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Journal Article

Summary and Progress of the Hydrogen ICE Truck Development Project

A development project for a hydrogen internal combustion engine (ICE) system for trucks supporting Japanese freightage has been promoted as a candidate for use in future vehicles that meet ultra-low emission and anti-global warming targets. This project aims to develop a hydrogen ICE truck that can handle the same freight as existing trucks. The core development technologies for this project are a direct-injection (DI) hydrogen ICE system and a liquid hydrogen tank system which has a liquid hydrogen pump built-in. In the first phase of the project, efforts were made to develop the DI hydrogen ICE system. Over the past three years, the following results have been obtained: A high-pressure hydrogen gas direct injector developed for this project was applied to a single-cylinder hydrogen ICE and the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) corresponding to a power output of 147 kW in a 6-cylinder hydrogen ICE was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Part 3: A Study of Friction and Lubrication Behavior for Gasoline Piston Skirt Profile Concepts

This paper deals with the friction performance results for various new concept piston skirt profiles. The program was conducted under the assumption that friction performance varies by the total amount of oil available at each crank angle in each stroke and the instantaneous distribution of the oil film over the piston skirt area. In previous papers [1,2] it was that lower friction designs would be expected to show higher skirt slap noise. This paper discusses the correlation between friction and skirt slap for each new concept profile design. Finally, this paper explains the friction reduction mechanism for the test samples for each stroke of the engine cycle by observing the skirt movement and oil lubrication pattern using a visualization engine.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on Relationship between Lubricating Oil Consumption and Cylinder Bore Deformation in Conventional Gasoline Engine

It is well known that lubricating oil consumption (LOC) is much affected by the cylinder bore deformation occurring within internal combustion engines. There are few analytical reports, however, of this relationship within internal combustion engines in operation. This study was aimed at clarifying the relationship between cylinder bore deformation and LOC, using a conventional in-line four-cylinder gasoline engine. The rotary piston method developed by the author et al. was used to measure the cylinder bore deformation of the engine’s cylinder #3 and cylinder #4. In addition, the sulfur tracer method was applied to measure LOC of each cylinder. LOC was also measured by changing ring tension with a view to taking up for discussion how piston ring conforms to cylinder, and how such conformability affects LOC. Their measured results were such that the cylinder bore deformation was small in the low engine load area and large in the high engine load area.
Technical Paper

Direct Heat Loss to Combustion Chamber Walls in a D.I. Diesel Engine-Development of Measurement Technique and Evaluation of Direct Heat Loss to Cylinder Liner Wall

The purpose of this study is to clarify the state of heat loss to the cylinder liner of the tested engine of which piston and cylinder head were previously measured. The authors' group developed an original measurement technique of instantaneous surface temperature at the cylinder liner wall using thin-film thermocouples. The temperature was measured at 36 points in total. The instantaneous heat flux was calculated by heat transfer analysis using measurement results of the temperature at the wall. As a result, the heat loss ratio to all combustion chamber walls is evaluated except the intake and exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Piston Skirt Oil-film Pressure under Piston Slap

Using small thin-film pressure sensors deposited onto a piston skirt surface, oil-film pressure on the piston skirt surface is measured when piston slap noise is generated without affecting the surface geometry, stiffness and mass of the piston. Under a no-load firing engine condition and at low temperature, the measured oil-film pressure corresponded well to the measured acceleration of the cylinder liner, which is indicative of piston slap noise, confirming the validity of the present method. Moreover, the oil-film pressure distribution on the skirt surface was measured for different engine speeds and piston pin offsets, which enabled more insight to be provided into piston secondary motion than that by considering the effects of cylinder liner acceleration.
Technical Paper

Part 2: The Effects of Lubricating Oil Film Thickness Distribution on Gasoline Engine Piston Friction

Due to increasing economic and environmental performance requirements of internal combustion engines, piston manufacturers now focus more on lower friction designs. One factor strongly influencing the friction behavior of pistons is the dynamic interaction between lubricating oil, cylinder bore and piston. Therefore, the dynamic effect of the oil film in the gap between the liner and piston has been studied, using a single cylinder engine equipped with a sapphire window. This single cylinder engine was also equipped with a floating liner, enabling real-time friction measurement, and directly linking the oil film behavior to friction performance of pistons.
Technical Paper

Part 1: Piston Friction and Noise Study of Three Different Piston Architectures for an Automotive Gasoline Engine

The objective was to rank piston friction and noise for three piston architectures at three cold clearance conditions. Piston secondary motion was measured using four gap sensors mounted on each piston skirt to better understand the friction and noise results. One noticeable difference in friction performance from conventional designs was as engine speed increased the friction force during the expansion stroke decreased. This was accompanied by relatively small increases in friction force during the other strokes so Friction Mean Effective Pressure (FMEP) for the whole cycle was reduced. Taguchi's Design of Experiment method was used to analyze the variances in friction and noise.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Characteristics of Hydrogen and Hydrogen-rich Natural Gas Reformate Supported by DME Supplement

Hydrogen is expected to be a clean and energy-efficient fuel for the next generation of power sources because it is CO2-free and has excellent combustion characteristics. In this study, an attempt was made to apply Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion to hydrogen with the aim of achieving low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions and high fuel economy with the assistance of the di-methyl-ether (DME) fuel supplement. As a result, HCCI combustion of hydrogen mixed with 25 vol% DME achieved approximately a 30% improvement in fuel economy compared with HCCI of pure DME and spark-ignited lean-burn combustion of pure hydrogen under almost zero NOx emissions and low hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. This is attributed to control of the combustion process to attain the optimum onset of combustion and to a reduction of cooling losses.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Electrode Poisoning by Carbon Monoxide and/or Hydrogen Sulfide in the Anode Feed of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells as Analyzed by AC Impedance Spectroscopy

The results of this study make clear the characteristics of electrode performance deterioration in terms of cell voltage reduction in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) caused by the presence of certain quantities of carbon monoxide and/or hydrogen sulfide in the anode feed. AC impedance measurements of the anode and cathode potentials revealed that both electrode potentials showed deterioration in the presence of each type of poisoning gas. This suggests that the poisoning gases permeated the electrolyte membrane and transferred to the cathode, causing performance deterioration by poisoning the catalyst. In addition, AC impedance measurements indicated that the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the anode feed increased the membrane impedance, thus implying some poisoning effect even on the electrolyte membrane.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Piston Lubrication in a Diesel Engine By Means of Cylinder Surface Roughness

Aiming at the improvement in piston lubrication and the reduction of piston friction loss under this study, piston friction forces of cylinders with different surface roughness and treatment methods have been measured by means of a floating liner method, and the piston surface conditions have been also observed. As a result, it is found that the piston lubrication can be markedly improved by reducing the cylinder surface roughness. It is also verified that the deterioration in lubrication can be reduced even if some low viscosity oil is used, and the effect on the friction loss reduction becomes greater by reducing the piston surface roughness. On the other hand, it is found that many small vertical flaws are generated on the cylinder surface by reducing the surface roughness. In order to cope with this problem, etching and DLC (Diamond Like Carbon) coating have been tested as the surface treatments. As a result, it is confirmed that DLC coating is effective for the above.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Cooling Loss in Hydrogen Combustion by Direct Injection Stratified Charge

Hydrogen can be readily used in spark-ignition engines as a clean alternative to fossil fuels. However, a larger burning velocity and a shorter quenching distance for hydrogen as compared with hydrocarbons bring a larger cooling loss from burning gas to the combustion-chamber wall. Because of the large cooling loss, the thermal efficiency of a hydrogen-fueled engine is sometimes lower than that of a conventionally fueled engine. Therefore, the reduction of the cooling loss is very important for improving the thermal efficiency in hydrogen-combustion engines. On the other hand, the direct-injection stratified charge can suppress knocking in spark-ignition engines at near stoichiometric overall mixture conditions. Because this is attributed to a leaner end gas, the stratification can lead to a lowered temperature of burning gas around the wall and a reduced cooling loss.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Simulator: Design and Application to Plasma Discharge Testing

A diesel fuel and air diffusion flame burner system has been designed for laboratory simulation of diesel exhaust gas. The system consists of mass flow controllers and a fuel pump, and employs several unique design and construction features. It produces particulate emissions with size, number distribution, and morphology similar to diesel exhaust. At the same time, it generates NOx emissions and HC similar to diesel. The system has been applied to test plasma discharges. Different design discharge devices have been tested, with results indicating the importance of testing devices with soot and moisture. Both packed bed reactor and flat plate dielectric barrier discharge systems remove some soot from the gas, but the designs tested are susceptible to soot fouling and related electrical failures. The burner is simple and stable, and is suitable for development and aging of plasma and catalysts systems in the laboratory environment.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Crank Ratio and Crankshaft Offset on Piston Friction Losses

A study was conducted to understand the effects the specifications of the crank-slider mechanism have on piston friction losses. The information obtained through the study is believed to be useful information for reducing the piston friction. A single-cylinder spark-ignited gasoline engine was designed and constructed to have not only a real-time piston friction measurement system using the floating liner method, but also provisions to facilitate changing the specifications of the crank-slider mechanism. This paper describes the study results obtained under various engine-operating conditions and reports the parametric test results of three crank ratios and five crankshaft-offset amounts tested.
Technical Paper

Development of a Technique to Predict Oil Consumption with Consideration for Cylinder Deformation - Prediction of Ring Oil Film Thickness and Amount of Oil Passing Across Running Surface under Cylinder Deformation -

Although various factors affecting oil consumption of an internal combustion engine can be considered, a technique to predict the amount of oil consumed within a cylinder that passes across a running surface of a ring was developed in this study. In order to predict the effect of cylinder deformation on oil consumption, a simple and easy technique to calculate the oil film thickness in deformed cylinder was proposed. For this technique, the piston ring was assumed to be a straight beam, and the beam bends with ring tension, gas pressure, and oil film pressure. From the calculated oil film thickness, amount of oil passing across the running surface of the TOP ring and into the combustion chamber was calculated. The calculated results were then compared to the oil film thickness of the ring and oil consumption measured during engine operation, and their validity was confirmed.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on Phenomena of Piston Ring Collapse

This study has been conducted aiming at an experimental verification of the ring collapse phenomena that occurs in a taper faced second ring of a direct fuel injection type truck diesel engine. The oil film thickness of the second ring, the ring axial motion and the inter-ring pressure have been measured under various operating conditions of engine. As a result, it is verified that the back pressure of the second ring becomes lower than the second land pressure, and that the second ring oil film becomes extremely thick temporarily where the second ring contacts with the ring groove upper surface. It is also verified that blow-by passes through the second ring where the oil film of the second ring becomes thick. Hence it is highly probable that the collapse of the second ring has occurred at that time.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Degree of Constant Volume and Cooling Loss in a Hydrogen Fuelled SI Engine

This study analyzes the factors influencing the thermal efficiency of a homogeneous charge spark-injection (SI) engine fuelled with hydrogen, focusing on the degree of constant volume and cooling loss. The cooling loss from the burning gas to the cylinder walls is quantitatively evaluated by analyzing the cylinder pressure diagram and exhaust gas composition. The degree of constant volume burning and constant volume cooling are also obtained by fitting the Wiebe function to the rate of heat release calculated using the cylinder pressure diagram. A comparison of combustion and cooling characteristics of hydrogen and methane combustion reveals that cooling loss in hydrogen combustion is higher than that of methane combustion due to the short quenching distance and rapid burning velocity during hydrogen combustion. It is also suggested that the high cooling loss observed during hydrogen combustion reduces thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Characteristics of Premixed Compression Ignition Combustions

Thermodynamic characteristics of premixed compression ignition combustions were clarified quantitatively by heat balance estimation. Heat balance was calculated from temperature, mole fractions of intake and exhaust gases, mass and properties of fuels. Heat balance estimation was conducted for three types of combustion; a conventional diesel combustion, a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion; fuel is provided and mixed with air in an intake pipe in this case, and an extremely early injection type PREmixed lean DIesel Combustion (PREDIC). The results show that EGR should be applied for premixed compression ignition combustion to complete combustion at lower load conditions and to control ignition timing at higher load conditions. With an application of EGR, both HCCI and PREDIC showed low heat loss characteristics at lower load conditions up to 1/2 load.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of H2-CO-CO2 Mixture in an IC Engine

Reformed fuel from hydrocarbons or alcohol mainly consists of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The composition of the reformed fuel can be varied to some extent with a combination of a thermal decomposition reaction and a water gas shift reaction. Methanol is known to decompose at a relatively low temperature. An application of the methanol reforming system to an internal combustion engine enables an exhaust heat recovery to increase the heating value of the reformed fuel. This research analyzed characteristics of combustion, exhaust emissions and cooling loss in an internal combustion engine fueled with several composition of model gases for methanol reformed fuels which consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Experiments were made with both a bottom view type optical access single cylinder research engine and a constant volume combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Effects of Lubricating Oil Supply on Reductions of Piston Slap Vibration and Piston Friction

This study has been conducted aiming at reductions of piston slap noise and piston friction loss, and effects of lubricating oil supply between the piston skirt and cylinder on diesel engine have been verified through a series of experiments. Namely, lubricating oil was supplied forcibly into the piston skirt from outside of engine, and its effects on the cylinder block vibration, piston friction force, slap motion and oil consumption have been measured. As a result, it has been verified that the supply of a small amount of oil (6mL/min) to the piston skirt reduces about 50 % of the block vibration caused by the piston slap motion in idling operation, and about 20 % of the piston friction loss in full load operation. Furthermore it has verified without giving any significant adverse effect on oil consumption.
Technical Paper

A Study of Heat Rejection and Combustion Characteristics of a Low-temperature and Pre-mixed Combustion Concept Based on Measurement of Instantaneous Heat Flux in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

There have been strong demands recently for reductions in the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of diesel engines from the standpoints of conserving energy and curbing global warming. A great deal of research is being done on new emission control technologies using direct-injection (DI) diesel engines that provide high thermal efficiency. This work includes dramatic improvements in the combustion process. The authors have developed a new combustion concept called Modulated Kinetics (MK), which reduces smoke and NOx levels simultaneously by reconciling low-temperature combustion with pre-mixed combustion [1, 2]. At present, research is under way on the second generation of MK combustion with the aim of improving emission performance further and achieving higher thermal efficiency [3]. Reducing heat rejection in the combustion chamber is effective in improving the thermal efficiency of DI diesel engines as well as that of MK combustion.