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Technical Paper

Development and Application of an Objective Metric for Transient Engine Clatter Noise

2019-06-05
2019-01-1519
Several powertrain noise phenomena have been studied over the years. Sound quality metrics, like loudness, sharpness, modulation, and tonality, among others, have been developed to characterize powertrain noises. While these readily available metrics work well on steady state and some transient noises, they do not correlate directly with subjective impressions. Moreover, it is difficult to assign a meaningful single rating for time varying noises that may also be associated with simultaneous variations in frequency content. This paper summarizes the process of creating a vehicle level objective metric and its application to blind noise samples to verify correlation with subjective impressions, particularly in association with clatter noise at moderate engine speeds (2000-3500 rpm) with light to moderate throttle tip-ins.
Technical Paper

Use of Active Vibration Control to Improve Vehicle Refinement while Expanding the Usable Range of Cylinder Deactivation

2019-06-05
2019-01-1571
Cylinder deactivation has been in use for several years resulting in a sizable fuel economy advantage for V8-powered vehicles. The size of the fuel-economy benefit, compared to the full potential possible, is often limited due to the amount of usable torque available in four-cylinder-mode being capped by Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) sensitivities of various rear-wheel-drive vehicle architectures. This paper describes the application and optimization of active vibration absorbers as a system to attenuate vibration through several paths from the powertrain-driveline into the car body. The use of this strategy for attenuating vibration at strategic points is shown to diminish the need for reducing the powertrain source amplitude. This paper describes the process by which the strategic application of these devices is developed in order to achieve the increased usage of the most fuel efficient reduced-cylinder-count engine-operating-points.
Technical Paper

New Method for Decoupling the Powertrain Roll Mode to Improve Idle Vibration

2019-06-05
2019-01-1588
Modern engines have high torque outputs and have low RPM due to increased demand for fuel efficiency. Vibrations caused by such engines have to be mitigated. Decoupling the roll mode from the remaining five rigid body modes results in a response which is predominantly about the torque roll axis (TRA) and helps reduce vibrations. Therefore, placing the mounts on the TRA early in the design phase is crucial. Best NVH performance can be obtained by optimizing the powertrain mount parameters viz; Position, Orientation and Stiffness. Many times, packaging restricts the mounts to be placed about the TRA resulting in degradation in NVH performance. Assuming that the line through the engine mount (Body side) centers is the desired TRA, we propose a novel method of shifting the TRA by adding mass modifying the powertrain inertia such that the new TRA is parallel to and on top to the desired TRA. This in turn will decouple the roll mode and reduce vibrations.
Technical Paper

Impinged Diesel Spray Combustion Evaluation for Indirect Air-Fuel Mixing Processes and Its Comparison with Non-Vaporing Impinging Spray Under Diesel Engine Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0267
Under low-temperature combustion for the high fuel efficiency and low emissions achievement, the fuel impingement often occurs in diesel engines with direct injection especially for a short distance between the injector and piston head/cylinder wall. Spray impingement plays an important role in the mixing-controlled combustion phase since it affects the air-fuel mixing rate through the disrupted event by the impingement. However, the degree of air entrainment into the spray is hard to be directly evaluated. Since the high spray expansion rate could allow more opportunity for fuel to mix with air, in this study, the expansion rate of impinged flame is quantified and compared with the spray expansion rate under non-vaporizing conditions. The experiments were conducted in a constant volume combustion chamber with an ambient density of 22.8 kg/m3 and the injection pressure of 150 MPa.
Technical Paper

Influence of Elevated Injector Temperature on the Spray Characteristics of GDI Sprays

2019-04-02
2019-01-0268
When fuel at elevated temperatures is injected into an ambient environment at a pressure lower than the saturation pressure of the fuel, the fuel vaporizes in the nozzle and/or immediately upon exiting the nozzle; that is, it undergoes flash boiling. It is characterized by a two-phase flow regime co-located with primary breakup, which significantly affects the spray characteristics. Under flash boiling conditions, the near nozzle spray angle increases, which can lead to shorter penetration because of increased entrainment. In a multi-hole injector this can cause other impacts downstream resulting from the increased plume to plume interactions. To study the effect of injector temperature and injection pressure with real fuels, an experimental investigation of the spray characteristics of a summer grade gasoline fuel with 10% ethanol (E10) was conducted in an optically accessible constant volume spray vessel.
Technical Paper

Notch Plasticity and Fatigue Modelling of AZ31B-H24 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

2019-04-02
2019-01-0530
Vehicle weight reduction through the use of components made of magnesium alloys is an effective way to reduce carbon dioxide emission and improve fuel economy. In the design of these components, which are mostly under cyclic loading, notches are inevitably present. In this study, surface strain distribution and crack initiation sites in the notch region of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy notched specimens under uniaxial load are measured via digital image correlation. Predicted strains from finite element analysis using Abaqus and LS-DYNA material types 124 and 233 are then compared against the experimental measurements during quasi-static and cyclic loading. It is concluded that MAT_233, when calibrated using cyclic tensile and compressive stress-strain curves, is capable of predicting strain at the notch root. Finally, employing Smith-Watson-Topper model together with MAT_233 results, fatigue lives of the notched specimens are estimated and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Route-Optimized Energy Management of Connected and Automated Multi-Mode Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Dynamic Programming

2019-04-02
2019-01-1209
This paper presents a methodology to optimize the blending of charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes in a multi-mode plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that reduces overall energy consumption when the selected route cannot be completely driven in all-electric mode. The PHEV used in this investigation is the second-generation Chevrolet Volt and as many as four instrumented vehicles were utilized simultaneously on road to acquire validation data. The optimization method used is dynamic programming (DP) paired with a reduced-order powertrain model to enable onboard embedded controller compatibility and computational efficiency in optimally blending CD, CS modes over the entire drive route.
Technical Paper

Efficiency Evaluation of Lower Viscosity ATF in a Planetary Automatic Transmission for Improved Fuel Economy

2019-04-02
2019-01-1296
With continued industry focus on reducing parasitic transmission and driveline losses, detailed studies are required to quantify potential enablers to improve vehicle fuel economy. Investigations were undertaken to understand the influence of lower viscosity Automatic Transmission Fluids (ATF) on transmission efficiency as compared with conventional fluids. The objectives of this study were to quantify the losses of lower viscosity ATF as compared with conventional ATF, and to understand the influence of ATF properties including viscosities, base oil types, and additive packages on fuel efficiency. The transmission efficiency investigations were conducted on a test bench following a vehicle-based break-in of the transmission using a prescribed drive cycle on a chassis dynamometer. At low temperature, the lower viscosity ATF showed a clear advantage over the conventional ATF in both spin loss and loaded efficiency evaluations.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Low Mileage GPF Filtration and Regeneration as Influenced by Soot Morphology, Reactivity, and GPF Loading

2019-04-02
2019-01-0975
As European and Chinese tailpipe emission regulations for gasoline light-duty vehicles impose particulate number limits, automotive manufacturers have begun equipping some vehicles with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Increased understanding of how soot morphology, reactivity, and GPF loading affect GPF filtration and regeneration characteristics is necessary for advancing GPF performance. This study investigates the impacts of morphology, reactivity, and filter soot loading on GPF filtration and regeneration. Soot morphology and reactivity are varied through changes in fuel injection parameters, known to affect soot formation conditions. Changes in morphology and reactivity are confirmed through analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) respectively.
Technical Paper

Process for Study of Micro-pilot Diesel-NG Dual Fuel Combustion in a Constant Volume Combustion Vessel Utilizing the Premixed Pre-burn Procedure

2019-04-02
2019-01-1160
A constant volume spray and combustion vessel utilizing the pre-burn mixture procedure to generate pressure, temperature, and composition characteristic of near top dead center (TDC) conditions in compression ignition (CI) engines was modified with post pre-burn gas induction to incorporate premixed methane gas prior to diesel injection to simulate processes in dual fuel engines. Two variants of the methane induction system were developed and studied. The first used a high-flow modified direct injection injector and the second utilized auxiliary ports in the vessel that are used for normal intake and exhaust events. Flow, mixing, and limitations of the induction systems were studied. As a result of this study, the high-flow modified direct injection injector was selected because of its controlled actuation and rapid closure. Further studies of the induction system post pre-burn were conducted to determine the temperature limit of the methane auto-ignition.
Technical Paper

Spray-Wall Dynamics of High-Pressure Impinging Combustion

2019-01-15
2019-01-0067
The fuel spray impingement on the piston head and/or chamber often occurs in compact IC engines. The impingement plays one of the key roles in combustion because it affects the air-fuel mixing process. In this study, the impinged combustion has been experimentally investigated to understand the mechanism and dynamics of flame-wall interaction. The experiments were performed in a constant volume combustion chamber over a wide range of ambient conditions. The ambient temperature was varied from 800 K to 1000 K and ambient gas oxygen was varied from 15% to 21%. Diesel fuel was injected with an injection pressure of 150 MPa into ambient gas at a density of 22.8 kg/m3. The natural luminosity technique was applied in the experiments to explore the impinged combustion process. High-speed images were taken using a high-speed camera from two different views (bottom and side). An in-house Matlab program was used to post-process the images.
Technical Paper

Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)

2018-05-30
2018-37-0026
The key hurdles to achieving wide consumer acceptance of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are weather-dependent drive range, higher cost, and limited battery life. These translate into a strong need to reduce a significant energy drain and resulting drive range loss due to auxiliary electrical loads the predominant of which is the cabin thermal management load. Studies have shown that thermal sub-system loads can reduce the drive range by as much as 45% under ambient temperatures below −10 °C. Often, cabin heating relies purely on positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistive heating, contributing to a significant range loss. Reducing this range loss may improve consumer acceptance of BEVs. The authors present a unified thermal management system (UTEMPRA) that satisfies diverse thermal and design needs of the auxiliary loads in BEVs.
Technical Paper

Novel Approach to Integration of Turbocompounding, Electrification and Supercharging Through Use of Planetary Gear System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0887
Technologies that provide potential for significant improvements in engine efficiency include, engine downsizing/downspeeding (enabled by advanced boosting systems such as an electrically driven compressor), waste heat recovery through turbocompounding or organic Rankine cycle and 48 V mild hybridization. FEV’s Integrated Turbocompounding/Waste Heat Recovery (WHR), Electrification and Supercharging (FEV-ITES) is a novel approach for integration of these technologies in a single unit. This approach provides a reduced cost, reduced space claim and an increase in engine efficiency, when compared to the independent integration of each of these technologies. This approach is enabled through the application of a planetary gear system. Specifically, a secondary compressor is connected to the ring gear, a turbocompounding turbine or organic Rankine cycle (ORC) expander is connected to the sun gear, and an electric motor/generator is connected to the carrier gear.
Technical Paper

Effect of State of Charge Constraints on Fuel Economy and Battery Aging when Using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-1002
Battery State of Charge (SOC) constraints are used to prevent the battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) from over-charging or over-discharging. These constraints strongly influence the power-split of the HEV. This paper presents results on how Battery State of Charge (SOC) constraints effects Lithium ion battery aging and fuel economy when using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS). The vehicle studied is the Honda Civic Hybrid. The battery used is A123 Systems’ ANR26650 battery cell. Vehicle simulation uses multiple combinations of highway and city drive cycles. For each combination of drive cycles, nine SOC constraints ranges are used. Battery aging is evaluated using a semi-empirical model combined with the accumulated Ah-throughput method which uses, as an input, the battery SOC trajectory from the vehicle simulations. The simulation results provide insight into how SOC constraints effect fuel economy as well as battery aging.
Technical Paper

Automatic Calibrations Generation for Powertrain Controllers Using MapleSim

2018-04-03
2018-01-1458
Modern powertrains are highly complex systems whose development requires careful tuning of hundreds of parameters, called calibrations. These calibrations determine essential vehicle attributes such as performance, dynamics, fuel consumption, emissions, noise, vibrations, harshness, etc. This paper presents a methodology for automatic generation of calibrations for a powertrain-abstraction software module within the powertrain software of hybrid electric vehicles. This module hides the underlying powertrain architecture from the remaining powertrain software. The module encodes the powertrain’s torque-speed equations as calibrations. The methodology commences with modeling the powertrain in MapleSim, a multi-domain modeling and simulation tool. Then, the underlying mathematical representation of the modeled powertrain is generated from the MapleSim model using Maple, MapleSim’s symbolic engine.
Technical Paper

eFlite Dedicated Hybrid Transmission for Chrysler Pacifica

2018-04-03
2018-01-0396
Electrified powertrains will play a growing role in meeting global fuel consumption and CO2 requirements. In support of this, FCA US has developed its first dedicated hybrid transmission (the eFlite® transmission), used in the Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid. The Chrysler Pacifica is the industry’s first electrified minivan. [2] The new eFlite hybrid transmission architecture optimizes performance, fuel economy, mass, packaging and NVH. The transmission is an electrically variable FWD transaxle with an input split configuration and incorporates two electric motors, both capable of driving in EV mode. The lubrication and cooling system makes use of two pumps, one electrically operated and one mechanically driven. The Chrysler Pacifica has a 16kWh lithium ion battery and a 3.6-liter Pentastar® engine which offers total system power of 260 hp with 84 MPGe, 33 miles of all electric range and 566 miles total driving range. [2] This paper’s focus is on the eFlite transmission.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Combustion Knock Distribution in a Boosted Methane-Gasoline Blended Fueled SI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0215
The characteristics of combustion knock metrics over a number of engine cycles can be an essential reference for knock detection and control in internal combustion engines. In a Spark-Ignition (SI) engine, the stochastic nature of combustion knock has been shown to follow a log-normal distribution. However, this has been derived from experiments done with gasoline only and applicability of log-normal distribution to dual-fuel combustion knock has not been explored. To evaluate the effectiveness and accuracy of log-normal distributed knock model for methane-gasoline blended fuel, a sweep of methane-gasoline blend ratio was conducted at two different engine speeds. Experimental investigation was conducted on a single cylinder prototype SI engine equipped with two fuel systems: a direct injection (DI) system for gasoline and a port fuel injection (PFI) system for methane.
Technical Paper

Development of a Transient Spray Cone Angle Correlation for CFD Simulations at Diesel Engine Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0304
The accurate modeling of fuel spray behavior under diesel engine conditions requires well-characterized boundary conditions. Among those conditions, the spray cone angle is important due to its impact on the spray mixing process, flame lift-off locations and subsequent soot formation. The spray cone angle is a highly dynamic variable, but existing correlations have been developed mainly for diesel fuels at quasi-steady state and relatively low injection pressures. The objective of this study was to develop spray cone angle correlations for both diesel and a light-end gasoline fuel over a wide range of diesel-engine operating conditions that are capable of capturing both the transient and quasi-steady state processes. Two important macroscopic characteristics of solid cone sprays, the spray cone angle and spray penetration, were measured using a single-hole heavy-duty injector using two fuels at diesel engine conditions in an optical constant volume vessel.
Technical Paper

A Physics Based Thermal Management Model for PHEV Battery Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0080
The demand for vehicles with electrified powertrain systems is increasing due to government regulations on fuel economy. The battery systems in a PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid-electric Vehicle) have achieved tremendous efficiency over past few years. The system has become more delicate and complex in architecture which requires sophisticated thermal management. Primary reason behind this is to ensure effective cooling of the cells. Hence the current work has emphasized on developing a “Physics based” thermal management modeling framework for a typical battery system. In this work the thermal energy conservation has been analyzed thoroughly in order to develop necessary governing equations for the system. Since cooling is merely a complex process in HEV battery systems, the underlying mechanics has been investigated using the current model. The framework was kept generic so that it can be applied with various architectures. In this paper the process has been standardized in this context.
Technical Paper

Torsional Vibration Analysis of Six Speed MT Transmission and Driveline from Road to Lab

2017-06-05
2017-01-1845
When a manual transmission (MT) powertrain is subjected to high speeds and high torques, the vehicle driveshaft, and other components experience an increase in stored potential energy. When the engine and driveshaft are decoupled during an up or down shift, the potential energy is released causing clunk during the shift event. The customer desires a smooth shift thus reduction of clunk will improve experience and satisfaction. In this study, a six-speed MT, rear-wheel-drive (RWD) passenger vehicle was used to experimentally capture acoustic and vibration data during the clunk event. To replicate the in-situ results, additional data was collected and analyzed for powertrain component roll and pitch. A lumped parameter model of key powertrain components was created to replicate the clunk event and correlate with test data. The lumped parameter model was used to modify clutch tip-out parameters, which resulted in reduced prop shaft oscillations.
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