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Technical Paper

A Study of Friction Reduction by ‘Soft Skirt’ Piston

2011-08-30
2011-01-2120
To reduce friction is required to improve engine fuel economy. This study aimed to reduce piston skirt friction, which is a major factor in engine friction. ‘Soft skirt’ is a trendy item in recent gasoline engines, which can improve skirt sliding condition by larger deformation when the piston is pressed to the liner. The effect is confirmed by friction measurement and oil film observation, using prototype pistons. And also one major factor of the effect is clarified that not only side force but also cylinder pressure causes effective deformation of the skirt to create thick oil film at early combustion stroke.
Technical Paper

Interior Noise evaluation of Electric Vehicle: Noise source contribution analysis

2011-05-17
2011-39-7229
Global environment protection, Co2 emission reduction and so on, is an important problem in automotive industry. An Electric Vehicle (EV) production is one of policies. Co2 emission of EV is lower than Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), petrol and diesel engine. On the other hand, customer's needs for the comfort on driving increase year after year. So it's an important factor for new car performance. Generally speaking, it's thought that the noise and vibration performance of EV have the better of ICE performance. However the aerodynamic noise and road noise contribution for interior noise in EV rise in comparison with ICE, and moreover the sound quality change by new noise component of the motor noise. Therefore new sound evaluation method is needed for EV. So this paper demonstrates each noise component contribution in EV by new noise separation technology, and show the comparison result with EV and ICE.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Model Selection and Reduction for Real Time Control Algorithm Design and Verification in Rapid Controller Prototyping Environment

2010-04-12
2010-01-0236
New systems or functionalities have been rapidly introduced for fuel economy improvement. Active vibration suppression has also been introduced. Control algorithm is required to be verified in real time environment to develop controller functionality in a short term. Required frequency domain property concept is proposed for representation of target phenomena with reduced models. It is shown how to select or reduce engine, transmission and vehicle model based on the concept. Engine torque profile which has harmonics of engine rotation is required for engine start, take-off from stand still, noise & vibration suppression and misfire detection for OBD simulation. An engine model which generates torque profile synchronous to crank angle was introduced and modified for real time simulation environment where load changes dynamically. Selected models and control algorithms were modified for real time environment and implemented into two linked universal controllers.
Journal Article

Keys to Understanding Spray-guided Combustion of a Narrow-spacing Gasoline Direct Injection SI Engine with a Centrally Mounted Multi-hole Injector

2009-04-20
2009-01-1497
Spray-guided gasoline direct injection SI engines attract as one of new generation lean-burn engines to promise CO2 reduction. These typically adopt “narrow-spacing” concept in which an injector is centrally mounted close to a spark plug. Therefore, geometric targets of the fuel spray and a position of the spark plug have to be exactly limited to maintain a proper mixture in the spark gap. In addition, the stable combustion window is narrow because the spark ignition is limited in a short time during and immediately after the injection. These spatial and temporal restrictions involve some intractable problems concerning the combustion robustness due to the complicate phenomena around the spark plug. The local mixture preparation near the spark plug significantly depends on the spray-induced charge motion. The intense flow induced by the motion blows out and stretches the spark, thereby affecting the spark discharge performance.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Two-stage Hybrid Combustion in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0113
Two-stage hybrid combustion for a 6-stroke gasoline direct injection SI engine is a new strategy to control the ignition of the HCCI combustion using hot-burned gas from the stratified lean SI combustion. This combustion is achieved by changing the camshafts, the cam-driven gear ratio and the engine control of a conventional 4-stroke gasoline direct injection engine without using a higher compression ratio, any fuel additives and induction air heating devices. The combustion processes are performed twice in one cycle. After the gas exchange process, the stratified ultra-lean SI combustion is performed. The hot-burned gas generated from this SI combustion is used as a trigger for the next HCCI combustion. After gasoline is injected in the burned gas, the hot and homogeneous lean mixture is recompressed without opening the exhaust valves. Thus the HCCI combustion occurs.
Technical Paper

Mixing Control and Combustion in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-0550
A two-stage combustion is one of the Mitsubishi GDI™ technologies for a quick catalyst warm-up on a cold-start. However, when the combustion is continued for a long time, an increase in the fuel consumption is a considerable problem. To solve the problem, a stratified slight-lean combustion is newly introduced for utilization of catalysis. The stratified mixture with slightly lean overall air-fuel ratio is prepared by the late stage injection during the compression stroke. By optimizing an interval between the injection and the spark timing, the combustion simultaneously supplies substantial CO and surplus O2 to a catalyst while avoiding the soot generation and the fouling of a spark plug. The CO oxidation on the catalyst is utilized to reduce the cold-start emissions. Immediately after the cold-start, the catalyst is preheated for the minimum time to start the CO oxidation by using the two-stage combustion. Following that, the stratified slight-lean combustion is performed.
Technical Paper

Idling Stop System Coupled with Quick Start Features of Gasoline Direct Injection

2001-03-05
2001-01-0545
The gasoline direct injection engine starts significantly faster than a conventional engine. Fuel can be injected into the cylinder during the compression stroke at the same time of cranking start. When the spark plug ignites the mixture at the end of compression stroke, the engine has its first combustion, that is, the first combustion occurs within 0.2 sec after the start of cranking. This unique characteristic of quick startability has realized a idle stop system, which enables drivers to operate the vehicle in a natural manner.
Technical Paper

A Keynote on Future Combustion Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-0248
A characteristic mechanism of in-cylinder combustion is “time-domain mixing” which mixes up unburned gas, products in the different stages of combustion process, and burned gas, by “eddy”, a flow component with its scales of several to 10 mm. It seems to play a role in completing the combustion. Now that direct injection is a central engine technology, a keyword to combustion control is “freedom of mixing”, that is, no restriction on mixture formation, realized by direct injection. Various kinds of combustion control technologies utilizing it, have been presented. After combustion control for a premixed leanburn gasoline engine, and a direct injection gasoline engine, was achieved by turbulence control, and mixing control, respectively, the next target of combustion control will be ignition control. It will be possible, by controlling some boundary condition on combustion and fuel chemistry. Time-domain mixing and freedom of mixing will support it.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Emission-Control Technologies for Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-0254
An extensive effort has been made, at Mitsubishi Motors, in the technology field of new catalysts and of the catalyst reaction control for the purpose of further improvement of the emission control with the GDI engines [1-2]. A new NOx-trap catalyst has been developed to satisfy the required higher catalyst performance under high-temperature condition. The new catalyst contains potassium (K) of excellent NOx-storage capacity under high-temperature region in the catalytic atmosphere, and to retain K stability zeolite is mixed in the catalyst layer as well as the substrate is coated with silica (SiO2). This new catalyst has been proven of the improved NOx conversion efficiency, and solved the long-pending problems particularly those experienced under high-temperature operation.
Technical Paper

Development of the NOx Adsorber Catalyst for Use with High-Temperature Condition

2001-03-05
2001-01-1298
NOx adsorber has already been used for the after-treatment system of series production vehicle installed with a lean burn or direct injection engine [1,2,3]. In order to improve NOx adsorbability at high temperatures, many researchers have recently been trying an addition of potassium (K) as well as other conventional NOx adsorbents. Potassium, however, reacts easily with the cordierite honeycomb substrate at high temperatures, and not only causes a loss in NOx adsorbability but also damages the substrate. Three new technologies have been proposed in consideration of the above circumstances. First, a new concept of K-capture is applied in washcoat design, mixed with zeolite, to improve thermal stability of K and to keep high NOx conversion efficiency, under high temperatures, of NOx adsorber catalyst. Second, another new technology, pre-coating silica over the boundary of a substrate and washcoat, is proposed to prevent the reaction between potassium and cordierite.
Technical Paper

New Quiescent Combustion System for Heavy–Duty Diesel Engines to Overcome Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption Trade–Off

2000-06-19
2000-01-1811
In the next few years, the USA, EU, and Japan plan to introduce very stringent exhaust emissions regulations for heavy–duty diesel engines, in order to enhance the protection air quality. This builds upon the heavy–duty diesel engine exhaust emissions regulations already in effect. At the same time, improvement in fuel consumption of heavy–duty diesel engines will be very important for lowering vehicle operating costs, conserving fossil fuel resources, and reduction of CO2 (greenhouse gas) levels. This paper presents a detailed review of a quiescent combustion system for a heavy–duty diesel engine, which offers breakthrough performance in terms of the exhaust emissions – fuel consumption trade–off, compared with the more conventional swirl supported combustion system. This conclusion is supported by experimental results comparing quiescent and swirl supported versions of various combustion system configurations.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Oil to Extend Oil Drain Intervals: 5W30 Fully Synthetic Oil Containing MoDTC

2000-06-19
2000-01-1992
In this study, the oxidation stability, soot dispersancy, antiwear performance, and friction-reducing capability of friction modifiers (FMs) were evaluated, and an SAE 5W-30 fully synthetic oil with MoDTC type FMs was developed for heavy-duty diesel engines. In several engine tests, it was confirmed that the developed oil can double the oil drain interval in comparison with API CD SAE 30, even when EGR is applied, and improves the fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Computational design of commercial vehicle for reconciling aerodynamics and engine cooling performance

2000-06-12
2000-05-0344
As the global environmental protection becomes the world consensus recently, the regulations of the fuel consumption and the exhaust gas have large effects on the performance and the fundamental structure of commercial vehicles. Especially the technology concerning "fluid" and "heat" has a close relationship with those issues. Owing to above circumstances, commercial vehicles such as large trucks and buses are forced to be designed near the limit of allowance. Furthermore, a rapid design is another requirement. However, though significant number of variations, i.e., cab configuration, wheel base, rear body configuration, engine specification, etc., are prepared, it is impossible to improve the performance of all those combinations by experiments which cost a lot. Accordingly, the quantitative prediction using computer will become indispensable at the beginning term of new car development.
Technical Paper

Booming noise analysis of passenger car using integrated approach of CAT/CAE

2000-06-12
2000-05-0293
The need of lightweight vehicle design is motivated by the recent global trend of less fuel consumption and lower emission in vehicle. However in NVH development of vehicle, it becomes more difficult for the lightweight vehicle to reach low vibro-acoustic sensitivity than, for the heavy weight one to do so. Inthis environment, this paper describes about the practical finite element (FE) modeling of vehicle structure and acoustics, in order to predict "boom" response to powertrain excitation. The FE modeling process through validation and updating with experimental mode makes, the accumulation of considerable expertise for improving prediction accuracy, possible. FE analysis based on this modeling process is so useful for predicting "boom" levels up to 200 Hz. Using the result of FE analysis, structural optimization is executed in order to improve "boom" level of 80 Hz.
Technical Paper

Innovative injection rate control with next-generation, common-rail fuel injection system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0061
Injection rate control is an important capability of the ideal injection system of the future. However, in a conventional Common-Rail System (CRS) the injection pressure is constant throughout the injection period, resulting in a nearly rectangular injection rate shape and offering no control of the injection rate. Thus, in order to realize injection rate control with a CRS, a "Next- generation Common-Rail System (NCRS)" was conceptualized, designed, and fabricated. The NCRS has two common rails, for low- and high-pressure fuel, and switches the fuel pressure supplied to the injector from the low- to the high- pressure rail during the injection period, resulting in control over the injection rate shape. The effects of injection rate shape on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption were investigated by applying this NCRS to a single- cylinder research engine.
Technical Paper

New Mitsubishi L4 5-Liter DI Diesel Engine

1998-11-16
982800
The 4M5 series of four-cylinder, in-line, direct-injection diesel engines has been released by Mitsubishi Motors Corporation for light and medium-duty trucks and buses. Featuring an updated structure and reflecting the employment of state-of-the-art technology in the design of every component, the new engine series offers high reliability and compact dimensions. Moreover, the new series well meets contemporary demands for high performance, low noise, and clean combustion.
Technical Paper

Optimized Gasoline Direct Injection Engine for the European Market

1998-02-23
980150
GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engine adopting new combustion control technologies was developed and introduced into Japanese domestic market in August of 1996. In order to extend its application to the European market, various system modifications have been performed. Injectors are located with a smaller angle to the vertical line in order to improve the combustion stability in the higher speed range. A new combustion control method named “two-stage mixing” is adopted to suppress the knock in the low speed range. As a result of this new method, the compression ratio was increased up to 12.5 to 1 while increasing the low-end torque significantly. Taking the high sulfur gasoline in the European market into account, a selective reduction lean-NOx catalyst with improved NOx conversion efficiency was employed. A warm-up catalyst can not be used because the selective reduction lean NOx catalyst requires HC for the NOx reduction.
Technical Paper

Mixing Control Strategy for Engine Performance Improvement in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

1998-02-23
980158
Spray motion visualization, mixture strength measurement, flame spectral analyses and flame behavior observation were performed in order to elucidate the mixture preparation and the combustion processes in Mitsubishi GDI engine. The effects of in-cylinder flow called reverse tumble on the charge stratification were clarified. It preserves the mixture inside the spherical piston cavity, and extends the optimum injection timing range. Mixture strength at the spark plug and at the spark timing can be controlled by changing the injection timing. It was concluded that reverse tumble plays a significant role for extending the freedom of mixing. The characteristics of the stratified charge combustion were clarified through the flame radiation analyses. A first flame front with UV luminescence propagates rapidly and covers all over the combustion chamber at the early stage of combustion.
Technical Paper

Common Rail Fuel Injection System for Improvement of Engine Performance on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

1998-02-23
980806
With the intention of improving engine performance and emissions, the authors examined the influence of the method of initial fuel injection quantity reduction and of the injector configuration of a common rail fuel injection system on engine performance and exhaust emissions. Results showed that decreasing the nozzle hole diameter was an effective way to reduce the initial injection quantity without increasing black smoke. Compared to a three-way type injector, it was found that a two-way type injector can greatly reduce the amount of fuel leakage from the electromagnetic injector control valve and fuel consumption could be further improved by reduction of the driving loss. Furthermore, the increase of driving losses with higher injection pressure was small, and as a result, higher pressure injection was possible.
Technical Paper

New Mitsubishi V8 19-Liter Turbocharged and Intercooled Diesel Engine

1997-05-01
971673
Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) has developed a new V configured 8 cylinder turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine (8M22T1) for the heavy-duty truck market. The engine is one of the first in its class to feature a common rail fuel injection system. This advanced engine management system was selected to meet the challenges of ever tightening emission regulation, specifically in the areas of smoke and noise. The 8M22T1 embodies a number of design innovations which have resulted in significant improvements in performance, fuel economy, durability and reliability.
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