Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 8 of 8
Technical Paper

Influence of Automotive Seat and Package Factors on Posture and Applicability to Design Models

In an effort to create computer models to promote rapid, cost-effective prototyping while easing design changes, more information about how people interact with seats is needed. Predicting the occupant location, their geometry, and motion within a vehicle leads to a better determination of safety restraint location, controls reach, and visibility - factors that affect the overall operation of the vehicle. Based on the Michigan State University JOHN model, which provides a biomechanical simulation of the torso posture, experiments were conducted to examine the change of postures due to seat and interior package factors. The results can be incorporated into the posture prediction model of the RAMSIS program to give a more detailed prognosis of the spine curvature and refine the model-seat interactions. This paper will address findings of the experimental study with relation to model development.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of the HANS Head and Neck Support

This paper describes additional and more recent results from the DaimlerChrysler study of HANS that includes a sensitivity analysis of HANS performance to variations in crash dummy neck length and other impact test conditions. The objective of the tests was to determine the robustness of the HANS concept in a variety of conditions that might occur in actual use. The results show that the variations in test parameters do effect injury measures from the crash dummy, but HANS provides substantial reductions in injury potential in all cases compared to not using HANS. Also, no injuries were indicated with HANS.
Technical Paper

Development of the HANS Head and Neck Support for Formula One

Extensive crash sled testing and analysis has recently led to the development of a new HANS prototypes for use in FIA F1. The performance of HANS prototypes has been studied with various conditions of HANS design geometry and impact direction. The new HANS prototypes have been found to substantially reduce injurious motions and forces of the head and neck, and the new HANS is lighter, more compact, and performs better than the currently available HANS. Use of HANS by FIA F1 drivers has been initiated.
Technical Paper

Development of Injury Criteria for Human Surrogates to Address Current Trends in Knee-to-Instrument Panel Injuries

Injuries to the lower extremities are common during car accidents because the lower extremity is typically the first point of contact between the occupant and the car interior. While injuries to the knee, ankle and hip are usually not life threatening, they can represent a large societal burden through treatment costs, lost work days and a reduced quality of life. The aim of the current study was to specifically study injuries associated with the knee and to propose a methodology which could be used to prevent future knee injuries. To understand the scope of this problem, a study was designed to identify injury trends in car crashes for the years 1979-1995. The NASS (National Accident Sampling System) showed that 10% of all injuries were to the knee, second only to head and neck injuries. Most knee injuries resulted from knee-to-instrument panel contact. Subfracture injuries were most common (contusions, abrasions, lacerations) followed by gross fracture injuries.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Torso Posture and Motion in Seating

Since the 1960's, automotive seats have been designed and evaluated with tools and procedures described in the SAE Recommended Practice J826. The SAE J826 design template and testing manikin each have a torso with a flat lower back shape and with a single joint at the H-point. The JOHN models provide a more anatomically detailed representation of human shape and movement. The articulations of the JOHN torso (pelvic, lumbar, and thoracic) segments are coupled so that their relative positions are determined by a single parameter related to spinal curvature. This paper describes the development and use of the JOHN biomechanical models for seating design.
Technical Paper

Patellofemoral Joint Fracture Load Prediction Using Physical and Pathological Parameters

Lower extremity (knee) injury prediction resulting from impact trauma is currently based on a bone fracture criterion derived from experiments on predominantly aged cadavers. Subsequent experimental and theoretical studies indicate that more aged, pathological specimens require higher, not lower, loads to initiate bone fracture. This suggests that a bone fracture criterion based solely on aged specimens may not be representative of the current driving population. In the current study, we sought to determine if cadaver age, physical size, sex, baseline joint pathology, or patellar geometry correlated with fracture load. An analysis was made of data from previous impact experiments conducted on fifteen isolated cadaver knees using a consistent impact protocol. The protocol consisted of sequentially increasing the impact energy with a rigid interface until gross fracture. Gross bone fractures occurred at loads of 6.9±2.0 kN (range 3.2 to 10.6 kN) using this protocol.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Impact Interface on Human Knee Injury: Implications for Instrument Panel Design and the Lower Extremity Injury Criterion

Injury to the lower extremity during an automotive crash is a significant problem. While the introduction of safety features (i.e. seat belts, air bags) has significantly reduced fatalities, lower extremity injury now occurs more frequently, probably for a variety of reasons. Lower extremity trauma is currently based on a bone fracture criterion derived from human cadaver impact experiments. These impact experiments, conducted in the 1960's and 70's, typically used a rigid impact interface to deliver a blunt insult to the 90° flexed knee. The resulting criterion states that 10 kN is the maximum load allowed at the knee during an automotive crash when certifying new automobiles using anthropomorphic dummies. However, clinical studies suggest that subfracture loading can cause osteochondral microdamage which can progress to a chronic and debilitating joint disease.
Technical Paper

Biomechanically Articulated Chair Concept and Prototypes

The human torso includes three major segments, the thoracic (rib cage) segment, lumbar segment, and pelvic segment to which the thighs are attached. The JOHN model was developed to represent the positions and movements of these torso segments along with the head, arms, and legs. Using the JOHN model, a new seat concept has been developed to support and move with the torso segments and thighs. This paper describes the background of the biomechanically articulated chair (BAC) and the development of BAC prototypes. These BAC prototypes have been designed to move with and support the thighs, pelvis, and rib cage through a wide variety of recline angles and spinal curvatures. These motions have been evaluated with computer modeling and with initial experience of human subjects. Results from computer modeling and human subjects show that the BAC will allow a broad range of torso postures.