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Technical Paper

Influence of Freestream Temperature on Ice Accretion Roughness

The influence of freestream static temperature on roughness temporal evolution and spatial variation was investigated in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA Glenn Research Center. A 53.34 cm (21-in.) NACA 0012 airfoil model and a 152.4 cm (60-in.) HAARP-II business jet airfoil model were exposed to Appendix C clouds for fixed exposure times and thus fixed ice accumulation parameter. For the base conditions, the static temperature was varied to produce different stagnation point freezing fractions. The resulting ice shapes were then scanned using a ROMER Absolute Arm system and analyzed using the self-organizing map approach of McClain and Kreeger. The ice accretion prediction program LEWICE was further used to aid in interrogations of the ice accretion point clouds by using the predicted surface variations of local collection efficiency.
Technical Paper

Summary of the High Ice Water Content (HIWC) RADAR Flight Campaigns

NASA and the FAA conducted two flight campaigns to quantify onboard weather radar measurements with in-situ measurements of high concentrations of ice crystals found in deep convective storms. The ultimate goal of this research was to improve the understanding of high ice water content (HIWC) and develop onboard weather radar processing techniques to detect regions of HIWC ahead of an aircraft to enable tactical avoidance of the potentially hazardous conditions. Both HIWC RADAR campaigns utilized the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory equipped with a Honeywell RDR-4000 weather radar and in-situ microphysical instruments to characterize the ice crystal clouds. The purpose of this paper is to summarize how these campaigns were conducted and highlight key results. The first campaign was conducted in August 2015 with a base of operations in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Ice Particle Breakup and Ingestion into the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE)

Numerical solutions have been generated which simulate flow inside an aircraft engine flying at altitude through an ice crystal cloud. The geometry used for this study is the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE) which was recently tested in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) in January 2018. The simulations were carried out at predicted operating points with a potential risk of ice accretion. The extent of the simulation is from upstream of the engine inlet to downstream past the strut in the core and bypass. The flow solution is produced using GlennHT, a NASA in-house code. A mixing plane approximation is used upstream and downstream of the fan. The use of the mixing plane allows for steady state solutions in the relative frame. The flow solution is then passed on to LEWICE3D for particle trajectory, impact and breakup prediction. The LEWICE3D code also uses a mixing plane approximation at the boundaries upstream and downstream of the fan.
Technical Paper

Ice Particle Impacts on a Flat Plate

This work presents the results of an experimental study of ice particle impacts on a flat plate made of glass. The experiment was conducted at the Ballistics Impact Laboratory of NASA Glenn Research Center in 2014 and is part of the NASA fundamental research efforts to study physics of ice particles impact on a surface, in order to improve understanding of ice crystal ingestion and ice accretion inside jet engines. The ice particles, which were nominally spherical ranging in initial diameter between 1 and 3.5 millimeters, were accelerated to velocities from 20 to 130 m/s using a pressure gun. High speed cameras captured the pre-impact particle diameter and velocity data as well as the post-impact fragment data. The initial stages of ice particle breakup were captured and studied at 1,000,000 frames per second with a high speed camera imaging at a plane normal to the impact surface.
Technical Paper

A Reevaluation of Appendix C Ice Roughness Using Laser Scanning

Many studies have been performed to quantify the formation and evolution of roughness on ice shapes created in Appendix C icing conditions, which exhibits supercooled liquid droplets ranging from 1-50 µm. For example Anderson and Shin (1997), Anderson et al. (1998), and Shin (1994) represent early studies of ice roughness during short-duration icing events measured in the Icing Research Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. In the historical literature, image analysis techniques were employed to characterize the roughness. Using multiple images of the roughness elements, these studies of roughness focused on extracting parametric representations of ice roughness elements. While the image analysis approach enabled many insights into icing physics, recent improvements in laser scanning approaches have revolutionized the process of ice accretion shape characterization.
Technical Paper

An Overview of NASA Engine Ice-Crystal Icing Research

Ice accretions that have formed inside gas turbine engines as a result of flight in clouds of high concentrations of ice crystals in the atmosphere have recently been identified as an aviation safety hazard. NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has made plans to conduct research in this area to address the hazard. This paper gives an overview of NASA's engine ice-crystal icing research project plans. Included are the rationale, approach, and details of various aspects of NASA's research.
Technical Paper

Lunar Dust Cloud Characterization in a Gravitational Settling Chamber Experiencing Zero, Lunar, Earth and 1.8-g Levels

In order to study dust propagation and mitigation techniques, an inertial separation and gravitational settling experiment rig was constructed and used for experimental work in reduced gravity aircraft flights. The first experimental objective was to test dust filtration by a cyclone separator in lunar gravity. The second objective was to characterize dust flow and settling in lunar gravity in order to devise more comprehensive dust mitigation strategies. A settling channel provided a flow length over which particles settled out of the air flow stream. The experimental data provides particle quantity and size distribution, and a means of verifying numerical predictions.
Technical Paper

Smoke Particle Sizes in Low-Gravity and Implications for Spacecraft Smoke Detector Design

This paper presents results from a smoke detection experiment entitled Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME) which was conducted in the Microgravity Science Glovebox on the International Space Station (ISS) during Expedition 15. Five different materials representative of those found in spacecraft were pyrolyzed at temperatures below the ignition point with conditions controlled to provide repeatable sample surface temperatures and air flow conditions. The sample materials were Teflon®, Kapton®, cellulose, silicone rubber and dibutylphthalate. The transport time from the smoke source to the detector was simulated by holding the smoke in an aging chamber for times ranging from 10 to1800 seconds. Smoke particle samples were collected on Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) grids for post-flight analysis.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Characteristics of the Concentric Disk inside the WFRD Evaporator for the VPCAR Water Recovery System

We consider the heat transfer characteristics of an ideal concentric disk used in the Wiped-Film Rotating-Disk (WFRD) evaporator for the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) water recovery system. A mathematical model is derived to predict the radial temperature distribution and its average over the surface of the disk as a function of system parameters. The model shows self-similarity of the temperature distribution and the existence of a dimensionless parameter S (ratio of heat flux to convection) that can be used as a criterion to optimize the thermal characteristics of the disk in order to approach uniform surface temperature. Comparison of the model to experimental data using global (infrared imager) and local (resistive temperature devices) measurements shows that agreement with the model depends on the ambient condition denoted by the local heat transfer coefficient.
Journal Article

Test of SOI 555 Timer with High Temperature Packaging

The thick oxide layer of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices significantly reduces the junction leakage current at elevated temperatures compared to similar Si devices, resulting in an elevated maximum operating temperature. The maximum operating temperature, specified by manufacturers, of commercial SOI devices/circuits with conventional packaging is usually 225°C. It is important to understand the performance and de-ratings of these SOI circuits at temperatures above 225°C without the temperature limit imposed by commercial packaging technology. This work tested a low frequency square-wave oscillator based on an SOI 555 Timer with a special high temperature ceramic packaging technology from room temperature to 375°C. The timer die was attached to a 96% aluminum oxide substrate with high temperature durable gold (Au) thick-film metallization, and interconnected with Au wires.
Journal Article

Measurement of Smoke Particle Size under Low-Gravity Conditions

Smoke detection experiments were conducted in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) on the International Space Station (ISS) during Expedition 15 in an experiment entitled Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME). The preliminary results from these experiments are presented. In order to simulate detection of a prefire overheated-material event, samples of five different materials were heated to temperatures below the ignition point. The smoke generation conditions were controlled to provide repeatable sample surface temperatures and air flow conditions. The smoke properties were measured using particulate aerosol diagnostics that measure different moments of the size distribution. These statistics were combined to determine the count mean diameter which can be used to describe the overall smoke distribution.
Technical Paper

Review of Role of Icing Feathers in Ice Accretion Formation

This paper presents a review of our current experimental and theoretical understanding of icing feathers and the role that they play in the formation of ice accretions. It covers the following areas: a short review of past research work related to icing feathers; a discussion of the physical characteristics and terminology used in describing icing feathers; the presence of feathers on ice accretions formed in unswept airfoils, especially at SLD conditions; the role that icing feathers play in the formation of ice accretion shapes on swept wings; the formation of icing feathers from roughness elements; theoretical considerations regarding feather formation, feather interaction to form complex icing structures, the role of film dynamics in the formation of roughness elements and the formation of feathers. Hypotheses related to feather formation and feather growth are discussed.
Technical Paper

Thin Film Measurement Assessment of the VPCAR Water Recovery System in Partial and Microgravity

The Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) system is being developed to recycle water for future NASA Exploration Missions [1,2,3,4,5]. Reduced gravity testing of the VPCAR System has been initiated to identify any potential problems with microgravity operation. Two microgravity testing campaigns have been conducted on NASA's C-9B Reduced Gravity Aircraft. These tests focused on the fluid dynamics of the unit's Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD) evaporator. The experiments used a simplified system to study the process of forming a thin film on a rotating disk. The configuration simulates the application of feed in the VPCAR's WFRD evaporator. The first round of aircraft testing, which was completed in early 2006, indicated that a problem with microgravity operation of the WFRD existed. It was shown that in reduced gravity the VPCAR wiper did not produce a uniform thin film [6]. The film was thicker near the axis of rotation where centrifugal forces are small.
Technical Paper

Fluid Dynamics Assessment of the VPCAR Water Recovery System in Partial and Microgravity

The Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) system is being developed to recycle water for future NASA Exploration Missions. Testing was recently conducted on NASA's C-9B Reduced Gravity Aircraft to determine the microgravity performance of a key component of the VPCAR water recovery system. Six flights were conducted to evaluate the fluid dynamics of the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD) distillation component of the VPCAR system in microgravity, focusing on the water delivery method. The experiments utilized a simplified system to study the process of forming a thin film on a disk similar to that in the evaporator section of VPCAR. Fluid issues are present with the current configuration, and the initial alternative configurations were only partial successful in microgravity operation. The underlying causes of these issues are understood, and new alternatives are being designed to rectify the problems.
Technical Paper

Detection of Smoke from Microgravity Fires

The history and current status of spacecraft smoke detection is discussed including a review of the state of understanding of the effect of gravity on the resultant smoke particle size. The results from a spacecraft experiment (Comparative Soot Diagnostics (CSD)) which measured microgravity smoke particle sizes are presented. Five different materials were tested producing smokes with different properties including solid aerosol smokes and liquid droplets aerosol smokes. The particulate size distribution for the solid particulate smokes increased substantially in microgravity and the results suggested a corresponding increase for the smokes consisting of a liquid aerosol. A planned follow on experiment that will resolve the issues raised by CSD is presented. Early results from this effort have provided the first measurements of the ambient aerosol environment on the ISS (International Space Station) and suggest that the ISS has very low ambient particle levels.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Trace Water Vapor in a Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Product Stream

The International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) uses regenerable adsorption technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from cabin air. CO2 product water vapor measurements from a CDRA test bed unit at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center were made using a tunable infrared diode laser differential absorption spectrometer (TILDAS) provided by NASA Glenn Research Center. The TILDAS instrument exceeded all the test specifications, including sensitivity, dynamic range, time response, and unattended operation. During the CO2 desorption phase, water vapor concentrations as low as 5 ppmv were observed near the peak of CO2 evolution, rising to levels of ∼40 ppmv at the end of a cycle. Periods of high water concentration (>100 ppmv) were detected and shown to be caused by an experimental artifact.
Technical Paper

NASA's In-Flight Education and Training Aids for Pilots and Operators

To support NASA's goal to improve aviation safety, the Aircraft Icing Project of the Aviation Safety Program has developed a number of education and training aids for pilots and operators on the hazards of atmospheric icing. A review of aircraft incident and accident investigations has revealed that flight crews have not always understood the effects of ice contamination on their aircraft. To increase this awareness, NASA has partnered with regulatory agencies and pilot trade organizations to assure relevant and practical materials that are focused toward the intended pilot audience. A number of new instructional design approaches and media delivery methods have been introduced to increase the effectiveness of the training materials by enhancing the learning experience, expanding user interactivity and participation, and, hopefully, increasing learner retention rates.
Technical Paper

Update On SLD Engineering Tools Development

The airworthiness authorities (FAA, JAA, Transport Canada) will be releasing a draft rule in the 2006 timeframe concerning the operation of aircraft in a Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) environment aloft. The draft rule will require aircraft manufacturers to demonstrate that their aircraft can operate safely in an SLD environment for a period of time to facilitate a safe exit from the condition. It is anticipated that aircraft manufacturers will require a capability to demonstrate compliance with this rule via experimental means (icing tunnels or tankers) and by analytical means (ice prediction codes). Since existing icing research facilities and analytical codes were not developed to account for SLD conditions, current engineering tools are not adequate to support compliance activities in SLD conditions. Therefore, existing capabilities need to be augmented to include SLD conditions.
Technical Paper

Flying Qualities Evaluation of a Commuter Aircraft with an Ice Contaminated Tailplane

During the NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program, pilot evaluations of aircraft flying qualities were conducted with various ice shapes attached to the horizontal tailplane of the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Initially, only NASA pilots conducted these evaluations, assessing the differences in longitudinal flight characteristics between the baseline or clean aircraft, and the aircraft configured with an Ice Contaminated Tailplane (ICT). Longitudinal tests included Constant Airspeed Flap Transitions, Constant Airspeed Thrust Transitions, zero-G Pushovers, Repeat Elevator Doublets, and, Simulated Approach and Go-Around tasks. Later in the program, guest pilots from government and industry were invited to fly the NASAT win Otter configured with a single full-span artificial ice shape attached to the leading edge of the horizontal tailplane.
Technical Paper

Optical Evaluation of a Refractive Secondary Concentrator

Refractive secondary concentrators are being considered for solar thermal applications because of their ability to achieve maximum efficiency through the use of total internal reflection for the concentration and distribution of solar energy. A prototype refractive secondary concentrator was built based on ray tracing analysis to demonstrate this collection and distribution concept. The design included a conical secondary concentrator and a faceted extractor. The objective of this effort was to functionally evaluate the performance of the refractive secondary concentrator/extractor prototype and to compare the results with modeling. Most of the light was found to exit the refractive secondary concentrator through the extractor. In addition, the degree of attenuation encountered by the light as it passed through the refractive secondary concentrator was of interest.