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Technical Paper

Radar Detection of High Concentrations of Ice Particles - Methodology and Preliminary Flight Test Results

High Ice Water Content (HIWC) has been identified as a primary causal factor in numerous engine events over the past two decades. Previous attempts to develop a remote detection process utilizing modern commercial radars have failed to produce reliable results. This paper discusses the reasons for previous failures and describes a new technique that has shown very encouraging accuracy and range performance without the need for any modifications to industry’s current radar design(s). The performance of this new process was evaluated during the joint NASA/FAA HIWC RADAR II Flight Campaign in August of 2018. Results from that evaluation are discussed, along with the potential for commercial application, and development of minimum operational performance standards for future radar products.
Technical Paper

Summary of the High Ice Water Content (HIWC) RADAR Flight Campaigns

NASA and the FAA conducted two flight campaigns to quantify onboard weather radar measurements with in-situ measurements of high concentrations of ice crystals found in deep convective storms. The ultimate goal of this research was to improve the understanding of high ice water content (HIWC) and develop onboard weather radar processing techniques to detect regions of HIWC ahead of an aircraft to enable tactical avoidance of the potentially hazardous conditions. Both HIWC RADAR campaigns utilized the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory equipped with a Honeywell RDR-4000 weather radar and in-situ microphysical instruments to characterize the ice crystal clouds. The purpose of this paper is to summarize how these campaigns were conducted and highlight key results. The first campaign was conducted in August 2015 with a base of operations in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Automated Detection of Ice Crystal Icing Conditions Using Geostationary Satellite Datasets and In Situ Ice Water Content Measurements

Recent studies have found that high mass concentrations of ice particles in regions of deep convective storms can adversely impact aircraft engine and air probe (e.g. pitot tube and air temperature) performance. Radar reflectivity in these regions suggests that they are safe for aircraft penetration, yet high ice water content (HIWC) is still encountered. The aviation weather community seeks additional remote sensing methods for delineating where ice particle (or crystal) icing conditions are likely to occur, including products derived from geostationary (GEO) satellite imagery that is now available in near-real time at increasingly high spatio-temporal detail from the global GEO satellite constellation.
Technical Paper

Thermal Modeling of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 's Solar Panel and Instruments During Aerobraking

The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005 and started aerobraking at Mars in March 2006. During the spacecraft's design phase, thermal models of the solar panels and instruments were developed to determine which components would be the most limiting thermally during aerobraking. Having determined the most limiting components, (from a temperature limit standpoint), thermal limits in terms of heat rate were established. Advanced thermal modeling techniques were developed utilizing Thermal Desktop and Patran Thermal. Heat transfer coefficients were calculated using a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo technique. Analysis established that the solar panels were the most limiting components during the aerobraking phase of the mission.
Technical Paper

Thermal Model Correlation for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005 and began aerobraking at Mars in March 2006. In order to save propellant, MRO used aerobraking to modify the initial orbit at Mars. The spacecraft passed through the atmosphere briefly on each orbit; during each pass the spacecraft was slowed by atmospheric drag, thus lowering the orbit apoapsis. The largest area on the spacecraft, most affected by aeroheating, was the solar arrays. A thermal analysis of the solar arrays was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to simulate their performance throughout the entire roughly 6-month period of aerobraking. A companion paper describes the development of this thermal model. This model has been correlated against many sets of flight data. Several maneuvers were performed during the cruise to Mars, such as thruster calibrations, which involve large abrupt changes in the spacecraft orientation relative to the sun.
Technical Paper

21st Century Lunar Exploration: Advanced Radiation Exposure Assessment

On January 14, 2004 President George W Bush outlined a new vision for NASA that has humans venturing back to the moon by 2020. With this ambitious goal, new tools and models have been developed to help define and predict the amount of space radiation astronauts will be exposed to during transit and habitation on the moon. A representative scenario is used that includes a trajectory from LEO to a Lunar Base, and simplified CAD models for the transit and habitat structures. For this study galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and trapped electron and proton environments are simulated using new dynamic environment models to generate energetic electron, and light and heavy ion fluences. Detailed calculations are presented to assess the human exposure for transit segments and surface stays.
Technical Paper

A Time Dependent Model for the Lunar Radiation Environment

In view of manned missions targeted to the Moon, for which radiation exposure is one of the greatest challenges to be tackled, it is of fundamental importance to have available a tool, which allows determination of the particle flux and spectra at any time and at any point of the lunar surface. With this goal in mind, a new model of the Moon’s radiation environment due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) has been developed. Primary particles reach the lunar surface, and are transported all throughout the subsurface layers, with backscattering patterns taken into account. The surface itself has been modeled as regolith and bedrock, with composition taken from the results of the instruments flown on the Apollo missions, namely on the Apollo 12 from the Oceanus Procellarum landing site. Subsurface environments like lava tubes have been considered in the analysis.
Technical Paper

Shield Optimization in Simple Geometry for the Gateway Concept

The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in many deep space missions. For this enabling technology, we are developing tools for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of various space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. Preliminary studies of deep space missions indicate that for long duration space missions, improved shield materials will be required. The details of this new method and its impact on space missions and other technologies will be discussed. This study will provide a vital tool for evaluating Gateway designs in their usage context. Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is one of the challenges to the Gateway infrastructure designs.
Technical Paper

Inter-Crew Shielding Against a Solar Particle Event in L1

All but a small fraction of human space radiation exposure has been in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) where significant protection from extraterrestrial ionizing radiation is provided as a result of its deflection in the Earth's magnetic field. The placement of a manned outpost at the L1 Lagrange Point could mark the first long-term venture into a “deep space” radiation environment, giving rise to the associated problems of long-term space exposure. One of the first issues to address is providing protection within an L1 station from a large solar particle event. A safe haven area could be used over the duration of the event or one may consider the sleep stations where it is already necessary to have added shielding. The surrounding bodies of other closely packed crewmembers in such a shelter are expected to provide a significant fraction of a crewmember's total shielding.
Technical Paper

The Impact of a Weather Information System Display on General Aviation Pilot Workload and Performance

The effect on general aviation (GA) pilots' abilities to fly a small airplane while using a prototype data-linked weather information system (WIS) display, located in various cockpit positions, was investigated in comparison to the effect on their flying of acquiring weather information through conventional means. Ten GA pilots performed en route flying tasks of varying difficulty while concurrently performing weather information acquisition tasks. Pilots' subjective workload ratings, weather information acquisition times and accuracy levels, and preliminary flight path parameter deviation data indicate that using a WIS display results in smaller flight path parameter deviations, lower workload, and faster and slightly more accurate information retrieval than when weather information is obtained via the radio.
Technical Paper

Deep Space Mission Radiation Shielding Optimization

Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. In the present report, we present methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of lunar and Mars missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints.
Technical Paper

Smart Material Actuator Driven by Networked Rectenna Array

The new concept, a microwave-driven smart material actuator, was introduced to wirelessly drive actuators of space antennas and reflectors. For the proof-of-concept, a multilayer piezoelectric actuator integrated with a 3×3 rectenna was set up and tested within microwave field. The test results showed that the rectenna generates up to 73 V DC for a piezoelectric actuator and demonstrates a wide controllability by allowing several control parameters. For high power requirement and effective use of incident microwave, a power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuit and a voltage up-converter (VUC) were studied in corporation with the rectenna circuitry.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Orbit Analysis Program for Spacecraft Thermal Design

This paper presents a simplified orbit analysis program developed to calculate orbital parameters for the thermal analysis of spacecraft and space-flight instruments. The program calculates orbit data for inclined and sunsynchronous earth orbits. Traditional orbit analyses require extensive knowledge of orbital mechanics to produce a simplified set of data for thermal engineers. This program was created to perform orbital analyses with minimal input and provides the necessary output for thermal analysis codes. Engineers will find the program to be a valuable analysis tool for fast and simple orbit calculations. A description of the program inputs and outputs is included. An overview of orbital mechanics for inclined and Sun-synchronous orbits is also presented. Finally, several sample cases are presented to illustrate the thermal analysis applications of the program.
Technical Paper

Overview of Noise Reduction Technology in the NASA Short Haul (Civil Tiltrotor) Program

Noise is a barrier issue for penetration of civil markets by future tiltrotor aircraft. To address this issue, elements of the NASA Short Haul (Civil Tiltrotor) [SH(CT)] program are working in three different areas: noise abatement, noise reduction, and noise prediction. Noise abatement refers to modification of flight procedures to achieve quieter approaches. Noise reduction refers to innovative new rotor designs that would reduce the noise produced by a tiltrotor. Noise prediction activities are developing the tools to guide the design of future quiet tiltrotors. This paper presents an overview of SH(CT) activities in all three areas, including sample results.
Technical Paper

NASA Evaluation of Type II Chemical Depositions

Recent findings from NASA Langley tests to define effects of aircraft Type II chemical deicer depositions on aircraft tire friction performance are summarized. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is described together with the scope of the tire cornering and braking friction tests conducted up to 160 knots ground speed. Some lower speed 32-96 km/hr (20-60 mph) test run data obtained using an Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) to determine effects of tire bearing pressure and transverse grooving on cornering friction performance are also discussed. Recommendations are made concerning which parameters should be evaluated in future testing.
Technical Paper

Directly Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser for Beamed Power Transmission in Space

A new approach for development of a 50-kW directly solar-pumped iodine laser (DSPIL) system as a space-based power station was made using a confocal unstable resonator (CUR). The CUR-based DSPIL has advantages, such as performance enhancement, reduction of total mass, and simplicity which alleviates the complexities inherent in the previous system, master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) configurations. In this design, a single CUR-based DSPIL with 50-kW output power was defined and compared to the MOPA-based DSPIL. Integration of multiple modules for power requirements more than 50-kW is physically and structurally a sound approach as compared to building a single large system. An integrated system of multiple modules can respond to various mission power requirements by combining and aiming the coherent beams at the user's receiver.
Technical Paper

Braking, Steering, and Wear Performance of Radial-Belted and Bias-Ply Aircraft Tires

Preliminary braking, steering, and tread wear performance results from testing of 26 x 6.6 and 40 x 14 radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) are reviewed. These tire tests are part of a larger, ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction And Radial Tire (START) Program involving these two different tire sizes as well as an H46 x 18-20 tire size which has not yet been evaluated. Both dry and wet surface conditions were evaluated on two different test surfaces - nongrooved Portland cement concrete and specially constructed, hexagonal-shaped concrete paver blocks. Use of paver blocks at airport facilities has been limited to ramp and taxiway areas and the industry needs a tire friction evaluation of this paving material prior to additional airport pavement installations.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Propulsion-Induced Aerodynamic Characteristics on a Wing-Afterbody Configuration with Thrust Vectoring

Aerodynamic effects induced from vectoring an exhaust jet are investigated using a well established thin-layer Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes code. This multiple block code has been modified to allow for the specification of jet properties at a block face. The applicability of the resulting code for thrust vectoring applications is verified by comparing numerically and experimentally determined pressure coefficient distributions for a jet-wing afterbody configuration with a thrust-vectoring 2-D nozzle. Induced effects on the body and nearby wing from thrust vectoring are graphically illustrated.
Technical Paper

Supersonic Jet Plume Interaction with a Flat Plate

A model scaled test apparatus has been designed and assembled to simulate supersonic plume/aircraft structure Interaction for the cruise configuration. Preliminary results have been obtained to demonstrate the severity of the associated acoustic fatigue loads. Two rectangular supersonic nozzles with aspect ratios of 7 and 7.7 ware fabricated with internal convergent-divergent contours designed for Mach numbers of 1.35 and 2.00. A large flat plate was located beneath each nozzle at various nozzle height separations. The plate was instrumented to measure surface dynamic pressure and mean wall temperature. Phase averaged schliern measurements revealed the presence of high intensity acoustic emission from the supersonic plume above the plate and directed upstream. This radiation can be associated with the shock noise generation mechanism. Narrow band spectra of wall dynamic pressure show spectral peaks with amplitude levels as high as 1 PSI.
Technical Paper

Theoretical Investigations, and Correlative Studies for NLF, HLFC, and LFC Swept Wings at Subsonic, Transonic and Supersonic Speeds

The results of theory/experiment correlative studies at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers are presented in this paper. These studies were conducted by using theoretical design tools consisting of the Method of Characteristics, newly-developed integral compressible boundary-layer methods for infinitely swept wings, namely, laminar boundary layer with suction, prediction of neutral instability and transition due to amplification of Tollmien-Schlichting (T.S.) waves and crossflow (C.F.), and a method for predicting separating turbulent boundary-layer characteristics. Results of correlations have indicated that the present integral boundary layer methods are quite successful in predicting transition phenomenon both at transonic and supersonic speeds.