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Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Effects of Simulated Ice Accretion on a Generic Transport Model

An experimental research effort was begun to develop a database of airplane aerodynamic characteristics with simulated ice accretion over a large range of incidence and sideslip angles. Wind-tunnel testing was performed at the NASA Langley 12-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel using a 3.5% scale model of the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model. Aerodynamic data were acquired from a six-component force and moment balance in static-model sweeps from α = -5 to 85 deg. and β = -45 to 45 deg. at a Reynolds number of 0.24x10⁶ and Mach number of 0.06. The 3.5% scale GTM was tested in both the clean configuration and with full-span artificial ice shapes attached to the leading edges of the wing, horizontal and vertical tail. Aerodynamic results for the clean airplane configuration compared favorably with similar experiments carried out on a 5.5% scale GTM.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of a Commercial Transport Airplane During Stall and Post-Stall Flight

As part of NASA’s Aviation Safety and Security Program, a simulation study of a twin-jet transport aircraft crew training simulation was conducted to address fidelity for upset or loss-of-control flight conditions. Piloted simulation studies were conducted to compare the baseline crew training simulation model with an enhanced aerodynamic model that was developed for high-angle-of-attack conditions. These studies were conducted in a flaps-up configuration and covered the approach-to-stall, stall and post-stall flight regimes. Qualitative pilot comments and preliminary comparison with flight test data indicate that the enhanced model is a significant improvement over the baseline. Some of the significant unrepresentative characteristics that are predicted by the baseline crew training simulation for flight in the post-stall regime have been identified.
Technical Paper

Airbreathing Hypersonic Vision-Operational-Vehicles Design Matrix

This paper presents the status of the airbreathing hypersonic airplane and space-access vision-operational-vehicle design matrix, with emphasis on horizontal takeoff and landing systems being studied at Langley; it reflects the synergies and issues, and indicates the thrust of the effort to resolve the design matrix including Mach 5 to 10 airplanes with global-reach potential, pop-up and dual-role transatmospheric vehicles and airbreathing launch systems. The convergence of several critical systems/technologies across the vehicle matrix is indicated. This is particularly true for the low speed propulsion system for large unassisted horizontal takeoff vehicles which favor turbines and/or perhaps pulse detonation engines that do not require LOX which imposes loading concerns and mission flexibility restraints.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic-Performance Planform and Camber Optimization of a Supersonic Transport Wing

This paper describes recent research in integrated aerodynamic-performance design optimization applied to a supersonic transport wing. The subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics are modeled with linear theory and the aircraft performance is evaluated by using a complete mission analysis. The goal of the optimization problem is to either maximize the aircraft range or minimize the take-off gross weight while constraining the total fuel load and approach speed. A major difficulty encountered during this study was the inability to obtain accurate derivatives of the aerodynamic models with respect to the planform shape. This work addresses this problem and provides one solution for the derivative difficulties. Additional optimization studies reveal the impact of camber design on the global optimization problem. In these studies, the plan-form optimization is first conducted on a flat plate wing and camber optimization is performed on the resulting planform.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Propulsion-Induced Aerodynamic Characteristics on a Wing-Afterbody Configuration with Thrust Vectoring

Aerodynamic effects induced from vectoring an exhaust jet are investigated using a well established thin-layer Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes code. This multiple block code has been modified to allow for the specification of jet properties at a block face. The applicability of the resulting code for thrust vectoring applications is verified by comparing numerically and experimentally determined pressure coefficient distributions for a jet-wing afterbody configuration with a thrust-vectoring 2-D nozzle. Induced effects on the body and nearby wing from thrust vectoring are graphically illustrated.
Technical Paper

Navier-Stokes Predictions of Multifunction Nozzle Flows

A two-dimensional, Navier-Stokes code developed by Imlay based on the implicit, finite-volume method of MacCormack has been applied to the prediction of the flow fields and performance of several nonaxisymmetric, convergent-divergent nozzles with and without thrust vectoring. Comparisons of predictions with experiment show that the Navier-Stokes code can accurately predict both the flow fields and performance for nonaxisymmetric nozzles where the flow is predominantly two-dimensional and at nozzle pressure ratios at or above the design values. Discrepancies between predictions and experiment are noted at lower nozzle pressure ratios where separation typically occurs in portions of the nozzle. The overall trends versus parameters such as nozzle pressure ratio, flap angle, and vector angle were generally predicted correctly.
Technical Paper

Cornering and Wear Behavior of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Gear Tire

One of the factors needed to describe the handling characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during the landing rollout is the response of the vehicle's tires to variations in load and yaw angle. An experimental investigation of the cornering characteristics of the Orbiter main gear tires was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility. This investigation compliments earlier work done to define the Orbiter nose tire cornering characteristics. In the investigation, the effects of load and yaw angle were evaluated by measuring parameters such as side load and drag load, and obtaining measurements of aligning torque. Because the tire must operate on an extremely rough runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), tests were also conducted to describe the wear behavior of the tire under various conditions on a simulated KSC runway surface. Mathematical models for both the cornering and the wear behavior are discussed.
Technical Paper

Flight Test Results for Several Light, Canard-Configured Airplanes

Brief flight evaluations of two different, light, composite constructed, canard and winglet configured airplanes were performed to assess their handling qualities; one airplane was a single engine, pusher design and the other a twin engine, push-pull configuration. An emphasis was placed on the slow speed/high angle of attack region for both airplanes and on the engine-out regime for the twin. Mission suitability assessment included cockpit and control layout, ground and airborne handling qualities, and turbulence response. Very limited performance data was taken. Stall/spin tests and the effects of laminar flow loss on performance and handling qualities were assessed on an extended range, single engine pusher design.
Technical Paper

The Generation of Tire Cornering Forces in Aircraft with a Free-Swiveling Nose Gear

Various conditions can cause an aircraft to assume a roll or tilt angle on the runway, causing the nose tire(s) to produce significant uncommanded cornering forces if the nose gear is free to swivel. An experimental investigation was conducted using a unique towing system to measure the cornering forces generated by a tilted aircraft tire. The effects of various parameters on these cornering forces including tilt angle, trail, rake angle, tire inflation pressure, vertical load, and twin-tire configuration were evaluated. Corotating twin-tires produced the most severe cornering forces due to tilt angle. A discussion of certain design and operational considerations is included.
Technical Paper

Wing Modification for Increased Spin Resistance

A simple wing leading-edge modification has been developed that delays outer wing panel stall, thus maintaining roll damping to higher angles of attack and delaying the onset of autorotation. The stall angle of attack of the outer wing panel has been shown to be a function of the spanwise length of the leading-edge modification. The margin of spin resistance provided by the modification is being explored through flight tests. Preliminary results have been used to evaluate spin resistance in terms of the difference in angle of attack between outer wing panel stall and the maxiumum attainable angle of attack.
Technical Paper

Spin Flight Research Summary

An extensive general aviation stall/spin research program is underway at the NASA Langley Research Center. Flight tests have examined the effects of tail design, wing leading edge design, mass distribution, and minor airframe modifications on spin and recovery characteristics. Results and observations on test techniques are presented for the first airplane in the program. Configuration changes produced spins varying from easily recoverable slow, steep spins to unrecoverable, fast flat spins.