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An Experimental Study on Relationship between Lubricating Oil Consumption and Cylinder Bore Deformation in Conventional Gasoline Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0195
It is well known that lubricating oil consumption (LOC) is much affected by the cylinder bore deformation occurring within internal combustion engines. There are few analytical reports, however, of this relationship within internal combustion engines in operation. This study was aimed at clarifying the relationship between cylinder bore deformation and LOC, using a conventional in-line four-cylinder gasoline engine. The rotary piston method developed by the author et al. was used to measure the cylinder bore deformation of the engine’s cylinder #3 and cylinder #4. In addition, the sulfur tracer method was applied to measure LOC of each cylinder. LOC was also measured by changing ring tension with a view to taking up for discussion how piston ring conforms to cylinder, and how such conformability affects LOC. Their measured results were such that the cylinder bore deformation was small in the low engine load area and large in the high engine load area.
Technical Paper

Part 2: The Effects of Lubricating Oil Film Thickness Distribution on Gasoline Engine Piston Friction

2007-04-16
2007-01-1247
Due to increasing economic and environmental performance requirements of internal combustion engines, piston manufacturers now focus more on lower friction designs. One factor strongly influencing the friction behavior of pistons is the dynamic interaction between lubricating oil, cylinder bore and piston. Therefore, the dynamic effect of the oil film in the gap between the liner and piston has been studied, using a single cylinder engine equipped with a sapphire window. This single cylinder engine was also equipped with a floating liner, enabling real-time friction measurement, and directly linking the oil film behavior to friction performance of pistons.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Characteristics of Hydrogen and Hydrogen-rich Natural Gas Reformate Supported by DME Supplement

2006-04-03
2006-01-0628
Hydrogen is expected to be a clean and energy-efficient fuel for the next generation of power sources because it is CO2-free and has excellent combustion characteristics. In this study, an attempt was made to apply Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion to hydrogen with the aim of achieving low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions and high fuel economy with the assistance of the di-methyl-ether (DME) fuel supplement. As a result, HCCI combustion of hydrogen mixed with 25 vol% DME achieved approximately a 30% improvement in fuel economy compared with HCCI of pure DME and spark-ignited lean-burn combustion of pure hydrogen under almost zero NOx emissions and low hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. This is attributed to control of the combustion process to attain the optimum onset of combustion and to a reduction of cooling losses.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Cooling Loss in Hydrogen Combustion by Direct Injection Stratified Charge

2003-10-27
2003-01-3094
Hydrogen can be readily used in spark-ignition engines as a clean alternative to fossil fuels. However, a larger burning velocity and a shorter quenching distance for hydrogen as compared with hydrocarbons bring a larger cooling loss from burning gas to the combustion-chamber wall. Because of the large cooling loss, the thermal efficiency of a hydrogen-fueled engine is sometimes lower than that of a conventionally fueled engine. Therefore, the reduction of the cooling loss is very important for improving the thermal efficiency in hydrogen-combustion engines. On the other hand, the direct-injection stratified charge can suppress knocking in spark-ignition engines at near stoichiometric overall mixture conditions. Because this is attributed to a leaner end gas, the stratification can lead to a lowered temperature of burning gas around the wall and a reduced cooling loss.
Technical Paper

Development of a Technique to Predict Oil Consumption with Consideration for Cylinder Deformation - Prediction of Ring Oil Film Thickness and Amount of Oil Passing Across Running Surface under Cylinder Deformation -

2003-03-03
2003-01-0982
Although various factors affecting oil consumption of an internal combustion engine can be considered, a technique to predict the amount of oil consumed within a cylinder that passes across a running surface of a ring was developed in this study. In order to predict the effect of cylinder deformation on oil consumption, a simple and easy technique to calculate the oil film thickness in deformed cylinder was proposed. For this technique, the piston ring was assumed to be a straight beam, and the beam bends with ring tension, gas pressure, and oil film pressure. From the calculated oil film thickness, amount of oil passing across the running surface of the TOP ring and into the combustion chamber was calculated. The calculated results were then compared to the oil film thickness of the ring and oil consumption measured during engine operation, and their validity was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Simulator: Design and Application to Plasma Discharge Testing

2003-03-03
2003-01-1184
A diesel fuel and air diffusion flame burner system has been designed for laboratory simulation of diesel exhaust gas. The system consists of mass flow controllers and a fuel pump, and employs several unique design and construction features. It produces particulate emissions with size, number distribution, and morphology similar to diesel exhaust. At the same time, it generates NOx emissions and HC similar to diesel. The system has been applied to test plasma discharges. Different design discharge devices have been tested, with results indicating the importance of testing devices with soot and moisture. Both packed bed reactor and flat plate dielectric barrier discharge systems remove some soot from the gas, but the designs tested are susceptible to soot fouling and related electrical failures. The burner is simple and stable, and is suitable for development and aging of plasma and catalysts systems in the laboratory environment.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Degree of Constant Volume and Cooling Loss in a Hydrogen Fuelled SI Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3561
This study analyzes the factors influencing the thermal efficiency of a homogeneous charge spark-injection (SI) engine fuelled with hydrogen, focusing on the degree of constant volume and cooling loss. The cooling loss from the burning gas to the cylinder walls is quantitatively evaluated by analyzing the cylinder pressure diagram and exhaust gas composition. The degree of constant volume burning and constant volume cooling are also obtained by fitting the Wiebe function to the rate of heat release calculated using the cylinder pressure diagram. A comparison of combustion and cooling characteristics of hydrogen and methane combustion reveals that cooling loss in hydrogen combustion is higher than that of methane combustion due to the short quenching distance and rapid burning velocity during hydrogen combustion. It is also suggested that the high cooling loss observed during hydrogen combustion reduces thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Characteristics of Premixed Compression Ignition Combustions

2001-05-07
2001-01-1891
Thermodynamic characteristics of premixed compression ignition combustions were clarified quantitatively by heat balance estimation. Heat balance was calculated from temperature, mole fractions of intake and exhaust gases, mass and properties of fuels. Heat balance estimation was conducted for three types of combustion; a conventional diesel combustion, a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion; fuel is provided and mixed with air in an intake pipe in this case, and an extremely early injection type PREmixed lean DIesel Combustion (PREDIC). The results show that EGR should be applied for premixed compression ignition combustion to complete combustion at lower load conditions and to control ignition timing at higher load conditions. With an application of EGR, both HCCI and PREDIC showed low heat loss characteristics at lower load conditions up to 1/2 load.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of H2-CO-CO2 Mixture in an IC Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0252
Reformed fuel from hydrocarbons or alcohol mainly consists of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The composition of the reformed fuel can be varied to some extent with a combination of a thermal decomposition reaction and a water gas shift reaction. Methanol is known to decompose at a relatively low temperature. An application of the methanol reforming system to an internal combustion engine enables an exhaust heat recovery to increase the heating value of the reformed fuel. This research analyzed characteristics of combustion, exhaust emissions and cooling loss in an internal combustion engine fueled with several composition of model gases for methanol reformed fuels which consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Experiments were made with both a bottom view type optical access single cylinder research engine and a constant volume combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

A Study of Heat Rejection and Combustion Characteristics of a Low-temperature and Pre-mixed Combustion Concept Based on Measurement of Instantaneous Heat Flux in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

2000-10-16
2000-01-2792
There have been strong demands recently for reductions in the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of diesel engines from the standpoints of conserving energy and curbing global warming. A great deal of research is being done on new emission control technologies using direct-injection (DI) diesel engines that provide high thermal efficiency. This work includes dramatic improvements in the combustion process. The authors have developed a new combustion concept called Modulated Kinetics (MK), which reduces smoke and NOx levels simultaneously by reconciling low-temperature combustion with pre-mixed combustion [1, 2]. At present, research is under way on the second generation of MK combustion with the aim of improving emission performance further and achieving higher thermal efficiency [3]. Reducing heat rejection in the combustion chamber is effective in improving the thermal efficiency of DI diesel engines as well as that of MK combustion.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Instantaneous Heat Flux Flowing Into Metallic and Ceramic Combustion Chamber Walls

2000-06-19
2000-01-1815
Accurate measurements of combustion gas temperature and the coefficient of heat transfer between the gas and the combustion chamber wall of internal combustion engine in cyclic operations are difficult at present. Hence the only method available for determination of states of thermal load and heat loss to the combustion chamber wall in a cycle is to measure the instantaneous temperature on the combustion chamber wall surface accurately and precisely using proper thin-film thermocouples, then to calculate the instantanenous heat flux flowing into the wall surface by means of numerical analysis. However, it is necessary to pay adequate attention to the effects of thermophysical properties of the thermocouple materials on the measured values, since any thermocouple consists of several kinds of materials which are different from those of portions to be measured.
Technical Paper

A Study of Abnormal Wear in Power Cylinder of Diesel Engine with EGR - Wear Mechanism of Soot Contaminated in Lubricating Oil

2000-03-06
2000-01-0925
Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) causes the piston ring and cylinder liners of a diesel engine to suffer abnormal wear. The present study aimed at making clear the mechanism of wear which is induced by soot in the EGR gas. The piston ring has been chrome plated and the cylinder was made of boron steadite cast iron. Detailed observations of the ring sliding surfaces and that of the wear debris contained in lubricating oil were carried out. As a result, it was found that the wear of the top ring sliding surfaces identify abrasive wear without respect to the presence of EGR by steadite on the cylinder liner sliding surface. In addition, it is confirmed in a cutting test that soot mixed lubricating oil improved in performance as cutting oil. Based on these results, we proposed the hypothesis in the present study that ring wear is accelerated at EGR because abrasive wear increases due to a lot of soot mixed into lubricating oil improving the performance of lubricating oil as cutting oil.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of a Hydrogen-Fueled Engine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2000-03-06
2000-01-0993
Hybrid electric vehicle with internal combustion engine fueled with hydrogen can be a competitor to the fuel cell electric vehicle that is thought to be the ultimately clean and efficient vehicle. The objective in this research is to pursue higher thermal efficiency and lower exhaust emissions in a hydrogen-fueled engine for the series type hybrid vehicle system. Influences of compression ratio, surface / volume ratio of combustion chamber, and boost pressure on thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions were analyzed. Results showed that reduction of the surface / volume ratio by increased cylinder bore was effective to improve indicated thermal efficiency, and it was possible to achieve 44% of indicated thermal efficiency. However, brake thermal efficiency resulted in 35.5%. It is considered that an improved mechanical efficiency by an optimized engine design could increase the brake thermal efficiency largely.
Technical Paper

New Combustion Concept for Ultra-Clean and High-Efficiency Small DI Diesel Engines

1999-10-25
1999-01-3681
Nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions of diesel vehicles are regarded as a source of air pollution, and there is a global trend to enforce more stringent regulations on these exhaust gas constituents in the early years of the 21st century. On the other hand, the excellent thermal efficiency of diesel engines is certainly a welcome attribute from the standpoints of conserving energy and curbing global warming. Recently, many research institutes around the world have been using high-efficiency direct-injection (DI) diesel engines to research emission control technologies. The authors have also been engaged in such research [1,2]. As a result of this work, we have developed a new combustion concept, called Modulated Kinetics (MK), that reduces NOx and smoke simultaneously due to low-temperature and premixed combustion characteristics, respectively, without increasing fuel consumption [3,4].
Technical Paper

Variation of Piston Friction Force and Ring Lubricating Condition in a Diesel Engine with EGR

1998-10-19
982660
Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) causes the piston rings and cylinder liners of a Diesel engine to suffer abnormal wear on the sliding parts. The present study aimed at making clear such abnormal wear structurally by examining the state of lubrication of the piston with a floating liner method, observing directly a visualized cylinder and experimenting on a Diesel engine for wear. As a result, it was confirmed that soot in EGR gas would change a lot the characteristics of the piston friction force. There are two mechanisms: one directly enters the sliding surfaces, and the other enters the ring rear, applying more load to them. It was also confirmed that the level of wear on the piston ring would vary to a large extent as the state of lubrication changed.
Technical Paper

Variation of Piston Ring Oil Film Thickness in an Internal Combustion Engine - Comparison Between Thrust and Anti-Thrust Sides

1998-02-23
980563
This paper describes a measurement method using laser induced fluorescence we have developed for simple simultaneous measurements of piston ring oil film thickness at plural points for internal combustion engines. The findings obtained by the measurements of oil film thickness on both thrust and anti-thrust sides of the piston for a mono-cylinder compact diesel engine using this new measurement method are also discussed in this paper. One of main findings is that the oil film thickness of each ring on both sides differs markedly in terms of the absolute value and the stroke- to-stroke variation. It is found that this difference in oil film thickness is caused by the difference in the amount of lubricating oil supplied to the oil ring, and the effect is greater than that of engine speed or load.
Technical Paper

Friction and Lubrication Characteristics of Piston Pin Boss Bearings of an Automotive Engine

1997-02-24
970840
The aim of this research was to analyze the lubrication conditions of piston pin boss bearings used in the press-fit piston pins of automobile gasoline engines. An original pin boss friction measuring device was developed and used to successfully obtain measurements. It was revealed that the friction force peaks twice every cycle at high engine loads, and non-fluid lubrication characteristics are displayed. The friction forces for various differing piston pins and pin boss bearings were analyzed, and it was shown that reducing piston pin length or thickness to reduce piston weight, or reducing the pin boss bearing clearance to reduce noise worsen the friction characteristics and increase the possibility of abnormal bearing friction as well as seizure.
Technical Paper

Study on Mechanism of Backfire in Hydrogen Engines

1994-10-01
942035
In this study, the cause of backfire concerning an external mixture formation type hydrogen engine was clarified. It has been known that the maximum output power of the external mixture formation type hydrogen engine should be kept significantly low, because of backfire. Generally, the backfire of this type of hydrogen engine is caused by pre-ignition. In this type of hydrogen engine, pre-ignition occurred for a range of lean mixture. Under this study, therefore, the relationship between the occurrence of backfire and the temperature at the tip of the spark plug electrode, and the detection of the luminescence spectrum of the flame near the spark plug were examined and studied in relation to the spark plug ignition theory which appeared to be promising. Then the pre-ignition timing and location were studied by detecting the flame luminescence spectrum.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Jet on Mixture Formation in a High-Pressure Injection Hydrogen Fueled Engine with Spark Ignition

1993-08-01
931811
In order to establish hydrogen engines for practical use, it is important to overcome difficulties caused by unique characteristics of hydrogen fuel. A hydrogen engine with direct injection right before top dead center(TDC) and spark ignition has advantages such as prevention of abnormal combustion and realization of high power output near the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, in comparison with an engine with external mixture. On the other hand, it has been pointed out that ignition and combustion for this type of hydrogen engines should be improved and that further studies on mixture formation of air and injected hydrogen are necessary for the improvement. For the direct injection hydrogen engine, mixture is formed both by air flow inside the combustion chamber and by injected hydrogen jet.
Technical Paper

Low NOx Emission Automobile Liquid Hydrogen Engine by Means of Dual Mixture Formation

1993-03-01
930757
According to authors' previous research, high pressure hydrogen engines with direct injection right before TDC and spark ignition obtain high performance and eliminate almost. abnormal combustion. This study has clarified the mooted points in the flame propagation to adjacent jets and the control of the optimum spark timing and large NOx emissions even in leaner than excess air ratio of λ=2. Nitric oxides (NOx) is the only the pollutant in the exhaust gases emitted by hydrogen engines. It has been found that the NOx formation largely depends on the mixture formation method. In order to operate the engine in a small amount of NOx, an experimental study was carried out to investigate the reduction of NOx and the output power by using dual mixture formation method, external mixture formation and direct injection.
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