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Book

Clean Snowmobile Challenge - 3: Refinement of Production Engines and New Control Strategies

2017-03-01
This collection is a resource for studying the history of the evolving technologies that have contributed to snowmobiles becoming cleaner and quieter machines. Papers address design for a snowmobile using the EPA test procedure and standard for off-road vehicles, along with more stringent U.S. National Park Best Available Technology (BAT) standards that are likened to those of the California Air Resourced Board (CARB). Innovative technology solutions include: • Standard application for diesel engine designs • Applications to address and test both engine and track noise • Benefits of the Miller cycle and turbocharging The SAE International Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) program is an engineering design competition. The program provides undergraduate and graduate students the opportunity to enhance their engineering design and project management skills by reengineering a snowmobile to reduce emissions and noise.
Book

Clean Snowmobile Challenge - 2: The Revival of the 2-stroke Engine and Studying Flex Fuel Engines

2017-02-01
This collection is a resource for studying the history of the evolving technologies that have contributed to snowmobiles becoming cleaner and quieter machines. Papers address design for a snowmobile using the EPA test procedure and standard for off-road vehicles. Innovative technology solutions include: • Engine Design: improving the two-stroke, gas direct injection (GDI) engine • Applications of new muffler designs and a catalytic converter • Solving flex-fuel design and engine power problems The SAE International Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) program is an engineering design competition. The program provides undergraduate and graduate students the opportunity to enhance their engineering design and project management skills by reengineering a snowmobile to reduce emissions and noise. The competition includes internal combustion engine categories that address both gasoline and diesel, as well as the zero emissions category in which range and draw bar performance are measured.
Book

Clean Snowmobile Challenge - 1: The Early Years, 4-Stroke Engines Make Their Debut

2016-12-22
This collection is a resource for studying the history of the evolving technologies that have contributed to snowmobiles becoming cleaner and quieter machines. Papers address design for a snowmobile using E10 gasoline (10% ethanol mixed with pump gasoline). Performance technologies that are presented include: • Engine Design: application of the four-stroke engine • Applications to address both engine and track noise • Exhaust After-treatment to reduce emissions The SAE International Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) program is an engineering design competition. The program provides undergraduate and graduate students the opportunity to enhance their engineering design and project management skills by reengineering a snowmobile to reduce emissions and noise. The competition includes internal combustion engine categories that address both gasoline and diesel, as well as the zero emissions category in which range and draw bar performance are measured.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Formaldehyde (CH2O) Formation in Dimethyl Ether (DME) Spray Combustion Using PLIF Imaging

2016-04-05
2016-01-0864
Recognition of Dimethyl Ether (DME) as an alternative fuel has been growing recently due to its fast evaporation and ignition in application of compression-ignition engine. Most importantly, combustion of DME produces almost no particulate matter (PM). The current study provides a further understanding of the combustion process in DME reacting spray via experiment done in a constant volume combustion chamber. Formaldehyde (CH2O), an important intermediate species in hydrocarbon combustion, has received much attention in research due to its unique contribution in chemical pathway that leads to the combustion and emission of fuels. Studies in other literature considered CH2O as a marker for UHC species since it is formed prior to diffusion flame. In this study, the formation of CH2O was highlighted both temporally and spatially through planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging at wavelength of 355-nm of an Nd:YAG laser at various time after start of injection (ASOI).
Technical Paper

Innovative Exergy-Based Combustion Phasing Control of IC Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0815
Exergy or availability is the potential of a system to do work. In this paper, an innovative exergy-based control approach is presented for Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). An exergy model is developed for a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. The exergy model is based on quantification of the Second Law of Thermodynamic (SLT) and irreversibilities which are not identified in commonly used First Law of Thermodynamics (FLT) analysis. An experimental data set for 175 different ICE operating conditions is used to construct the SLT efficiency maps. Depending on the application, two different SLT efficiency maps are generated including the applications in which work is the desired output, and the applications where Combined Power and Exhaust Exergy (CPEX) is the desired output. The sources of irreversibility and exergy loss are identified for a single cylinder Ricardo HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

Development of Chemical Kinetic Mechanism for Dimethyl Ether (DME) with Comprehensive Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and NOx Chemistry

2015-04-14
2015-01-0807
Dimethyl ether (DME) appears to be an attractive alternative to common fossil fuels in compression ignition engines due to its smokeless combustion and fast mixture formation. However, in order to fully understand the complex combustion process of DME, there is still a remaining need to develop a comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanism that includes both soot and NOx chemistry. In this study, a detailed DME mechanism with 305 species is developed from the basic DME mechanism of Curran et al. (2000) with addition of soot and NOx chemistry from Howard's mechanism et al. (1999), and GRI 3.0 mechanism, respectively. Soot chemistry in Howard mechanism consisting hydrogen abstraction acetylene addition (HACA) and growth of small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), assesses over a wide range of temperature and is able to predict good to fair the formation of PAH up to coronene.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Studies on Combustion Model Selection for Split Injection Spray Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0374
A wide variety of spray models and their associated sub-models exist to assist with numerical spray development studies in the many applicable areas viz., turbines, internal combustion engines etc. The accuracy of a simulation when compared to the experiments varies, as these models chosen are varied. Also, the computational grid plays a crucial role in model correctness; a grid-converged CFD study is more valuable and assists in proper validation at later stages. Of primary relevance to this paper are the combustion models for a grid-converged Lagrangian spray modeling scenario. CONVERGE CFD code is used for simulation of split injection diesel (n-heptane) sprays and a structured methodology, using RNG k-ε turbulence model, is followed to obtain a grid-converged solution for the key Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) parameters viz., grid size, injected parcels and spray break-up time constant.
Technical Paper

Performance and Efficiency Assessment of a Production CNG Vehicle Compared to Its Gasoline Counterpart

2014-10-13
2014-01-2694
Two modern light-duty passenger vehicles were selected for chassis dynamometer testing to evaluate differences in performance end efficiency resulting from CNG and gasoline combustion in a vehicle-based context. The vehicles were chosen to be as similar as possible apart from fuel type, sharing similar test weights and identical driveline configurations. Both vehicles were tested over several chassis dynamometer driving cycles, where it was found that the CNG vehicle exhibited 3-9% lower fuel economy than the gasoline-fueled subject. Performance tests were also conducted, where the CNG vehicle's lower tractive effort capability and longer acceleration times were consistent with the lower rated torque and power of its engine as compared to the gasoline model. The vehicles were also tested using quasi-steady-state chassis dynamometer techniques, wherein a series of engine operating points were studied.
Technical Paper

Impact of Blending Gasoline with Isobutanol Compared to Ethanol on Efficiency, Performance and Emissions of a Recreational Marine 4-Stroke Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1230
This study evaluates iso-butanol as a pathway to introduce higher levels of alternative fuels for recreational marine engine applications compared to ethanol. Butanol, a 4-carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to gasoline than ethanol. Isobutanol at 16 vol% blend level in gasoline (iB16) exhibits energy content as well as oxygen content identical to E10. Tests with these two blends, as well as indolene as a reference fuel, were conducted on a Mercury 90 HP, 4-stroke outboard engine featuring computer controlled sequential multi-port Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI). The test matrix included full load curves as well as the 5-mode steady-state marine engine test cycle. Analysis of the full load tests suggests that equal full load performance is achieved across the engine speed band regardless of fuel at a 15-20°C increase in exhaust gas temperatures for the alcohol blends compared to indolene.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Cold-Start Behavior and its Impact on Fuel Economy for Advanced Technology Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1375
Vehicle operation during cold-start powertrain conditions can have a significant impact on drivability, fuel economy and tailpipe emissions in modern passenger vehicles. As efforts continue to maximize fuel economy in passenger vehicles, considerable engineering resources are being spent in order to reduce the consumption penalties incurred shortly after engine start and during powertrain warmup while maintaining suitably low levels of tailpipe emissions. Engine downsizing, advanced transmissions and hybrid-electric architecture can each have an appreciable effect on cold-start strategy and its impact on fuel economy. This work seeks to explore the cold-start strategy of several passenger vehicles with different powertrain architectures and to understand the resulting fuel economy impact relative to warm powertrain operation. To this end, four vehicles were chosen with different powertrain architectures.
Journal Article

A Novel Singular Perturbation Technique for Model-Based Control of Cold Start Hydrocarbon Emission

2014-04-01
2014-01-1547
High hydrocarbon (HC) emission during a cold start still remains one of the major emission control challenges for spark ignition (SI) engines in spite of about three decades of research in this area. This paper proposes a cold start HC emission control strategy based on a reduced order modeling technique. A novel singular perturbation approximation (SPA) technique, based on the balanced realization principle, is developed for a nonlinear experimentally validated cold start emission model. The SPA reduced model is then utilized in the design of a model-based sliding mode controller (SMC). The controller targets to reduce cumulative tailpipe HC emission using a combination of fuel injection, spark timing, and air throttle / idle speed controls. The results from the designed multi-input multi-output (MIMO) reduced order SMC are compared with those from a full order SMC. The results show the reduced SMC outperforms the full order SMC by reducing both engine-out and tailpipe HC emission.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Knock Detection, Control, Software Integration, and Evaluation on a V6 Spark-Ignition Engine under Steady-State Operation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1358
The ability to operate a spark-ignition (SI) engine near the knock limit provides a net reduction of engine fuel consumption. This work presents a real-time knock control system based on stochastic knock detection (SKD) algorithm. The real-time stochastic knock control (SKC) system is developed in MATLAB Simulink, and the SKC software is integrated with the production engine control strategy through ATI's No-Hooks. The SKC system collects the stochastic knock information and estimates the knock level based on the distribution of knock intensities fitting to a log-normal (LN) distribution. A desired knock level reference table is created under various engine speeds and loads, which allows the SKC to adapt to changing engine operating conditions. In SKC system, knock factor (KF) is an indicator of the knock intensity level. The KF is estimated by a weighted discrete FIR filter in real-time.
Technical Paper

Development of Steel Clad Aluminum Brake

2013-09-30
2013-01-2054
Aluminum based brake rotors have been a priority research topic in the DOE 1999 Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automobile Market. After fourteen years, no satisfactory technology has been developed to solve the problem of aluminum's low working temperatures except the steel clad aluminum (SCA) brake technology. This technology research started at Michigan Technological University (MTU) in 2001 and has matured recently for commercial productions. The SCA brake rotor has a solid body and replaces the traditional convective cooling of a vented rotor with conductive cooling to a connected aluminum wheel. Much lower temperatures result with the aluminum wheel acting as a great heat sink/radiator. The steel cladding further increases the capability of the SCA rotor to withstand higher surface temperatures. During the road tests of SCA rotors on three cars, significant gas mileage improvement was found; primarily attributed to the unique capability of the SCA rotor on pad drag reduction.
Journal Article

Rapid Prototyping Energy Management System for a Single Shaft Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

2013-04-08
2013-01-0155
Energy management is one of the key challenges for the development of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) due to its complex powertrain structure. Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation provides an open software architecture which enables rapid prototyping HEV energy management system. This paper presents the investigation of the energy management system for a single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle using dSPACE eDrive HIL system. The parallel hybrid electric vehicle, energy management system, and low-level Electronic Control Unit (ECU) were modeled using dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models and dSPACE blocksets. Vehicle energy management is achieved by a vehicle-level controller called hybrid ECU, which controls vehicle operation mode and torque distribution among Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and electric motor. The individual powertrain components such as ICE, electric motor, and transmission are controlled by low-level ECUs.
Technical Paper

Two-Input Two-Output Control of Blended Fuel HCCI Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1663
Precise cycle-to-cycle control of combustion is the major challenge to reduce fuel consumption in Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, while maintaining low emission levels. This paper outlines a framework for simultaneous control of HCCI combustion phasing and Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) on a cycle-to-cycle basis. A dynamic control model is extended to predict behavior of HCCI engine by capturing main physical processes through an HCCI engine cycle. Performance of the model is validated by comparison with the experimental data from a single cylinder Ricardo engine. For 60 different steady state and transient HCCI conditions, the model predicts the combustion phasing and IMEP with average errors less than 1.4 CAD and 0.2 bar respectively. A two-input two-output controller is designed to control combustion phasing and IMEP by adjusting fuel equivalence ratio and blending ratio of two Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs).
Technical Paper

Development of a 1-D Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Model for Simulation of the Oxidation of Particulate Matter and Gaseous Species During Passive Oxidation and Active Regeneration

2013-04-08
2013-01-1574
Numerical modeling of aftertreatment systems has been proven to reduce development time as well as to facilitate understanding of the internal physical and chemical processes occurring during different operating conditions. Such a numerical model for a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CPF) was developed in this research work which has been improved from an existing numerical model briefly described in reference. The focus of this CPF model was to predict the effect of the catalyst on the gaseous species concentrations and to develop particulate matter (PM) filtration and oxidation models for the PM cake layer and substrate wall so as to develop an overall model that accurately predicts the pressure drop and PM oxidized during passive oxidation and active regeneration. Descriptions of the governing equations and corresponding numerical methods used with relevant boundary conditions are presented.
Technical Paper

Measuring and Comparing Frequency Response Functions of Torque Converter Turbines Submerged in Transmission Fluid

2011-05-17
2011-01-1662
When testing dynamic structures, it is important to note that the dynamic system in question may be submerged into a fluid during operation and to properly test the structure under the same condition in order to understand the true dynamic parameters of the system. In this way, the mass and stiffness coupling to the particular fluid, for the case of this study, automatic transmission fluid, may be taken into account. This is especially important in light structures where the coupling between the fluid mass and the structural mass may be great. A structure was tested with a laser vibrometer using several impact methods in open air to determine which impact method would be most suitable for submerged testing. The structure was then submerged in transmission fluid with an accelerometer attached and subsequently tested and compared to the previous results.
Technical Paper

Friction between Piston and Cylinder of an IC Engine: a Review

2011-04-12
2011-01-1405
Engine friction serves as an important domain for study and research in the field of internal combustion engines. Research shows that friction between the piston and cylinder accounts for almost 20% of the losses in an engine and therefore any effort to minimize friction losses will have an immediate impact on engine efficiency and thus vehicle fuel economy. The two most common methods to experimentally measure engine friction are the floating liner method and the instantaneous indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) method. This paper provides a detailed review of the IMEP method, presents major findings, and discusses sources of error. Although the instantaneous IMEP method is relatively new compared to the floating liner method, it has been used by many scientists and engineers for calculating piston ring assembly friction with consistent results.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Knock Detection Model for Spark Ignited Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1421
This paper presents the development of a Stochastic Knock Detection (SKD) method for combustion knock detection in a spark-ignition engine using a model based design approach. The SKD set consists of a Knock Signal Simulator (KSS) as the plant model for the engine and a Knock Detection Module (KDM). The KSS as the plant model for the engine generates cycle-to-cycle accelerometer knock intensities following a stochastic approach with intensities that are generated using a Monte Carlo method from a lognormal distribution whose parameters have been predetermined from engine tests and dependent upon spark-timing, engine speed and load. The lognormal distribution has been shown to be a good approximation to the distribution of measured knock intensities over a range of engine conditions and spark-timings for multiple engines in previous studies.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Autoignition of Gasoline-Ethanol/Air Mixtures under Different Conditions of Pressure, Temperature, Dilution, and Equivalence Ratio.

2011-04-12
2011-01-0341
A numerical simulation of autoignition of gasoline-ethanol/air mixtures has been performed using the closed homogeneous reactor model in CHEMKIN® to compute the dependence of autoignition time with ethanol concentration, pressure, temperature, dilution, and equivalence ratio. A semi-detailed validated chemical kinetic model with 142 species and 672 reactions for a gasoline surrogate fuel with ethanol has been used. The pure components in the surrogate fuel consisted of n-heptane, isooctane and toluene. The ethanol volume fraction is varied between 0 to 85%, initial pressure is varied between 20 to 60 bar, initial temperature is varied between 800 to 1200K, and the dilution is varied between 0 to 32% at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 to represent the in-cylinder conditions of a spark-ignition engine. The ignition time is taken to be the point where the rate of change of temperature with respect to time is the largest (temperature inflection point criteria).
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