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Technical Paper

Development of the Static Phase Separator

During Lunar missions, NASA's new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) may benefit from mass savings and increased reliability by the use of a passive, capillary-driven Static Phase Separator (SPS) for urine collection, containment, and disposal in place of a rotary-fan separator and wastewater storage tank. The design of a capillary separator addresses unique challenges for microgravity fluid management for liquids with a wide range of possible contact angles and high air-to-liquid flow ratio. This paper presents the iterative process leading to a successful test in a reduced gravity aircraft of the SPS concept. Using appropriately scaled test conditions, the resulting prototype allows for a range of wetting properties with complete separation of liquid from gas.
Technical Paper

Shuttle/Mir Food Experience

The Shuttle/Mir food system was based on a plan that included 50% U.S. food and 50% Russian food. Using inputs from crew evaluations, nutritional requirements, and analytical data, menus for each Long Duration Mission (LDM) were developed by the U.S. and Russian food specialists. The cosmonaut’ planned menus were identical while the astronaut’s menu differed slightly, based on personal preferences. Bonus food containers of astronaut’s favorite foods were provided to increase variety. Six out of 7 astronauts reported that the menu plan was seldom, if ever, followed. Five out of 7 astronauts ate most of their meals with the other crew members. In most cases, the bonus food containers were not opened until near the end of the mission. All crew members emphasized that variety was critical and that the use of Mir and Shuttle food together added a unique variety to the food system. Three of the 7 Mir astronauts lost significant weight during their stay on Mir.
Technical Paper

Potable Water Treatment and Transfer from Shuttle to Mir

To satisfy a requirement to supply water to Mir station, a process for treating iodinated water on the Shuttle was developed and implemented. The treatment system consists of packed columns for removing iodine and a syringe-based injection system for adding ionic silver, the biocide used in Mir water. Technical and potable grade water is produced and transferred in batches using collapsible 44-liter contingency water containers (CWCs). Silver is added to the water via injection of a solution from preloaded syringes. Minerals are also added to water destined for drinking. During the previous four Shuttle-Mir docking missions a total of 2781 liters (735 gallons) of water produced by the Shuttle fuel cells was processed using this method and transferred to Mir. To verify the quality of the processed water, samples were collected during flight and returned for chemical analysis.
Technical Paper

Advanced Air Revitalization System Modeling and Testing

To support manned lunar and Martian exploration, NASA/JSC and LESC are conducting an extensive evaluation of air revitalization subsystems. The major operations under study include regenerative CO2 removal and reduction; O2 and N2 production, storage, and distribution; humidity and temperature control; and trace contaminant control. This paper describes the ongoing analysis of air revitalization subsystems, including ASPEN PLUS™ modeling and breadboard test stand operation. A comprehensive analysis program based on a generalized block flow model is currently being developed to facilitate the evaluation of various processes and their interactions. Future plans for the development of this simulation will be discussed. ASPEN PLUS™ has been used to model a variety of the subsystems described above; application of this package in modeling CO2 removal and reduction will be discussed.