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Technical Paper

SmartPlay Studio-A Connected Infotainment Development

2019-11-21
2019-28-2440
Infotainment has been always an important aspect of life which has made its way to car design. The cars today are much more advanced compared to their predecessors. The in-vehicle infotainment advancements have followed the consumer electronics market in terms of technologies such as Touchscreen, App based Navigation, Voice Assistant and other multimedia services. This trend is going to expand further as smartphones have revolutionized the infotainment domain with awareness and accessibility to customers. The infotainment system in the cars are expected to be connected not only to the cloud but various vehicle controllers to display host of information & controls at customer`s fingertips. To design a system that supports connectivity to both cloud and vehicle is challenging in terms of cost and design for the OEMs. With focus on Indian market condition and global trends, this paper analyzes the customer expectation for Connected Infotainment system.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the critical parameters affecting the fuel lid performance

2019-11-21
2019-28-2413
Fuel lid is one of the parts which are mostly operated mechanically by the end user while filling the fuel. Therefore part design should be done in such a manner that it can be operated smoothly without any hassles. The conventional steel fuel filler doors are of two types: Three-piece type fuel filler doors also known as the dog-leg type and two-piece type fuel filler doors also known as the butterfly type. Both types of fuel filler doors have a pin that acts as a rotational hinge axis about which the fuel filler door opens and closes. Depending on the styling and shape of the side body outer, fuel lid type is decided. In the current study, dog-leg type fuel lid is considered. The factors that primarily affect the opening-closing performance are the weight of fuel lid, hinge axis, and the friction at the hinge area. The orientation of the hinge axis is derived from the profile of the side body outer panel. The fuel lid weight and hinge axis are decided in the initial design stage.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Effect of Light Weighting Through Roll Stiffness Change on Vehicle Maneuverability and Stability

2019-11-21
2019-28-2406
Objective To achieve better fuel economy and reduced carbon footprint, OEMs are reducing the sprung and unsprung mass. This translates into a reduction in stiffness which profoundly deteriorates the handling/road holding characteristics of the vehicle. To model these changes in stiffness, modifications are made to suspension roll stiffness at the front and rear. This study compares different configurations of roll stiffness and evaluates vehicle behavior using frequency response characteristics and phase change of Yaw Gain recorded. The present work associates acquired data with subjective feedback to outline the shift in vehicle balance emerging from a variation of sprung and unsprung mass ratio. Methodology To study the frequency response characteristics of the vehicle, the pulse input is chosen for this. An ideal pulse input’s Fourier transform represents constant amplitude over all the frequency ranges. By giving a single input, the system is subjected to a range of frequencies.
Technical Paper

Study of Handling Behavior of a Passenger Vehicle after addition of CNG Tank

2019-11-21
2019-28-2405
Objective The objective of this paper is to achieve a comparable handling performance from a vehicle fitted with a CNG tank to that of its gasoline counterpart. A validated CarSim model is run through standard handling evaluation tests before and after the addition of CNG tank. The simulation results are used to compare the handling characteristics of the CNG vehicle with the Base vehicle. Further these results are used to tune the suspension parameters to find an optimum set-up for the actual CNG vehicle. The final parameters are then evaluated in the actual vehicle to verify the study. Methodology A mix of Actual Mule vehicle testing backed by quik Car Sim Model. Full car model is first developed using CarSim by using the parameters of the actual base gasoline vehicle. The modeled vehicle is then tested for standard handling maneuvers such Double Lane Change, Constant Radius Constant Speed and Pulse Input.
Technical Paper

Approach for CO2 Reduction in India’s Automotive Sector

2019-11-21
2019-28-2388
India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Trunk Lid Torsion Bar Type Trunk Lid Pop Up Mechanism

2019-10-11
2019-28-0111
Trunk lid (TL) can be opened using hydraulic or pneumatic balancers, coil springs, torsion bars or combination of the above. TL Opening Mechanism specific to Trunk Lid Torsion Bar (TLTB) is being discussed in the paper. After de-latching, TL should open smoothly and stop at such a height that it is visible from driver seat. The system consists of a four bar linkage mechanism, in which the fixed link is formed by BIW Bracket. Connecting link, TL Hinge Arm and Torsion bar arm form the other three links. Hinge has its one end attached to TL and the other end to BIW bracket. Torsion bar arm transfers torque to TL hinge through the connecting link. Major challenges in designing TLTB mechanism are part tolerances, C.G position and Weight variations in individual parts, Torsion bar Raw Material variation, uncertain friction in the system etc.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cold Start Mode Fuel Economy Simulation Model Making Methodology

2019-04-02
2019-01-0898
The air pollution and global warming has become a major problem to the society. To counter this worldwide emission norms have become more stringent in recent times and shall continue to get further stringent in the next decade. From OEMs perspective with increased complexity, it has become a necessity to use simulation methods along with model based systems approach to deal with system level complexities and reduce model development time and cost to deal with the various regulatory requirements and customer needs. The simulation models must have good correlation with the actual test results and at the same time should be less complex, fast, and integrable with other vehicle function modelling. As the vehicle fuel economy is declared in cold start condition, the fuel economy simulation model of vehicle in cold start condition is required. The present paper describes a methodology to simulate the cold start fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Front Hood Structure for Meeting Pedestrian Headform Protection in an Existing Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0615
Automotive industry today faces the unprecedented challenges both in terms of adapting to changing customer demands in terms of vehicle aesthetics, features or performance as well as meeting the mandatory regulatory requirements, which are being regularly upgraded and becoming stringent day by day. Vehicle hood, being part of vehicle front fascia, needs to fulfill the requirement of vehicle aesthetics as its primary condition. At the same time, every automobile manufacturer has a lineup of older platforms, which are in production and needs to comply with upcoming stricter safety norms, having a structure in under hood area designed as per older philosophy, which further reduces the space available for energy absorption. This makes the structure optimization in vehicle hood area much more challenging. Pedestrian protection - an upcoming regulation in India, has seen some major development in recent times.
Technical Paper

Valve Opening and Closing Event Finalization for Cost Effective Valve Train of Gasoline Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1191
With more stringent emission norm coming in future, add more pressure on IC engine to improve fuel efficiency for survival in next few decades. In gasoline SI (spark ignition) engine, valve events have major influence on fuel economy, performance and exhaust emissions. Optimization of valve event demands for extensive simulation and testing to achieve balance between conflicting requirement of low end torque, maximum power output, part load fuel consumption and emission performance. Balance between these requirements will become more critical when designing low cost valve train without VVT (Variable valve timing) to reduce overall cost of engine. Higher CR (Compression ratio) is an important low cost measure to achieve higher thermal efficiency but creates issue of knocking thereby limiting low speed high load performance. The effective CR reduction by means of late intake valve closing (LIVC) is one way to achieve higher expansion ratio while keeping high geometric CR.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Design Optimization in Rear End of a Hatchback Passenger Vehicle

2019-03-25
2019-01-1430
Aerodynamic evaluation plays an important role in the new vehicle development process to meet the ever increasing demand of Fuel Economy (FE), superior aero acoustics and thermal performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is extensively used to evaluate the performance of the vehicle at early design stage to overcome cost of proto-parts, late design changes and for time line adherence. CFD is extensively used to optimize the vehicle’s shape, profiles and design features starting from the concept stage to improve the vehicle’s aerodynamic performance. Since the shape of the vehicle determines the flow behavior around it, the performance is different for hatchback, notchback and SUV type of vehicles. In a hatchback vehicle, the roof line is abruptly truncated at the end, which causes flow separation and increase in drag.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Vehicle NVH Using Multi-Dimensional Source Path Contributor Paradigm.

2018-06-13
2018-01-1542
Automotive Industry is moving towards lightweight vehicle design with more powerful engines. This is increasing a demand for more optimized NVH design. Source-Path-Contributor (SPC) analysis is one of the ways to draw a holistic picture of any NVH problem. In this paper, an NVH problem of low frequency booming noise and steering vibration has been studied in a development vehicle. All three dimensions of SPC paradigm were looked at to propose a feasible and optimized solution at each level of Source, Path and Contributor model. A classical transfer path analysis (TPA) has been done to identify the highest contributing path: transmission mount and suspension arm. Optimization of suspension bush parameter has been carried out using dynamic elastomer testing facility for an improved NVH performance. After identifying source as engine a study of torsional fluctuations due to gas pressure and torsional resonances has been carried out in order to achieve a feasible solution at source.
Technical Paper

Study on Design Optimization of Air Intake Snorkel Using 1D & 3D Tools

2018-04-03
2018-01-0490
With the increase in customer expectations related to engine performance and vehicle NVH, it has become the need of the hour for automotive industry to continuously use state of-the-art designs. These dynamic concepts require innovative simulation techniques correlated with testing to value engineer the optimal design and further validations. Compact engine room packaging and futuristic aesthetics changes in styling have further magnified these challenges. Packaging air intake system and positioning air intake snorkel are among such challenges that play a critical role for improving engine performance and life. The objective of this paper is to propose an approach for optimizing design and position of air intake snorkel to meet desired intake air temperature, noise targets with no water entry in to engine. Full vehicle computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is performed for predicting air intake temperature, water wading and 1D simulation for suction flow noise.
Technical Paper

Design of Front Structure of Vehicle for Pedestrian Headform Protection

2017-03-28
2017-01-1298
Vehicle Hood being the face of a passenger car poses the challenge to meet the regulatory and aesthetic requirements. Urge to make a saleable product makes aesthetics a primary condition. This eventually makes the role of structure optimization much more important. Pedestrian protection- a recent development in the Indian automotive industry, known for dynamics of cost competitive cars, has posed the challenge to make passenger cars meeting the regulation at minimal cost. The paper demonstrates structure optimization of hood and design of peripheral parts for meeting pedestrian protection performance keeping the focus on low cost of ownership. The paper discusses development of an in-house methodology for meeting Headform compliance of a flagship model of Maruti Suzuki India Ltd., providing detailed analysis of the procedure followed from introduction stage of regulatory requirement in the project to final validation of the engineering intent.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficient Algorithm for Climate Control in Next Generation Vehicles

2017-01-10
2017-26-0370
Automobile industry is shifting its focus from conventional fuel vehicles to NexGen vehicles. The NexGen vehicles have electrical components to propel the vehicle apart from mechanical system. These vehicles have a goal of achieving better fuel efficiency along with reduced emissions making it customer as well as environment friendly. Idle start-stop is a key feature of NexGen vehicles, where, the Engine ECU switches to engine stop mode while idling to cut the fuel consumption and increase fuel efficiency. Engine restarts when there is an input from driver to run the vehicle. There is always a clash between the Engine ECU and automatic climate control unit (Auto-AC) either to enter idle stop mode for better fuel efficiency or inhibit idle stop mode to keep the compressor running for driver comfort. This clash can be resolved in two ways: 1 Hardware change and, 2 Software change Hardware change leads to increase in cost, validation effort and time.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Development of Maruti Suzuki Vitara Brezza using CFD Simulations

2017-01-10
2017-26-0268
Recent automotive trend shows that customer demand is moving towards bigger size vehicle with more comfort, space, safety, feature and technology. Global market of SUV is projected to surpass 21 million units by 2020. Despite economic slowdown and weak new car sales worldwide, India and China will continue to be primary market for SUV due to sheer size of population, urban expanding middle class and larger untapped rural market. However, stricter emission norms push for clean and green technology and unfavorable policy towards use of diesel vehicle has made the SUV design very challenging due to conflicting needs. Due to bigger size of vehicle, aerodynamic design plays an important role in achieving emission targets and higher fuel efficiency. This paper highlights the aerodynamic development of Maruti Suzuki Vitara Brezza, which is an entry level SUV vehicle with high ground clearance of 198 mm and best in class fuel economy of 24.3 kmpl.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Simulation Channels for Inverse FRF Calculation on 6-Axis Road Load Simulator: An Experimental Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0303
Nowadays, Road Load Simulators are used by automobile companies to reproduce the accurate and multi axial stresses in test parts to simulate the real loading conditions. The road conditions are simulated in lab by measuring the customer usage data by sensors like Wheel Force transducers, accelerometers, displacement sensors and strain gauges on the vehicle body and suspension parts. The acquired data is simulated in lab condition by generating ‘drive file’ using the response of the above mentioned sensors [2]. For generation of proper drive file, not only good FRF but ensuring stability of inverse FRF is also essential. Stability of the inverse FRF depends upon the simulation channels used. In this paper experimental approach has been applied for the optimization of the simulation channels to be used for simulation of normal Indian passenger car on 4 corners, 6-Axis Road Load Simulator. Time domain tests were performed to identify potential simulation channels.
Technical Paper

Simulating Real World Driving: A Case study on New Delhi

2016-02-01
2016-28-0236
In the Indian Context, Fuel Economy of a vehicle is one of key elements while buying a Car. The fuel economy declared by OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) is one of the key indicators while assessing the fuel economy. However it is based on a standard driving cycle and evaluated under standard conditions as mandated by emission legislation. As the driving pattern has a major influence on fuel economy, the objective of this paper is to study real world driving patterns and to define a methodology to simulate a real world driving cycle. A case study was done on Delhi City, by running a fleet of vehicles in different traffic conditions. Thereafter data analysis like acceleration %, specific energy demand per distance, Acceleration vs. Vehicle Speed distribution etc. was done with the help of MATLAB. The final validation of cycle was done by comparing Lab results with on-road Fuel Economy data.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Bumper Beam Structure for Pedestrian Protection and Low Speed Bumper Impact

2016-02-01
2016-28-0210
The biggest challenge in vehicle BIW design today is to make a light, cost effective and energy absorbing structure. With the increasing competition as well as increasing customer awareness, today’s vehicle has to satisfy several aesthetic and functional requirements besides the mandatory regulatory requirements. While working on global platform, it is challenging to comply with both pedestrian protection and low speed bumper impact (ECE-R42) and at the same time meeting the styling intent of reducing the front overhang. Pedestrian lower leg compliance demands space between bumper member and bumper, a condition that reduces the space available for energy absorption during low speed impact (ECE-R42). Therefore, reduction in front overhang poses a problem in meeting both the requirements with limited space. This paper outlines vehicle case study in order to optimize the design of Bumper Beam structure, for complying with regulatory requirements while satisfying the styling intent.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Controls Comparison on HILs Using a Modular Soft Platform

2016-02-01
2016-28-0026
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Controls Development is an important aspect to realize the goals of Powertrain Electrification i.e. fuel economy and emission improvement. Keeping that in mind, development engineers need to formulate numerous control strategies. Once the control strategy is evaluated and frozen, it typically does not change from one vehicle model application to another. However, it may happen that Electronic Control Unit (ECU) manufacturer may change depending on the sourcing strategy. Therefore, in order to maintain uniformity, it may be required to compare control strategy of a finished ECU product frozen for one model application to be compared with new ECU sourced through another manufacturer. This paper discusses a methodology to compare control strategy of two ECU’s sourced from different ECU manufacturers with identical control requirements.
Technical Paper

Development of Test Method to Validate Synchronizer Ring Design for Torsional Fluctuations in Manual Transmission

2016-02-01
2016-28-0012
Manual transmissions dominate the Indian market for their obvious benefit of low cost and higher mechanical efficiency resulting in higher fuel economy. Synchronizer system in manual transmission enables smoother and quieter gear shifting. Synchronizer ring is the key element which provides the necessary frictional torque to synchronize the speed of gear and sleeve for smooth shifting. During vehicle running, synchronizer rings are free to rattle inside the indexing clearance. High engine torsional excitation and low clutch dampening can result into increased fluctuation of the input shaft of transmission. High fluctuation or lower contact area of synchronizer ring can lead to damage on the index area. This damage may cause hard gear shifting and gear shift blockage in case of extreme damage.
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