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Technical Paper

Gradationally Controlled Voltage Inverter for More Electric Aircrafts

The more electric aircraft (MEA) concept has been attracting attention over recent decades to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. In MEAs, many subsystems that previously used hydraulic or pneumatic power have been replaced by electrical systems, and hence the weight of inverters has significant importance. The weight of inverters is largely attributed to passive filters that reduce the derivative of output voltages dv/dt and electromagnetic interference noises caused by common-mode voltages. To reduce the size of passive filters, multilevel inverters with 5 or more voltage steps are preferred. However, classic multilevel inverters have some challenges to achieve these step numbers without using plural dc power supplies that require massive transformers. In this work, a gradationally controlled voltage (GCV) inverter is proposed for MEAs.
Technical Paper

Development of Autonomous Driving System Using GNSS and High Definition Map

Recently, development of vehicle control system targeting Full Driving Automation (autonomous driving level 5) has advanced. Some applications of autonomous driving systems like the Lane Keeping Assist system (LKA) and Auto Lane Change system (ALC) (autonomous driving level 1-3) have been put on the market. However, the conventional system using information from front camera, it is difficult to operate in some situations. For example the road that no line, large curvature and number of lane increases or decreases. We propose an autonomous driving system using high accuracy vehicle position estimation technology and a high definition map. An LKA system calculates the target steering wheel angle based on both vehicle position information from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and the target lane of high the definition map, according to the method of front gaze driver model. Then, the system controls steering the wheel angle by Electric Power Steering (EPS).
Technical Paper

An Online Estimation Method of Stability Factor of a Vehicle for Steering

In this paper, we suggest a novel algorithm to distinguish semi-steady states from various steering patterns and to estimate the stability factor. The algorithm also estimates each stability factor in left and right turns because there could be a case where they differ based on uneven tire wear and so on. The stability factor, which is the turning characteristic of a vehicle, has been treated as constant for most vehicle control systems. However, in fact, it may change in some situations, for example when a vehicle is overloaded. So there is a chance that a driver may be aware of an unusual sensation when vehicle control is designed based on a constant stability factor. We have succeeded in developing an algorithm to estimate the stability factor accurately enough to be able to compensate for it and have confirmed the effectiveness of the algorithm by simulation and vehicle testing as well.
Technical Paper

A Vehicle State Detection Method Based on Estimated Aligning Torque Using EPS

This paper proposes a vehicle state detection method for improving the stability of vehicles equipped with electric power steering (EPS) and electronic stability control (ESC) systems. ESC is an effective vehicle stability control system that operates within a vehicle's stability limitations. Generally ESC uses a vehicle state signal such as yaw rate. To enhance the ESC function so that it can alleviate understeer, a process that is capable of detecting understeer is required. This concept motivated us to develop a vehicle state detection algorithm based on estimated self-aligning torque using EPS. It is well known that maximum self-aligning torque occurs before maximum cornering force is reached. We have confirmed that the proposed algorithm can detect understeer earlier than conventional means based on vehicle yaw rate.
Technical Paper

A New Electric Current Control Strategy for EPS Motors

This paper presents a new motor current control strategy for Electric Power Steering (EPS) to reduce current fluctuation. Such current fluctuation may cause undesirable steering torque ripple and acoustic noise, if an inexpensive microprocessor is used. Using a DC-motor, current fluctuation associated with change in the battery voltage, etc., may occur. We have developed a new current control strategy which effectively alleviates current fluctuations of the motor without using higher performance microprocessors. The new controller is based on the estimation of disturbance voltage and compensation for this disturbance voltage. We have bench-tested the performance of this control strategy and confirmed that current fluctuation is reduced below that using conventional PI controller. The PI gain for the proposed controller is the same as that for the conventional controller.
Technical Paper

Development of Recognition System for ICC using Sensitive Laser Radar

In JAPAN some ICCs (Intelligent Cruise Control systems) with recognition systems using Laser Radar have been produced since 1995. However these recognition systems have some improvement challenges; 1) Improvement of detectability for less reflective objects, 2) Improvement of identification performance of a vehicle to be tracked in the same lane (a target vehicle), 3) Improvement of detection performance under bad weather condition. We are developing a New Recognition System using sensitive Laser Radar with APD (Avalanche Photo Diode) as a solution for these challenges. In this paper, we will describe our experimental system using sensitive Laser Radar, especially, algorithm for target vehicle recognition and its performance.
Technical Paper

Development of a Scan Laser Radar

This paper is concerned with a scan laser radar sensor used to measure distance. It s a basic component of a vehicle distance warning system or an intelligent cruise control system. An intelligent cruise control system requires not only the distance to the object, but also the ability to detect movement of the preceding vehicle and the existence of any other nearby obstacle. However conventional radar sensor mainly fixed beam technology and measure only distance. Therefore, it s insufficient for the application to an intelligent cruise control system. Our newly developed scan laser radar transmits an extreme narrow beam and scans both transmission direction and reception direction simultaneously at a high measurement time rate. This scan laser radar can measure the lateral position of objects with high accuracy and good reconstruction level.
Technical Paper

A Study of an Electronically Controlled CVT with Electromagnetic-Clutch for Starting the Vehicle

In this paper, an application of variable structure systems (VSS)(1) to electromagnetic-clutch (EMC) control for starting vehicles is studied. Using a conventional open-loop controller, there is the case that changes in EMC dynamics lead to undesirable vehicle vibration though it may be rare. First, to overcome the above problem, we developed a control strategy based on VSS. The VSS control is robust with respect to changes in EMC dynamics. Second, we discussed the chattering problem of this controller in application to actual vehicle control. Finally, we confirmed the validity of the proposed control strategy and the appropriateness of the conditions for reduced chattering derived by simulation. The validity of this control strategy was also confirmed experimentally.
Technical Paper

A Robust Cruise Control System Using the Disturbance Observer

A robust cruise control system using a disturbance observer is proposed. A control design method based on the two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) control including a disturbance observer is introduced. The proposed controller provides that: (1) input command responses are not affected by driving condition, such as vehicle speed, and road gradient (2) input command response and disturbance suppression performance can be designed independently (3) choice of an appropriate parameter value in the disturbance observer depending on the throttle opening gives a proper trade-off between the robust performance and the robust stability over a wide driving range. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed system is robust against both parameter variations and disturbances.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Control Systems that Improve Three Way Catalyst Conversion Efficiency

A fuel control method to reduce the harmful exhaust gas from SI engines is proposed. As is well known, both the amplitude and the frequency of the limit cycle in a conventional air-fuel ratio control system are determined uniquely by parameters in the system. And this limits our making full use of the oxygen storage effect of TWC. A simple model of TWC reaction revealed the relationship between maximum conversion efficiency and both the amplitude and the frequency in a air fuel control system. It also revealed that TWC conversion efficiency attained to maximum levels when both the amplitude and the frequency of the limit cycle are selected so as to make full use of the oxygen storage effect of TWC. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to vary both the amplitude and the frequency arbitrarily.
Technical Paper

Active Control for Body Vibration of F.W.D. Car

A Vehicle Vibration Control System by Active Control has been developed. The experimental results using a 4-cylinder gasoline engine installed in a car showed that at the position of the driver's seat, the acceleration of the vibration was reduced by 16 dB. This system operates stably and at low cost because of having a feedforward system, so many applications can be expected in the near future as methods for vehicle vibration reduction.
Technical Paper

Multi-Function Cassette Player for Vehicle Use

Compact cassette type tape players for car stereo are among the most popular of car audio equipment. To eliminate manual tape change at the end of each playing, a multi-function cassette player for vehicle use which can replace the cassette automatically has been made for trial. With some original mechanical functions and with two micro computers in the control system, the cassette player is made up into a very small unit. As audio equipment for vehicle use, this player offers a new concept.