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Technical Paper

Thermal Assessment of Swift Instrument Module Thermal Control System during First 2.5 Years in Flight

2007-07-09
2007-01-3083
On Day 97, 2005, a temperature excursion of the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) loop heat pipe (LHP) #1 compensation chamber (CC) caused this LHP shut down. It had no impact on the Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) detection because LHP #0 was nominal. After LHP #1 was started up and its primary heat controller was disabled on Day 98, both LHPs have been nominal. On Day 337, 2004, the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) thermo-electric cooler (TEC) power supply (PS) suffered a single point failure. The charge-coupled device (CCD) has been cooled by the radiator passively to -50°C or colder most of the time. The CCD temperature meets the main objective of pinpointing GRB afterglow positions. With these anomalies overcome, the Instrument Module (IM) thermal control system (TCS) is nominal during the first 2.5 years in flight.
Technical Paper

The Cryogenic Thermal System Design of NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM)

2005-07-11
2005-01-3041
The thermal design and modeling of NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) is described. The ISIM utilizes a series of large radiators to passively cool its three near-infrared instruments to below 37 Kelvin. A single mid-infrared instrument is further cooled to below 7 Kelvin via stored solid Hydrogen (SH2). These complex cooling requirements, combined with the JWST concept of a large deployed aperture optical telescope, also passively cooled to below 50 Kelvin, makes JWST one of the most unique and thermally challenging space missions flown to date. Currently in the preliminary design stage and scheduled for launch in 2010, NASA’s JWST is expected to replace the Hubble Space Telescope as the premier space based astronomical observatory.
Technical Paper

Thermal Assessment of Swift BAT Instrument Thermal Control System in Flight

2005-07-11
2005-01-3037
The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) instrument of the Swift mission consists of a telescope assembly, a Power Converter Box (PCB), and a pair of Image Processor Electronics (IPE) boxes (a primary and a redundant). The telescope assembly Detector Array thermal control system includes eight constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs), two loop heat pipes (LHPs), a radiator that has AZ-Tek's AZW-LA-II low solar absorptance white paint, and precision heater controllers that have adjustable set points in flight. The PCB and IPEs have Z93P white paint radiators. Swift was successfully launched into orbit on November 20, 2004. This paper presents a thermal assessment of the BAT instrument thermal control system during the first six months in flight.
Technical Paper

In-Flight Thermal Performance of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Instrument

2003-07-07
2003-01-2421
The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument is NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's first application of Loop Heat Pipe technology that provides selectable/stable temperature levels for the lasers and other electronics over a widely varying mission environment. GLAS was successfully launched as the sole science instrument aboard the Ice, Clouds, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from Vandenberg AFB at 4:45pm PST on January 12, 2003. After SC commissioning, the LHPs started easily and have provided selectable and stable temperatures for the lasers and other electronics. This paper discusses the thermal development background and testing, along with details of early flight thermal performance data.
Technical Paper

A Computer Controlled Power Tool for Servicing the Hubble Space Telescope

1996-07-01
961531
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was designed to be serviced from the shuttle by astronauts performing extravehicular activities (EVA). During the first HST Servicing Mission (STS-61) two types of power tools were flown, the Power Ratchet Tool (PRT) and the HST Power Tool. Each tool had both benefits and drawbacks. An objective for the second HST servicing mission was to combine the reliability, accuracy, and programmability of the PRT with the pistol grip ergonomics and compactness of the HST Power Tool into a new tool called the EVA Pistol Grip Tool (PGT). The PGT is a self-contained, microprocessor controlled, battery powered, 3/8-inch drive hand-held tool. The PGT may also be used as a non-powered ratchet wrench. Numerous torque, speed, and turn or angle limits can be programmed into the PGT for use during various servicing missions. Batteries Modules are replaceable during ground, Intravehicular Activities (IVA), and EVA operations.
Technical Paper

Design Evolution of the Capillary Pumped Loop (CAPL 2) Flight Experiment

1996-07-01
961431
The Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment (CAPL 2) employs a passive two-phase thermal control system that uses the latent heat of vaporization of ammonia to transfer heat over long distances. CAPL was designed as a prototype of the Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument thermal control systems. The purpose of the mission was to provide validation of the system performance in microgravity, prior to implementation on EOS. CAPL 1 was flown on STS-60 in February, 1994, with some unexpected results related to gravitational effects on two-phase systems. Start-up difficulties on CAPL 1 led to a redesign of the experiment (CAPL 2) and a reflight on STS-69 in September of 1995. The CAPL 2 flight was extremely successful and the new “starter pump” design is now baselined for the EOS application. This paper emphasizes the design history, the CAPL 2 design, and lessons learned from the CAPL program.
Technical Paper

Performance of the CAPL 2 Flight Experiment

1996-07-01
961432
This paper describes flight test results of the CAPL 2 Flight Experiment, which is a full scale prototype of a capillary pumped loop (CPL) heat transport system to be used for thermal control of the Earth Observing System (EOS-AM) instruments. One unique feature of CAPL 2 is its capillary starter pump cold plate design, which consists of a single capillary starter pump and two heat pipes. The starter pump enhances start-up success due to its self-priming capability, and provides the necessary capillary pumping force for the entire loop. The heat pipes provide the required isothermalization of the cold plate. Flight tests included those pertinent to specific EOS applications and those intended for verifying generic CPL operating characteristics and performance limits. Experimental results confirmed that the starter pump was indeed self-priming and the loop could be successfully started every time.
Technical Paper

Flight Testing of the Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment

1995-07-01
951566
The Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment (CAPL) employs a passive two-phase thermal control system that uses the latent heat of vaporization of ammonia to transfer heat over long distances. CAPL was designed as a prototype of the Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument thermal control systems. The purpose of the mission was to provide validation of the system performance in micro-gravity, prior to implementation on EOS. CAPL was flown on STS-60 in February, 1994, with some unexpected results related to gravitational effects on two-phase systems. Flight test results and post flight investigations will be addressed, along with a brief description of the experiment design.
Technical Paper

Thermal Vacuum Testing of the Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment

1994-06-01
941599
The Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment (CAPL) is a prototype of the Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument thermal control systems, which are based on two-phase heat transfer technology. The CAPL experiment has been functionally tested in a thermal vacuum chamber at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The tests performed included start-up tests, simulated EOS instrument power profiles, low and high power profiles, a variety of uneven coldplate heating tests, subcooling requirement tests, an induced deprime test, reprimes, saturation temperature changes, and a hybrid (mechanical pump-assist) test. There were a few unexpected evaporator deprimes, but overall the testing was successful. The results of all of the tests are discussed, with emphasis on the deprimes and suspected causes.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Reverse Brayton Cycle Heat Pump for Lunar Base Cooling

1994-06-01
941271
This paper explores the possibilities of cooling a permanently inhabited lunar base with a reverse Brayton cycle Thermal Control System (TCS). Based on an initial stage outpost, the cooling needs are defined. A thermodynamic performance model for the Brayton cycle is derived using ideal gas analysis. This model includes inefficiencies and irreversibilities of the components. The free parameters in the thermodynamic model are successively removed using limiting values for efficiencies and determining operating parameters by suboptimizations. In essence a model for cooling efficiency as a function of rejection temperature alone is obtained. For every component of the system a mass model is applied and the overall mass is determined. The last remaining degree of freedom, the rejection temperature, is eliminated by an optimization for lowest overall mass. The result for minimal TCS mass is compared to a reference TCS using a Rankine cycle.
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