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Technical Paper

A Study of Friction Reduction by ‘Soft Skirt’ Piston

2011-08-30
2011-01-2120
To reduce friction is required to improve engine fuel economy. This study aimed to reduce piston skirt friction, which is a major factor in engine friction. ‘Soft skirt’ is a trendy item in recent gasoline engines, which can improve skirt sliding condition by larger deformation when the piston is pressed to the liner. The effect is confirmed by friction measurement and oil film observation, using prototype pistons. And also one major factor of the effect is clarified that not only side force but also cylinder pressure causes effective deformation of the skirt to create thick oil film at early combustion stroke.
Technical Paper

Interior Noise evaluation of Electric Vehicle: Noise source contribution analysis

2011-05-17
2011-39-7229
Global environment protection, Co2 emission reduction and so on, is an important problem in automotive industry. An Electric Vehicle (EV) production is one of policies. Co2 emission of EV is lower than Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), petrol and diesel engine. On the other hand, customer's needs for the comfort on driving increase year after year. So it's an important factor for new car performance. Generally speaking, it's thought that the noise and vibration performance of EV have the better of ICE performance. However the aerodynamic noise and road noise contribution for interior noise in EV rise in comparison with ICE, and moreover the sound quality change by new noise component of the motor noise. Therefore new sound evaluation method is needed for EV. So this paper demonstrates each noise component contribution in EV by new noise separation technology, and show the comparison result with EV and ICE.
Journal Article

Keys to Understanding Spray-guided Combustion of a Narrow-spacing Gasoline Direct Injection SI Engine with a Centrally Mounted Multi-hole Injector

2009-04-20
2009-01-1497
Spray-guided gasoline direct injection SI engines attract as one of new generation lean-burn engines to promise CO2 reduction. These typically adopt “narrow-spacing” concept in which an injector is centrally mounted close to a spark plug. Therefore, geometric targets of the fuel spray and a position of the spark plug have to be exactly limited to maintain a proper mixture in the spark gap. In addition, the stable combustion window is narrow because the spark ignition is limited in a short time during and immediately after the injection. These spatial and temporal restrictions involve some intractable problems concerning the combustion robustness due to the complicate phenomena around the spark plug. The local mixture preparation near the spark plug significantly depends on the spray-induced charge motion. The intense flow induced by the motion blows out and stretches the spark, thereby affecting the spark discharge performance.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Two-stage Hybrid Combustion in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0113
Two-stage hybrid combustion for a 6-stroke gasoline direct injection SI engine is a new strategy to control the ignition of the HCCI combustion using hot-burned gas from the stratified lean SI combustion. This combustion is achieved by changing the camshafts, the cam-driven gear ratio and the engine control of a conventional 4-stroke gasoline direct injection engine without using a higher compression ratio, any fuel additives and induction air heating devices. The combustion processes are performed twice in one cycle. After the gas exchange process, the stratified ultra-lean SI combustion is performed. The hot-burned gas generated from this SI combustion is used as a trigger for the next HCCI combustion. After gasoline is injected in the burned gas, the hot and homogeneous lean mixture is recompressed without opening the exhaust valves. Thus the HCCI combustion occurs.
Technical Paper

Mixing Control and Combustion in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-0550
A two-stage combustion is one of the Mitsubishi GDI™ technologies for a quick catalyst warm-up on a cold-start. However, when the combustion is continued for a long time, an increase in the fuel consumption is a considerable problem. To solve the problem, a stratified slight-lean combustion is newly introduced for utilization of catalysis. The stratified mixture with slightly lean overall air-fuel ratio is prepared by the late stage injection during the compression stroke. By optimizing an interval between the injection and the spark timing, the combustion simultaneously supplies substantial CO and surplus O2 to a catalyst while avoiding the soot generation and the fouling of a spark plug. The CO oxidation on the catalyst is utilized to reduce the cold-start emissions. Immediately after the cold-start, the catalyst is preheated for the minimum time to start the CO oxidation by using the two-stage combustion. Following that, the stratified slight-lean combustion is performed.
Technical Paper

Idling Stop System Coupled with Quick Start Features of Gasoline Direct Injection

2001-03-05
2001-01-0545
The gasoline direct injection engine starts significantly faster than a conventional engine. Fuel can be injected into the cylinder during the compression stroke at the same time of cranking start. When the spark plug ignites the mixture at the end of compression stroke, the engine has its first combustion, that is, the first combustion occurs within 0.2 sec after the start of cranking. This unique characteristic of quick startability has realized a idle stop system, which enables drivers to operate the vehicle in a natural manner.
Technical Paper

A Keynote on Future Combustion Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-0248
A characteristic mechanism of in-cylinder combustion is “time-domain mixing” which mixes up unburned gas, products in the different stages of combustion process, and burned gas, by “eddy”, a flow component with its scales of several to 10 mm. It seems to play a role in completing the combustion. Now that direct injection is a central engine technology, a keyword to combustion control is “freedom of mixing”, that is, no restriction on mixture formation, realized by direct injection. Various kinds of combustion control technologies utilizing it, have been presented. After combustion control for a premixed leanburn gasoline engine, and a direct injection gasoline engine, was achieved by turbulence control, and mixing control, respectively, the next target of combustion control will be ignition control. It will be possible, by controlling some boundary condition on combustion and fuel chemistry. Time-domain mixing and freedom of mixing will support it.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Emission-Control Technologies for Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-0254
An extensive effort has been made, at Mitsubishi Motors, in the technology field of new catalysts and of the catalyst reaction control for the purpose of further improvement of the emission control with the GDI engines [1-2]. A new NOx-trap catalyst has been developed to satisfy the required higher catalyst performance under high-temperature condition. The new catalyst contains potassium (K) of excellent NOx-storage capacity under high-temperature region in the catalytic atmosphere, and to retain K stability zeolite is mixed in the catalyst layer as well as the substrate is coated with silica (SiO2). This new catalyst has been proven of the improved NOx conversion efficiency, and solved the long-pending problems particularly those experienced under high-temperature operation.
Technical Paper

Development of the NOx Adsorber Catalyst for Use with High-Temperature Condition

2001-03-05
2001-01-1298
NOx adsorber has already been used for the after-treatment system of series production vehicle installed with a lean burn or direct injection engine [1,2,3]. In order to improve NOx adsorbability at high temperatures, many researchers have recently been trying an addition of potassium (K) as well as other conventional NOx adsorbents. Potassium, however, reacts easily with the cordierite honeycomb substrate at high temperatures, and not only causes a loss in NOx adsorbability but also damages the substrate. Three new technologies have been proposed in consideration of the above circumstances. First, a new concept of K-capture is applied in washcoat design, mixed with zeolite, to improve thermal stability of K and to keep high NOx conversion efficiency, under high temperatures, of NOx adsorber catalyst. Second, another new technology, pre-coating silica over the boundary of a substrate and washcoat, is proposed to prevent the reaction between potassium and cordierite.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Oil to Extend Oil Drain Intervals: 5W30 Fully Synthetic Oil Containing MoDTC

2000-06-19
2000-01-1992
In this study, the oxidation stability, soot dispersancy, antiwear performance, and friction-reducing capability of friction modifiers (FMs) were evaluated, and an SAE 5W-30 fully synthetic oil with MoDTC type FMs was developed for heavy-duty diesel engines. In several engine tests, it was confirmed that the developed oil can double the oil drain interval in comparison with API CD SAE 30, even when EGR is applied, and improves the fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

New Quiescent Combustion System for Heavy–Duty Diesel Engines to Overcome Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption Trade–Off

2000-06-19
2000-01-1811
In the next few years, the USA, EU, and Japan plan to introduce very stringent exhaust emissions regulations for heavy–duty diesel engines, in order to enhance the protection air quality. This builds upon the heavy–duty diesel engine exhaust emissions regulations already in effect. At the same time, improvement in fuel consumption of heavy–duty diesel engines will be very important for lowering vehicle operating costs, conserving fossil fuel resources, and reduction of CO2 (greenhouse gas) levels. This paper presents a detailed review of a quiescent combustion system for a heavy–duty diesel engine, which offers breakthrough performance in terms of the exhaust emissions – fuel consumption trade–off, compared with the more conventional swirl supported combustion system. This conclusion is supported by experimental results comparing quiescent and swirl supported versions of various combustion system configurations.
Technical Paper

Innovative injection rate control with next-generation, common-rail fuel injection system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0061
Injection rate control is an important capability of the ideal injection system of the future. However, in a conventional Common-Rail System (CRS) the injection pressure is constant throughout the injection period, resulting in a nearly rectangular injection rate shape and offering no control of the injection rate. Thus, in order to realize injection rate control with a CRS, a "Next- generation Common-Rail System (NCRS)" was conceptualized, designed, and fabricated. The NCRS has two common rails, for low- and high-pressure fuel, and switches the fuel pressure supplied to the injector from the low- to the high- pressure rail during the injection period, resulting in control over the injection rate shape. The effects of injection rate shape on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption were investigated by applying this NCRS to a single- cylinder research engine.
Technical Paper

New Mitsubishi L4 5-Liter DI Diesel Engine

1998-11-16
982800
The 4M5 series of four-cylinder, in-line, direct-injection diesel engines has been released by Mitsubishi Motors Corporation for light and medium-duty trucks and buses. Featuring an updated structure and reflecting the employment of state-of-the-art technology in the design of every component, the new engine series offers high reliability and compact dimensions. Moreover, the new series well meets contemporary demands for high performance, low noise, and clean combustion.
Technical Paper

Optimized Gasoline Direct Injection Engine for the European Market

1998-02-23
980150
GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engine adopting new combustion control technologies was developed and introduced into Japanese domestic market in August of 1996. In order to extend its application to the European market, various system modifications have been performed. Injectors are located with a smaller angle to the vertical line in order to improve the combustion stability in the higher speed range. A new combustion control method named “two-stage mixing” is adopted to suppress the knock in the low speed range. As a result of this new method, the compression ratio was increased up to 12.5 to 1 while increasing the low-end torque significantly. Taking the high sulfur gasoline in the European market into account, a selective reduction lean-NOx catalyst with improved NOx conversion efficiency was employed. A warm-up catalyst can not be used because the selective reduction lean NOx catalyst requires HC for the NOx reduction.
Technical Paper

Mixing Control Strategy for Engine Performance Improvement in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

1998-02-23
980158
Spray motion visualization, mixture strength measurement, flame spectral analyses and flame behavior observation were performed in order to elucidate the mixture preparation and the combustion processes in Mitsubishi GDI engine. The effects of in-cylinder flow called reverse tumble on the charge stratification were clarified. It preserves the mixture inside the spherical piston cavity, and extends the optimum injection timing range. Mixture strength at the spark plug and at the spark timing can be controlled by changing the injection timing. It was concluded that reverse tumble plays a significant role for extending the freedom of mixing. The characteristics of the stratified charge combustion were clarified through the flame radiation analyses. A first flame front with UV luminescence propagates rapidly and covers all over the combustion chamber at the early stage of combustion.
Technical Paper

EGR Technologies for a Turbocharged and Intercooled Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1997-02-24
970340
In this study three EGR methods were applied to a 12 liter turbocharged and intercooled Dl diesel engine, and the exhaust emission and fuel consumption characteristics were compared. One method is the Low Pressure Route system, in which the EGR is taken from down stream of the turbine to the compressor entrance. The other two systems are variations of the High Pressure Route system, in which the EGR is taken from the exhaust manifold to the intake manifold. One of the two High Pressure Route EGR systems is with back pressure valve located at downstream of the turbine and the other uses a variable geometry(VG) turbocharger. It was found that the High Pressure Route EGR system using VG turbocharger was the most effective and practical. With this method the EGR area could be enlarged and NOx reduced by 22% without increase in smoke or fuel consumption while maintaining an adequate excess air ratio.
Technical Paper

Development of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

1997-02-24
970541
The major problems of the various mixture formation concepts for direct injection gasoline engines that have been proposed up to the present were caused by the difficulties of preparing the mixture with adequate strength at spark plug in wide range of engine operating conditions. Novel combustion control technologies proposed by Mitsubishi is one of the solution for these problems. By adopting upright straight intake ports to generate air tumble, an electromagnetic swirl injector to realize optimized spray dispersion and atomization and a compact piston cavity to maintain charge stratification, it has become possible to achieve super-lean stratified combustion for higher thermal efficiency under partial loads as well as homogeneous combustion to realize higher performance at full loads. GDI™ (Gasoline Direct Injection) engine adopting these technologies is developed. At partial loads, fuel economy improvement exceeding 30 % is realized.
Technical Paper

Combustion Control Technologies for Direct Injection SI Engine

1996-02-01
960600
Novel combustion control technologies for the direct injection SI engine have been developed. By adopting up-right straight intake ports to generate air tumble, an electro-magnetic swirl injector to realize optimized spray dispersion and atomization and a compact piston cavity to maintain charge stratification, it has become possible to achieve super-lean stratified combustion for higher thermal efficiency under partial loads as well as homogeneous combustion to realize higher performance at full loads. At partial loads, fuel is injected into the piston cavity during the later stage of the compression stroke. Any fuel spray impinging on the cavity wall is directed to the spark plug. Tumbling air flow in the cavity also assists the conservation of the rich mixture zone around the spark plug. Stable combustion can be realized under a air fuel ratio exceeding 40. At higher loads, fuel is injected during the early stage of the intake stroke.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Durability of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

1995-11-01
952650
Diesel emission control is being addressed worldwide to help preserve the global environment. In 1994, emission controls in the U.S. called for reduction of diesel particulate matter (PM) to 10 to 20% of 1986's initial limit. In the same year, we developed and marketed small and medium duty trucks which were equipped with PM reduction systems that oxidize soluble organic fraction (SOF) contained in the PM, in order to satisfy these new regulations. Prior to their marketing, a catalyst was selected from among several types of candidate catalysts. Durability tests were performed using a catalytic converter-equipped small duty truck to verify the durability of the chosen catalyst. The durability test course was set up combining urban areas and expressways in the southern part of California, U.S.A.. The cumulative total distance covered on the test course reached 200,000 km. During the durability test, the catalyst was evaluated by measurement of PM emission using a chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Relationship Between MTBE-Blended Gasoline Properties and Warm-Up Driveability

1995-10-01
952519
The relationship between MTBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability is investigated by focusing on the transient combustion air-fuel ratio that strongly relates to the combustion state of the engine. As a result, although warm-up driveability of MTBE-free gasoline has a high correlation with 50% distillation temperature (T50) and a high correlation with 100°C distillation volume (E100), the correlation is found to be low when blended with MTBE. Various formulas that improve correlation with peak excess air ratio (λ) by correcting T50 and E100 for the amount of MTBE blended are examined. The formula for which the highest determination coefficient is obtained is proposed as a new driveability index (DI) that can also be applied to MTBE-blended gasoline. In addition, the effect on driveability by gasoline base materials using this new DI also is investigated.
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