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Technical Paper

Reliable Processes of Simulating Liner Roughness and Its Lubrication Properties

2019-04-02
2019-01-0178
Topology of liner finish is critical to the performance of internal combustion engines. Proper liner finish simulation processes lead to efficient engine design and research. Fourier methods have been well studied to numerically generate liner topology. However, three major issues wait to be addressed to make the generation processes feasible and reliable. First, in order to simulate real plateau honed liners, approaches should be developed to calculate accurate liner geometric parameters. These parameters are served as the input of the generation algorithm. Material ratio curve, the common geometry calculation method, should be modified so that accurate root mean square of plateau height distribution could be obtained. Second, the set of geometric parameters used in generating liner finish (ISO 13565-2) is different from the set of parameters used in manufacturing industry (ISO 13565-3). Quantitative relations between these two sets should be studied.
Technical Paper

Flex Fuel Gasoline-Alcohol Engine for Near Zero Emissions Plug-In Hybrid Long-Haul Trucks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0565
Internal combustion engines for plug-in hybrid heavy duty trucks, especially long haul trucks, could play an important role in facilitating use of battery power. Power from a low carbon electricity source could thereby be employed without an unattractive vehicle cost increase or range limitation. The ideal engine should be powered by a widely available affordable liquid fuel, should minimize air pollutant emissions, and should provide lower greenhouse gas emissions. Diesel engines could fall short in meeting these objectives, especially because of high emissions. In this paper we analyze the potential for a flex fuel gasoline-alcohol engine approach for a series hybrid powertrain. In this approach the engine would provide comparable (or possibly greater) efficiency than a diesel engine while also providing 90 around lower NOx emissions than present cleanest diesel engine vehicles. Ethanol or methanol would be employed to increase knock resistance.
Journal Article

Modeling of Oil Transport between Piston Skirt and Cylinder Liner in Internal Combustion Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0590
The distribution of lubricating oil plays a critical role in determining the friction between piston skirt and cylinder liner, which is one of the major contributors to the total friction loss in internal combustion engines. In this work, based upon the experimental observation an existing model for the piston secondary motion and skirt lubrication was improved with a physics-based model describing the oil film separation from full film to partial film. Then the model was applied to a modern turbo-charged SI engine. The piston-skirt FMEP predicted by the model decreased with larger installation clearance, which was also observed from the measurements using IMEP method at the rated. It was found that the main period of the cycle exhibiting friction reduction is in the expansion stroke when the skirt only contacts the thrust side for all tested installation clearances.
Technical Paper

Developing Design Guidelines for an SCR Assembly Equipped for RF Sensing of NH3 Loading

2018-04-03
2018-01-1266
The Cu-zeolite (CuZ) SCR catalyst enables higher NOx conversion efficiency in part because it can store a significant amount of NH3. “NH3 storage control”, where diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) is dosed in accord with a target NH3 loading, is widely used with CuZ catalysts to achieve very high efficiency. The NH3 loading actually achieved on the catalyst is currently estimated through a stoichiometric calculation. With future high-capacity CuZ catalyst designs, it is likely that the accuracy of this NH3 loading estimate will become limiting for NOx conversion efficiency. Therefore, a direct measurement of NH3 loading is needed; RF sensing enables this. Relative to RF sensing of soot in a DPF (which is in commercial production), RF sensing of NH3 adsorbed on CuZ is more challenging. Therefore, more attention must be paid to the “microwave resonance cavity” created within the SCR assembly. The objective of this study was to develop design guidelines to enable and enhance RF sensing.
Technical Paper

Curved Beam Based Model for Piston-Ring Designs in Internal Combustion Engines: Working Engine Conditions Study

2018-04-03
2018-01-1277
A new multi-scale curved beam based model was developed for piston-ring designs. This tool is able to characterize the behavior of a ring with any cross section design. This paper describes the conformability and ring static twist calculation. The conformability part model the static behavior of the ring in working engine conditions. The model employs the computation scheme that separates the meshing of the structure and local force generation. Additional to the conventional static ring-bore conformability analysis, the conformability model is designed to examine ring-bore and ring-groove interactions in a running engine under varying driving forces and localized lubrication conditions. We made Improvements on the way to handle the effects of the radial temperature gradient compared to the existing models. Examples are given on the effects of ring rotation on the interaction of the ring and a distorted bore as well as the change of local lubrication conditions.
Technical Paper

Curved Beam Based Model for Piston-Ring Designs in Internal Combustion Engines: Closed Shape Within a Flexible Band, Free-Shape and Force in Circular Bore Study

2018-04-03
2018-01-1279
A new multi-scale curved beam based model was developed for piston-ring designs. This paper describes the free-shape, force in circular bore and closed shape within a flexible band (ovality) related parts. Knowing any one of these distributions, this model determines the other two. This tool is useful in the sense that the characterization of the ring is carried out by measuring its closed shape within a flexible band which is more accurate than measuring its free shape or force distribution in circular bore. Thus, having a model that takes the closed shape within a flexible band as an input is more convenient and useful based on the experiments carried out to characterize the ring.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Evolution of Fuel and Lubricant Interactions on the Liner in Internal Combustion Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0279
In internal combustion engines, a portion of liquid fuel spray may directly land on the liner and mix with oil (lubricant), forming a fuel-oil film (~10μm) that is much thicker than the original oil film (~0.1μm). When the piston retracts in the compression stroke, the fuel-oil mixture may have not been fully vaporized and can be scraped by the top ring into the 1st land crevice and eventually enter the combustion chamber in the format of droplets. Studies have shown that this mechanism is possibly a leading cause for low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) as the droplets contain oil that has a much lower self-ignition temperature than pure fuel. In this interest, this work aims to study the oil-fuel interactions on the liner during an engine cycle, addressing molecular diffusion (in the liquid film) and vaporization (at the liquid-gas interface) to quantify the amount of fuel and oil that are subject to scraping by the top ring, thereby exploring their implications on LSPI and friction.
Technical Paper

Performance Assessment of Extended Stroke Spark Ignition Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0893
The performance of an extended stroke spark ignition engine has been assessed by cycle simulation. The base engine is a modern turbo-charged 4-stroke passenger car spark-ignition engine with 10:1 compression ratio. A complex crank mechanism is used so that the intake stroke remains the same while the expansion-to-intake stroke ratio (SR) is varied by changing the crank geometry. The study is limited to the thermodynamic aspect of the extended stroke; the changes in friction, combustion characteristic, and other factors are not included. When the combustion is not knock limited, an efficiency gain of more than 10 percent is obtained for SR = 1.5. At low load, however, there is an efficiency lost due to over-expansion. At the same NIMEP, the extended stroke renders the engine more resistant to knock. At SR of 1.8, the engine is free from knock up to 14 bar NIMEP at 2000 rpm. Under knocking condition, the required spark retard to prevent knocking is less with the extended stroke.
Technical Paper

Real World Performance of an Onboard Gasoline/Ethanol Separation System to Enable Knock Suppression Using an Octane-On-Demand Fuel System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0879
Higher compression ratio and turbocharging, with engine downsizing can enable significant gains in fuel economy but require engine operating conditions that cause engine knock under high load. Engine knock can be avoided by supplying higher-octane fuel under such high load conditions. This study builds on previous MIT papers investigating Octane-On-Demand (OOD) to enable a higher efficiency, higher-boost higher compression-ratio engine. The high-octane fuel for OOD can be obtained through On-Board-Separation (OBS) of alcohol blended gasoline. Fuel from the primary fuel tank filled with commercially available gasoline that contains 10% by volume ethanol (E10) is separated by an organic membrane pervaporation process that produces a 30 to 90% ethanol fuel blend for use when high octane is needed. In addition to previous work, this paper combines modeling of the OBS system with passenger car and medium-duty truck fuel consumption and octane requirements for various driving cycles.
Journal Article

Potential of Negative Valve Overlap for Part-Load Efficiency Improvement in Gasoline Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0377
This article reports on the potential of negative valve overlap (NVO) for improving the net indicated thermal efficiency (η NIMEP) of gasoline engines during part load. Three fixed fuel flow rates, resulting in indicated mean effective pressures of up to 6 bar, were investigated. At low load, NVO significantly reduces the pumping loses during the gas exchange loop, achieving up to 7% improvement in indicated efficiency compared to the baseline. Similar efficiency improvements are achieved by positive valve overlap (PVO), with the disadvantage of worse combustion stability from a higher residual gas fraction (xr). As the load increases, achieving the wide-open throttle limit, the benefits of NVO for reducing the pumping losses diminish, while the blowdown losses from early exhaust valve opening (EVO) increase.
Journal Article

NOx Reduction Using a Dual-Stage Catalyst System with Intercooling in Vehicle Gasoline Engines under Real Driving Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0335
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is used in diesel-fueled mobile applications where urea is an added reducing agent. We show that the Ultera® dual-stage catalyst, with intercooling aftertreatment system, intrinsically performs the function of the SCR method in nominally stoichiometric gasoline vehicle engines without the need for an added reductant. We present that NOx is reduced during the low-temperature operation of the dual-stage system, benefiting from the typically periodic transient operation (acceleration and decelerations) with the associated swing in the air/fuel ratio (AFR) inherent in mobile applications, as commonly expected and observed in real driving. The primary objective of the dual-stage aftertreatment system is to remove non-methane organic gases (NMOG) and carbon monoxide (CO) slip from the vehicle’s three-way catalyst (TWC) by oxidizing these constituents in the second stage catalyst.
Technical Paper

Investigating the Effect of Intake Manifold Size on the Transient Response of Single Cylinder Turbocharged Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0170
This paper evaluates the lag time in a turbocharged single cylinder engine in order to determine its viability in transient applications. The overall goal of this research is to increase the power output, reduce the fuel economy, and improve emissions of single cylinder engines through turbocharging. Due to the timing mismatch between the exhaust stroke, when the turbocharger is powered, and the intake stroke, when the engine intakes air, turbocharging is not conventionally used in commercial single cylinder engines. Our previous work has shown that it is possible to turbocharge a four stroke, single cylinder, internal combustion engine using an air capacitor, a large volume intake manifold in between the turbocharger compressor and engine intake. The air capacitor stores compressed air from the turbocharger during the exhaust stroke and delivers it during the intake stroke.
Journal Article

Analysis of Ash in Low Mileage, Rapid Aged, and High Mileage Gasoline Exhaust Particle Filters

2017-03-28
2017-01-0930
To meet future particle mass and particle number standards, gasoline vehicles may require particle control, either by way of an exhaust gas filter and/or engine modifications. Soot levels for gasoline engines are much lower than diesel engines; however, non-combustible material (ash) will be collected that can potentially cause increased backpressure, reduced power, and lower fuel economy. The purpose of this work was to examine the ash loading of gasoline particle filters (GPFs) during rapid aging cycles and at real time low mileages, and compare the filter performances to both fresh and very high mileage filters. Current rapid aging cycles for gasoline exhaust systems are designed to degrade the three-way catalyst washcoat both hydrothermally and chemically to represent full useful life catalysts. The ash generated during rapid aging was low in quantity although similar in quality to real time ash. Filters were also examined after a low mileage break-in of approximately 3000 km.
Journal Article

Assessment of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Cold Start Particulate Emission Sources

2017-03-28
2017-01-0795
The gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine particulate emission sources are assessed under cold start conditions: the fast idle and speed/load combinations representative of the 1st acceleration in the US FTP. The focus is on the accumulation mode particle number (PN) emission. The sources are non-fuel, combustion of the premixed charge, and liquid fuel film. The non-fuel emissions are measured by operating the engine with premixed methane/air or hydrogen/air. Then the PN level is substantially lower than what is obtained with normal GDI operation; thus non-fuel contribution to PN is small. When operating with stoichiometric premixed gasoline/air, the PN level is comparable to the non-fuel level; thus premixed-stoichiometric mixture combustion does not significantly generate particulates. For fuel rich premixed gasoline/air, PN increases dramatically when lambda is less than 0.7 to 0.8.
Journal Article

Analysis of NOx Emissions during Crank-Start and Cold Fast-Idle in a GDI Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0796
The NOx emissions during the crank-start and cold fast-idle phases of a GDI engine are analyzed in detail. The NOx emissions of the first 3 firing cycles are studied under a wide set of parameters including the mass of fuel injected, start of injection, and ignition timing. The results show a strong dependence of the NOx emissions with injection timing; they are significantly reduced as the mixture is stratified. The impact of different valve timings on crank-start NOx emissions was analyzed. Late intake and early exhaust timings show similar potential for NOx reduction; 26-30% lower than the baseline. The combined strategy, resulting in a large symmetric negative valve overlap, shows the greatest reduction; 59% lower than the baseline. The cold fast-idle NOx emissions were studied under different equivalence ratios, injection strategies, combustion phasing, and valve timings. Slightly lean air-fuel mixtures result in a significant reduction of NOx.
Technical Paper

Particulate Filter Soot Load Measurements using Radio Frequency Sensors and Potential for Improved Filter Management

2016-04-05
2016-01-0943
Efficient aftertreatment management requires accurate sensing of both particulate filter soot and ash levels for optimized feedback control. Currently a combination of pressure drop measurements and predictive models are used to indirectly estimate the loading state of the filter. Accurate determination of filter soot loading levels is challenging under certain operating conditions, particularly following partial regeneration events and at low flow rate (idle) conditions. This work applied radio frequency (RF)-based sensors to provide a direct measure of the particulate filter soot levels in situ. Direct measurements of the filter loading state enable advanced feedback controls to optimize the combined engine and aftertreatment system for improved DPF management. This study instrumented several cordierite and aluminum titanate diesel particulate filters with RF sensors. The systems were tested on a range of light- and heavy-duty applications, which included on- and off-road engines.
Journal Article

Cycle-by-Cycle Analysis of Cold Crank-Start in a GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0824
The first 3 cycles in the cold crank-start process at 20°C are studied in a GDI engine. The focus is on the dependence of the HC and PM/PN emissions of each cycle on the injection strategy and combustion phasing of the current and previous cycles. The PM/PN emissions per cycle decrease by more than an order of magnitude as the crank-start progresses from the 1st to the 3rd cycle, while the HC emissions stay relatively constant. The wall heat transfer, as controlled by the combustion phasing, during the previous cycles has a more significant influence on the mixture formation process for the current cycle than the amount of residual fuel. The results show that the rise in HC emissions caused by the injection spray interacting with the intake valves and piston crown is reduced as the cranking process progresses. Combustion phasing retard significantly reduces the PM emission. The HC emissions, however, are relatively not sensitive to combustion phasing in the range of interest.
Journal Article

Lubricant-Derived Ash Impact on Gasoline Particulate Filter Performance

2016-04-05
2016-01-0942
The increasing use of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines coupled with the implementation of new particulate matter (PM) and particle number (PN) emissions regulations requires new emissions control strategies. Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) present one approach to reduce particle emissions. Although primarily composed of combustible material which may be removed through oxidation, particle also contains incombustible components or ash. Over the service life of the filter the accumulation of ash causes an increase in exhaust backpressure, and limits the useful life of the GPF. This study utilized an accelerated aging system to generate elevated ash levels by injecting lubricant oil with the gasoline fuel into a burner system. GPFs were aged to a series of levels representing filter life up to 150,000 miles (240,000 km). The impact of ash on the filter pressure drop and on its sensitivity to soot accumulation was investigated at specific ash levels.
Journal Article

Reduction of Cold-Start Emissions through Valve Timing in a GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0827
This work examines the effect of valve timing during cold crank-start and cold fast-idle (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP) on the emissions of hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate mass and number (PM/PN). Four different cam-phaser configurations are studied in detail: 1. Baseline stock valve timing. 2. Late intake opening/closing. 3. Early exhaust opening/closing. 4. Late intake phasing combined with early exhaust phasing. Delaying the intake valve opening improves the mixture formation process and results in more than 25% reduction of the HC and of the PM/PN emissions during cold crank-start. Early exhaust valve phasing results in a deterioration of the HC and PM/PN emissions performance during cold crank-start. Nevertheless, early exhaust valve phasing slightly improves the HC emissions and substantially reduces the particulate emissions at cold fast-idle.
Technical Paper

The Anatomy of Knock

2016-04-05
2016-01-0704
The combustion process after auto-ignition is investigated. Depending on the non-uniformity of the end gas, auto-ignition could initiate a flame, produce pressure waves that excite the engine structure (acoustic knock), or result in detonation (normal or developing). For the “acoustic knock” mode, a knock intensity (KI) is defined as the pressure oscillation amplitude. The KI values over different cycles under a fixed operating condition are observed to have a log-normal distribution. When the operating condition is changed (over different values of λ, EGR, and spark timing), the mean (μ) of log (KI/GIMEP) decreases linearly with the correlation-based ignition delay calculated using the knock-point end gas condition of the mean cycle. The standard deviation σ of log(KI/GIMEP) is approximately a constant, at 0.63. The values of μ and σ thus allow a statistical description of knock from the deterministic calculation of the ignition delay using the mean cycle properties
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