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Journal Article

Diesel Combustion Noise Reduction by Controlling Piston Vibration

It has been required recently that diesel engines for passenger cars meet various requirements, such as low noise, low fuel consumption, low emissions and high power. The key to improve the noise is to reduce a combustion noise known as “Diesel knock noise”. Conventional approaches to reduce the diesel knock are decreasing combustion excitation force due to pilot/pre fuel injection, adding ribs to engine blocks or improving noise transfer characteristics by using insulation covers. However, these approaches have negative effects, such as deterioration in fuel economy and increase in cost/weight. Therefore, modification of engine structures is required to reduce it. We analyzed noise transfer paths from a piston, a connecting rod, a crank shaft to an engine block and vibration behavior during engine operation experimentally, and identified that piston resonance was a noise source.
Technical Paper

Spot Friction Welding of Aluminum to Steel

Spot friction welding (SFW) is a cost-effective spot joining technology for aluminum sheets compared with resistance spot welding (RSW) [1]. In this study, coated mild steel was spot friction welded to 6000 series aluminum using a tool with shoulder diameter of 10 mm and welding conditions of 1500-2000 rpm and time of 5 s. Testing showed that tensile shear strength increased as the solidus temperature of the coating on the steel decreased. Microstructure characterizations of steel/Al joint interfaces showed that zinc from the coatings was incorporated into the stir nuggets and that intermetallic phases may have formed but not in continuous layers. Some Al-Zn oxides that appeared to be amorphous were also found in the joint interfaces.
Technical Paper

Application of Plasma Welding to Tailor- Welded Blanks

In recent years, improving fuel efficiency and collision safety are important issue. We have worked on a new construction method to develop body structure which is light weight and strong/stiff. We adopt multi type Tailor-Welded Blanks (TWB) which is formed after welding several steel sheets for ATENZA (MAZDA 6), NEW DEMIO (MAZDA 2), and RX-8. This is a technology to consistently improve of such product properties and to reduce costs. Laser welding is a common TWB welding method, but for further equipment cost reductions and productivity improvements, we have developed a higher welding speed and robust plasma welding and introduced this to mass production. We introduce this activity and results in this report.
Technical Paper

Detection of Transient Noise of Car Interior Using Non-stationary Signal Analysis

A method to inspect the rattle generated in a vehicle cabin has been developed. In the method, the waveform of overall in-cabin noise is analyzed using Wigner distribution, a kind of time-frequency analysis, and the rattle component of the waveform is condensed and separated from the background shake noise. Then the rattle component is classified into three levels, strong, middle and not detected, using a neural network. Fuzzy inference is also used to select normal waveform data. Experimental results show that the correct classification ratio of the method is more than 90%, which equals the ability of skilled inspectors.
Technical Paper

Development of Disk Brake Rotor Utilizing Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite

Disk brake rotors require reduced unsprung weight and improved cooling ability for improved fade performance. Automotive brake rotors made from aluminum metal matrix composites (MMC) were evaluated by dynamometer and vehicle tests for the required improvement. The friction and wear performance and the thermal response during fade stops were compared with those of commercially produced gray cast iron (GCI) rotors. It was proved that MMC is a very effective material to replace GCI for brake rotor application, as it reduces unsprung weight and decreases maximum operation temperature of the brake system.
Technical Paper

Development of Magnesium Forged Wheel

Magnesium has the lowest specific gravity of all metals used for structural members. The application of magnesium for a road wheel leads to improved vehicle handling and drivability because of the reduction of an unsprung weight. The authors have developed new magnesium alloy which shows excellent mechanical properties and attained a magnesium forged road wheel that is 30% lighter than aluminum wheels.
Technical Paper

Development of Simultaneous Zinc Phosphating Process for Aluminum and Steel Plates

A method was studied for simultaneous zinc phosphating on aluminum and steel surfaces to obtain high corrosion resistance on aluminum surfaces, which conventional phosphatic processing could not provide with sufficient corrosion resistance. Since aluminum is protected by an oxide film on its surface, it has poor processability with zinc phosphating solutions applied to steel. An appropriate quantity of fluoride was therefore added to improve processing, and the coating film, aluminum composition and surface conditions were optimized to suppress filiform corrosion, which is characterized by string-like blisters of paint film starting from a paint defect. In addition, in view of the actual production environment, the corrosion resistance of the ground area made for readjustment after stamping was studied for the optimization of the processing solution.
Technical Paper

The Corrosion Resistance of Organic Composite-Coated Steel Sheets

In order to investigate the corrosion resistance of organic composite-coated steel sheets ( OCS ) in a real automotive environment, many kinds of corrosion tests were performed on test pieces and real automotive doors. Tests with a corrosive solution including iron rust were introduced to simulate the real corrosive environment of automotive doors. The relationship between the components of OCS and the corrosion resistance in the rust-including tests was examined. In addition, electrochemical studies were performed. Results indicate OCS has much better corrosion resistance than plated steel sheets with heavier coating weight in all tests. OCS shows excellent corrosion resistance in rust-free corrosive solution, however, some types of OCS do have corrosion concerns in rust-including tests. It became clear that these OCS types have an organic coating with lower cross-linking.
Technical Paper

Mazda New Lightweight and Compact V6 Engines

Mazda has developed new-generation V6 engines. The new V6 series comprises 2.5-litre, 2.0-litre and 1.8-litre engines. The development objective was to ensure high output performance for excellent “acceleration and top-end feel”, while satisfying “Clean & Economy” requirements. The engines also had to have a pleasant sound. Mazda selected for these engines a short stroke, 60° V-shaped 24 valve DOHC with an aluminum cylinder block. Various techniques are adopted as follows: Combustion improvement and optimization of control to achieve high fuel economy and low emissions Improvement of volumetric efficiency, inertia reduction of rotating parts and optimization of control to achieve excellent “acceleration and top-end feel” Adoption of a high-rigidity, two-piece cylinder block and crankshaft and weight reduction of reciprocating parts to achieve a pleasant engine sound Material changes and elimination of dead space to achieve a compact, lightweight engine
Technical Paper

Estimation Method for Automobile Aerodynamic Noise

Cost and weight reduction considerations make it very important to evaluate and reduce aerodynamic noise in the early stage of vehicle develpment. For these reasons, a method to evaluate aerodynamic noise quantitatively is needed. As an initial step, our first paper investigated airflow around the A-pillar of a full-scale vehicle. As a result, vortical flow structure and the influence of the vortical flow on the pressure fluctuations were clarified. As the second step, this paper presents an estimation method for the aerodynamic noise from a vehicle. Based on Lighthill's equation, we propose an evaluation equation to estimate aerodynamic noise. The aerodynamic noise radiated externally from a vehicle is estimated as ∑(Pfi,fi,Sfi)2 Where Pfi is the fluctuating pressure on the surface of the vehicle, fi the frequency and Sfi the correlation area. The method is applied to the aerodynamic noise problem associated with the A-pillar of a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Application of Vibration Damping Steel Sheet for Autobody Structural Parts

As a demand for vehicles of higher functionality grows, automakers and material suppliers are devoting increasing efforts to develop technologies for greater safety, lighter weight, higher corrosion resistance, and enhanced quietness. The resin-sandwiched vibration damping steel sheet (VDSS), developed as a highly functional material for reducing vehicle vibration and noise, has been used for oil pans1) and compartment partitions2). First applied for a structural dash panel of the new Mazda 929, a Zn-Ni electroplated VDSS which allows direct electric welding has contributed to greater weight reduction as well as improved quietness.
Technical Paper

Development of Lighter-Weight, Higher-Stiffness Body for New RX-7

To realize high levels of handling, driving performance, and NVH characteristics for a sports car, it is important to develop a lightweight and high-stiffness vehicle body. For the new RX-7, weight saving and higher stiffness were pursued as top priorities from the very first stage of the program. We were able to achieve 20% higher bending stiffness and 15% higher torsional stiffness with vehicle weight reduced by 30 kg, compared with the former model. The development of the lightweight, high-stiffness body for the new RX-7 is discussed under three subjects: 1. Contributions of vehicle components to vehicle stiffness 2. Effective procedure for developing vehicle high stiffness and lightweight construction with emphasis on calculation analysis 3. New RX-7's body structure and accomplishment
Technical Paper

Diagnosis and Objective Evaluation of Gear Rattle

The objectives of this work were to establish a method to diagnose the source of gear rattle and to evaluate the rattle objectively. The methods are described in detail, applied to two passenger cars as an example. Investigations were conducted into transmission rattle under transient conditions. By analysing the transmission casing vibration with respect to the engine flywheel angle, and presenting the data in the form of contour maps, it was shown that the two vehicles had different characteristics of gear impacts. Further measurements of the angular motion of each gear revealed the impact conditions at the input mesh in the transmission largely controlled the character of the rattle and were fundamentally different between the two vehicles. A rattle index was developed, based on the casing vibration under transient driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Collapse of Thin-Walled Curved Beam with Closed-Hat Section - Part 2: Simulation by Plane Plastic Hinge Model

This paper describes a calculating method to predict the quasi-static collapsing behaviors of spot-welded closed-hat section curved beams under axial compression. The overall deformat ions and the local buckling modes of beams were calculated using a geometrical model. Force-displacement relations were predicted by a elastic-plastic structural analysis method using the ‘plastic hinge’ concept. Collapsing tests were made on beams which are differenting section size, rotation angle, and metal sheet thickness. Comparisons between the calculated and experimental results of deformed shapes of beams, the local buckling modes and the force displacement relations are discussed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Sound Field in an Automobile Cabin by using the Boundary Element Method

A method of analyzing the three-dimensional sound field in a full-size automobile cabin was studied. The acoustic resonant frequency and the acoustic mode of the cabin were calculated by using the boundary element method (BEM), and were then compared with an experiment conducted on a full-size cabin model made of plaster. The calculated resonant frequencies agreed with measured ones to within about 3% below 170 Hz, and the calculated modes and frequency response curves were in good agreement with experiments when the cabin wall was rigid. In the case of a wall partially lined with absorbing materials, the calculated resonant frequency and the damping ratio were approximately the same as the experimental ones. From these studies, it is concluded that the BEM is useful for analyzing the sound field in a full-size automobile cabin.
Technical Paper

A Study of Exhaust and Noise Emissions Reduction on a Single Spray Direct Injection

Exhaust and noise emissions were successfully reduced using a Single Spray Direct Injection Diesel Engine (SSDI) on a two-liter naturally-aspirated four-cylinder engine. The compression ratio, the swirl ratio and the pumping rate were optimized to obtain good fuel economy, high power output and low exhaust emissions. Furthermore, through a modification of the fuel injection equipment, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were reduced. Upon a test vehicle evaluation of this engine, more than 11% fuel savings relative to Mazda two-liter Indirect Injection Diesel Engines (IDI) were obtained. As for engine noise, structural modifications of the engine were carried out to obtain noise emission levels equivalent to IDI.
Technical Paper

Application of Aluminum Honeycomb Sandwiches and Extrusions in a Convertible: Part 1: Design and Performance of a Prototype

Aluminum Honeycomb Sandwiches and Extrusions have been applied to a platform for convertibles. The platform, composed of a dashpanel and floor panels (honeycomb sandwiches) and a framework (extrusions), has a much more lightweight and rigid structure than other conventional convertible bodies-in-white. This improves remarkably vibrational behavior and handling characteristics, which deteriorate in a convertible, in the case of a prototype.
Technical Paper

Superior Color Matching of Fascia and Body

To coat flexible parts such as R-RIM Urethane Fascia baked at low temperatures, a different painting approach from one for steel parts is employed. Since paint color differences between the fascia and the body would downgrade the product, a color matching technique is required. For better color matching, matching of color shades was attempted with improvement of paint resin, optimal pigment blending and analysis of how color is affected by varying conditions. Application of a primer for finishing has brought about the desired paint film distinctness. Introduced was also the high weatherablilty paint for plastic parts. All such techniques were utilized on R-RIM Urethane Fascia to achieve high-grade color matching.