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Technical Paper

Simulation Evaluation of Transition and Hover Flying Qualities of a Mixed-Flow, Remote-Lift STOVL Aircraft

Using a generalized simulation model developed for piloted evaluations of short take-off/vertical landing aircraft, an initial fixed-base simulation of a mixed-flow, remote-lift configuration has been completed. Objectives of the simulation were to evaluate the integration of the aircraft's flight and propulsion controls to achieve good flying qualities throughout the low-speed flight envelope; to determine control power used during transition, hover, and vertical landing; and to evaluate the transition flight envelope considering the influence of thrust deflection of the remote-lift component. Pilots’ evaluations indicated that Level 1 flying qualities could be achieved for deceleration to hover in instrument conditions, for airfield landings, and for recovery to a small ship when attitude and velocity stabilization and command augmentation control modes were provided.
Technical Paper

DAWN (Design Assistant Workstation) for Advanced Physical-Chemical Life Support Systems

This paper reports the results of a project supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (NASA-OAST) under the Advanced Life Support Development Program. It is an initial attempt to integrate artificial intelligence techniques (via expert systems) with conventional quantitative modeling tools for advanced physical-chemical life support systems. The addition of artificial intelligence techniques will assist the designer in the definition and simulation of loosely/well-defined life support processes/problems as well as assist in the capture of design knowledge, both quantitative and qualitative. Expert system and conventional modeling tools are integrated to provide a design workstation that assists the engineer/scientist in creating, evaluating, documenting and optimizing physical-chemical life support systems for short-term and extended duration missions.
Technical Paper

Design Concepts for the Centrifuge Facility Life Sciences Glovebox

The Life Sciences Glovebox will provide the bioisolated environment to support on-orbit operations involving non-human live specimens and samples for human life sciences experiments. It will be part of the Centrifuge Facility, in which animal and plant specimens are housed in bioisolated Habitat modules and transported to the Glovebox as part of the experiment protocols supported by the crew. At the Glovebox, up to two crew members and two Habitat modules must be accommodated to provide flexibility and support optimal operations. This paper will present several innovative design concepts that attempt to satisfy the basic Glovebox requirements. These concepts were evaluated for ergonomics and ease of operations using computer modeling and full-scale mockups. The more promising ideas were presented to scientists and astronauts for their evaluation. Their comments, and the results from other evaluations are presented.
Technical Paper

Propulsion-Induced Effects Caused by Out-of- Ground Effects

Propulsion induced effects encountered by moderate- to high-disk loading STOVL or VSTOL aircraft out-of-ground effect during hover and transition between hover and wing-borne flight are discussed. Descriptions of the fluid flow phenomena are presented along with an indication of the trends obtained from experimental investigations. In particular, three problem areas are reviewed: 1) the performance losses sustained by a VSTOL aircraft hovering out-of-ground effect, 2) the induced aerodynamic effects encountered as a VSTOL aircraft flies on the combination of powered and aerodynamic lifts between hover and cruise out-of-ground effect, and 3) the aerodynamic characteristics caused by deflected thrust during maneuvering flight over a wide ranges of both angle of attack and Mach number.
Technical Paper

Takeoff Predictions for Powered-Lift Aircraft

Takeoff predictions for powered lift short takeoff (STO) aircraft have been added to NASA AMES Research Center's aircraft synthesis (ACSYNT) code. The new computer code predicts the aircraft engine and nozzle settings required to achieve the minimum takeoff roll. As a test case, it predicted takeoff ground rolls and nozzle settings for the YAV-8B Harrier that were close to the actual values. Analysis of takeoff performance for an ejector-augmentor design and a vectoring-nozzle design indicated that ground roll can be decreased, for either configuration, by horizontally moving the rear thrust vector closer to the center of gravity, by increasing the vertical position of the ram drag-vector, or by moving the rear thrust vector farther below the center of gravity.
Technical Paper

Development of a Water Recovery Subsystem Based on Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR)

An integrated engineering breadboard subsystem for the recovery of potable water from untreated urine was designed, fabricated and tested. It was fabricated from commercially available components without emphasis on weight, volume and power requirement optimization. Optimizing these parameters would make this process competitive with other spacecraft water recovery systems. Unlike other phase change systems, this process is based on the catalytic oxidation at elevated temperatures of ammonia and volatile hydrocarbons to innocuous products; therefore, no urine pretreatment is required. The testing program consisted of parametric tests, one month of daily tests, and a continuous run of 165 hours. The recovered water is low in ammonia, hydrocarbons and conductivity and requires only adjustment of its pH to meet drinking water standards.
Technical Paper

VTOL Controls for Shipboard Operations

Piloted, moving-base simulations have been performed in the evaluation of several VTOL control system concepts during landings on a destroyer in adverse weather conditions. All the systems incorporated attitude control augmentation; most systems incorporated various types of translational control augmentation implemented either through aircraft attitude or, more directly, through the propulsion system (thrust magnitude and deflection). Only one of the control systems failed to provide satisfactory handling qualities in calm seas. Acceptable handling qualities in sea state 6 seem to require a system with control augmentation in all translational degrees of freedom.
Technical Paper

Handling Qualities of Canards, Tandem Wings, and Other Unconventional Configurations

Over the years, a wide variety of aircraft configurations have been flown with varying degrees of success. A brief survey of the handling qualities of canard, tandem wing, and flying wing designs indicates that longitudinal stability and control, lateral/directional stability and control, and stall behavior of these concepts were important factors in achieving pilot acceptance.
Technical Paper

Optimal Turning Climb-Out and Descent of Commercial Jet Aircraft

Optimal turning climb-out and descent flight-paths from and to runway headings are derived to provide the missing elements of a complete flight-path optimization for minimum fuel consumption. The paths are derived by generating a field of extremals, using the necessary conditions of optimal control. Results show that the speed profiles for straight and turning flight are essentially identical, except for the final horizontal accelerating or decelerating turn. The optimal turns, which require no abrupt maneuvers, could easily be integrated with present climb-cruise-descent fuel-optimization algorithms.
Technical Paper

Integrated Panel and Skeleton Automotive Structural Optimization

Previous work in structural optimization for the automotive structure has been limited to beam models of the major load-carrying structure. This was primarily done to reduce the amount of computer resources required to minimize the mass. In this study, techniques necessary to include a moderately complex representation of the panels are developed in which some compromises between model fidelity and solution time must be accepted. As an example, plate elements have been included in a vehicle structural optimization model to represent the roof, floor, dash, motor compartment, and rear quarter. Minimum mass designs subjected to stress, displacement, and frequency constraints are obtained by structural optimization. It was found that most panels were at minimum gage in the optimum design. This suggests that these panels are designed by local criteria as opposed to being controlled by global load and stiffness criteria.