In gasoline SI (spark ignition) engine, valve events have major influence on fuel economy, performance and exhaust emissions. Optimization of valve event demands for extensive simulation and testing to achieve balance between conflicting requirement of low end torque, maximum power output, part load fuel consumption and emission performance. Balance between these requirements will become more critical when designing low cost valve train without VVT (Variable valve timing) to reduce overall cost of engine. Higher CR (Compression ratio) is an important low cost measure to achieve higher thermal efficiency but creates issue of knocking thereby limiting low speed high load performance. The effective CR reduction by means of late intake valve closing (LIVC) is one way to achieve higher expansion ratio while keeping high geometric CR.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cold Start Mode Fuel Economy Simulation Model Making Methodology

2019-04-02
2019-01-0898
The air pollution and global warming has become a major problem to the society. To counter this worldwide emission norms have become more stringent in recent times and shall continue to get further stringent in the next decade. From OEMs perspective with increased complexity, it has become a necessity to use simulation methods along with model based systems approach to deal with system level complexities and reduce model development time and cost to deal with the various regulatory requirements and customer needs. The simulation models must have good correlation with the actual test results and at the same time should be less complex, fast, and integrable with other vehicle function modelling. As the vehicle fuel economy is declared in cold start condition, the fuel economy simulation model of vehicle in cold start condition is required. The present paper describes a methodology to simulate the cold start fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Design Optimization in Rear End of a Hatchback Passenger Vehicle

2019-03-25
2019-01-1430
Aerodynamic evaluation plays an important role in the new vehicle development process to meet the ever increasing demand of Fuel Economy (FE), superior aero acoustics and thermal performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is extensively used to evaluate the performance of the vehicle at early design stage to overcome cost of proto-parts, late design changes and for time line adherence. CFD is extensively used to optimize the vehicle’s shape, profiles and design features starting from the concept stage to improve the vehicle’s aerodynamic performance. Since the shape of the vehicle determines the flow behavior around it, the performance is different for hatchback, notchback and SUV type of vehicles. In a hatchback vehicle, the roof line is abruptly truncated at the end, which causes flow separation and increase in drag.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Vehicle NVH Using Multi-Dimensional Source Path Contributor Paradigm.

2018-06-13
2018-01-1542
Automotive Industry is moving towards lightweight vehicle design with more powerful engines. This is increasing a demand for more optimized NVH design. Source-Path-Contributor (SPC) analysis is one of the ways to draw a holistic picture of any NVH problem. In this paper, an NVH problem of low frequency booming noise and steering vibration has been studied in a development vehicle. All three dimensions of SPC paradigm were looked at to propose a feasible and optimized solution at each level of Source, Path and Contributor model. A classical transfer path analysis (TPA) has been done to identify the highest contributing path: transmission mount and suspension arm. Optimization of suspension bush parameter has been carried out using dynamic elastomer testing facility for an improved NVH performance. After identifying source as engine a study of torsional fluctuations due to gas pressure and torsional resonances has been carried out in order to achieve a feasible solution at source.
Technical Paper

Study on Design Optimization of Air Intake Snorkel Using 1D & 3D Tools

2018-04-03
2018-01-0490
With the increase in customer expectations related to engine performance and vehicle NVH, it has become the need of the hour for automotive industry to continuously use state of-the-art designs. These dynamic concepts require innovative simulation techniques correlated with testing to value engineer the optimal design and further validations. Compact engine room packaging and futuristic aesthetics changes in styling have further magnified these challenges. Packaging air intake system and positioning air intake snorkel are among such challenges that play a critical role for improving engine performance and life. The objective of this paper is to propose an approach for optimizing design and position of air intake snorkel to meet desired intake air temperature, noise targets with no water entry in to engine. Full vehicle computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is performed for predicting air intake temperature, water wading and 1D simulation for suction flow noise.
Technical Paper

Design of Front Structure of Vehicle for Pedestrian Headform Protection

2017-03-28
2017-01-1298
Vehicle Hood being the face of a passenger car poses the challenge to meet the regulatory and aesthetic requirements. Urge to make a saleable product makes aesthetics a primary condition. This eventually makes the role of structure optimization much more important. Pedestrian protection- a recent development in the Indian automotive industry, known for dynamics of cost competitive cars, has posed the challenge to make passenger cars meeting the regulation at minimal cost. The paper demonstrates structure optimization of hood and design of peripheral parts for meeting pedestrian protection performance keeping the focus on low cost of ownership. The paper discusses development of an in-house methodology for meeting Headform compliance of a flagship model of Maruti Suzuki India Ltd., providing detailed analysis of the procedure followed from introduction stage of regulatory requirement in the project to final validation of the engineering intent.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficient Algorithm for Climate Control in Next Generation Vehicles

2017-01-10
2017-26-0370
Automobile industry is shifting its focus from conventional fuel vehicles to NexGen vehicles. The NexGen vehicles have electrical components to propel the vehicle apart from mechanical system. These vehicles have a goal of achieving better fuel efficiency along with reduced emissions making it customer as well as environment friendly. Idle start-stop is a key feature of NexGen vehicles, where, the Engine ECU switches to engine stop mode while idling to cut the fuel consumption and increase fuel efficiency. Engine restarts when there is an input from driver to run the vehicle. There is always a clash between the Engine ECU and automatic climate control unit (Auto-AC) either to enter idle stop mode for better fuel efficiency or inhibit idle stop mode to keep the compressor running for driver comfort. This clash can be resolved in two ways: 1 Hardware change and, 2 Software change Hardware change leads to increase in cost, validation effort and time.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Development of Maruti Suzuki Vitara Brezza using CFD Simulations

2017-01-10
2017-26-0268
Recent automotive trend shows that customer demand is moving towards bigger size vehicle with more comfort, space, safety, feature and technology. Global market of SUV is projected to surpass 21 million units by 2020. Despite economic slowdown and weak new car sales worldwide, India and China will continue to be primary market for SUV due to sheer size of population, urban expanding middle class and larger untapped rural market. However, stricter emission norms push for clean and green technology and unfavorable policy towards use of diesel vehicle has made the SUV design very challenging due to conflicting needs. Due to bigger size of vehicle, aerodynamic design plays an important role in achieving emission targets and higher fuel efficiency. This paper highlights the aerodynamic development of Maruti Suzuki Vitara Brezza, which is an entry level SUV vehicle with high ground clearance of 198 mm and best in class fuel economy of 24.3 kmpl.
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