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Technical Paper

Performance of Next Generation Gasoline Particulate Filter Materials under RDE Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0980
In order to meet the challenging CO2 targets beyond 2020 without sacrificing performance, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology, in combination with turbo charging technology, is expanding in the automotive industry. However, while this technology does provide a significant CO2 reduction, one side effect is increased Particle Number (PN) emission. As a result, from September 2017, GDI vehicles in Europe are required to meet the stringent PN emission limits of 6x1011 #/km under the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). In addition, it is required to meet PN emission of 9x1011 #/km under Real Driving Emission (RDE) testing, which includes a Conformity Factor (CF) of 1.5 to account for current measurement inaccuracies on the road. This introduction of RDE testing in Europe and China will especially provide a unique challenge for the design of exhaust after-treatment systems due to its wide boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Particle Number Emission Reduction for GDI Engines with Gasoline Particulate Filters

2017-10-08
2017-01-2378
In order to meet the challenging CO2 targets beyond 2020 despite keeping high performance engines, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology usually combined with charged aspiration is expanding in the automotive industry. While providing more efficient powertrains to reduce fuel consumption one side effect of GDI is the increased particle formation during the combustion process. For the first time for GDI from September 2014 there is a Particle Number (PN) limit in EU of 6x10 sup 12 #/km, which will be further reduced by one order of magnitude to 6x10 sup 11 #/km effective from September 2017 to be the same level as applied to Diesel engines. In addition to the PN limit of the certification cycle NEDC further certification of Real Driving Emissions (RDE) including portable PN measurements are under discussion by the European Commission. RDE test procedure requires stable and low emissions in a wide range of engine operations and durable over a distance of 160 000 km.
Technical Paper

Development of New High Porosity Diesel Particulate Filter for Integrated SCR Technology/Catalyst

2015-09-01
2015-01-2018
Diesel engines are widely used to reduce CO2 emission due to its higher thermal efficiency over gasoline engines. Considering long term CO2 targets, as well as tighter gas emission, especially NOx, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between CO2 and NOx and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by a catalytic converter, such as a SCR catalyst. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher engine out NOx emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, close-coupled a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system with integration of SCR catalyst technology is preferred. For SCR catalyst activity, it is known that the catalyst loading amount has an influence on NOx performance, so a high SCR catalyst loading will be required.
Journal Article

Development of New High Porosity Diesel Particulate Filter for Integrated SCR Technology/Catalyst

2015-04-14
2015-01-1017
Since the implementation of Euro 6 in September 2014, diesel engines are facing another drastic reduction of NOx emission limits from 180 to only 80 mg/km during NEDC and real driving emissions (RDE) are going to be monitored until limit values are enforced from September 2017. Considering also long term CO2 targets of 95 g/km beyond 2020, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between NOx and CO2 and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by additional devices such as EGR or a catalytic converter. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher NOx engine out emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, new aftertreatment systems will incorporate close-coupled DeNOx systems.
Technical Paper

High Porosity DPF Design for Integrated SCR Functions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0843
Diesel engines are more fuel efficient due to their high thermal efficiency, compared to gasoline engines and therefore, have a higher potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Since diesel engines emit higher amounts of Particulate Matter (PM), DPF systems have been introduced. Today, DPF systems have become a standard technology. Nevertheless, with more stringent NOx emission limits and CO2 targets, additional NOx emission control is needed. For high NOx conversion efficiency, SCR catalysts technology shows high potential. Due to higher temperature at the close coupled position and space restrictions, an integrated SCR concept on the DPFs is preferred. A high SCR catalyst loading will be required to have high conversion efficiency over a wide range of engine operations which causes high pressure for conventional DPF materials.
Technical Paper

Influence of Cell Shape Between Square and Hexagonal Cells

2003-03-03
2003-01-0661
Developing ultra thin wall ceramic substrates is necessary to meet stricter emissions regulations, in part because substrate cell walls need to be thinner in order to improve warm-up and light-off characteristics and lower exhaust system backpressure. However, the thinner the cell wall becomes, the poorer the mechanical and thermal characteristics of the substrate. Furthermore, the conditions under which the ultra thin wall substrates are used are becoming more severe. Therefore both the mechanical and thermal characteristics are becoming important parameters in the design of advanced converter systems. Whereas square cells are used world-wide in conjunction with oxidation and/or three-way catalysts, hexagonal cells, with features promoting a homogeneous catalyst coating layer, have found limited use as a NOx absorber due to its enhanced sulfur desorption capability.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Catalytic Performance during Light-off Phase with Different Wall Thickness, Cell Density and Cell Shape

2001-03-05
2001-01-0930
Further stringent emission legislation requires advanced technologies, such as sophisticated engine management and advanced catalyst and substrate to achieve high catalytic performance, especially during the light-off phase. This paper presents the results of calculations and measurements of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide light-off performance for substrates of different wall thickness, cell density and cell shapes. The experimental data from catalyst light-off testing on an engine dynamometer are compared with theoretical results of computer modeling under different temperature ramps and flow rates. The reaction kinetics in the computer modeling are derived from the best fit for the performance of conventional ceramic substrate (6mil/400cpsi), by comparing the theoretical and experimental results on both HC and CO emissions. The calibrated computer model predicts the effects of different wall thickness, cell density and cell shape.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Catalytic Performance for Ultra Thin Wall and High Cell Density Substrates

2000-03-06
2000-01-0494
New ultra-low vehicle emission legislation requires advanced catalyst systems to achieve high conversion requirements. Manufacturers have to improve both the washcoat formulations and the catalyst substrate technology to meet these new regulations. This paper will present the results of a computer modeling study on the effects of ultra-thinwall catalysts on hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide light-off performance improvement. The experimental data from catalyst light-off testing on an engine dynamometer are compared with theoretical results of advanced substrate modeling for ultra-thin wall ceramic substrates. Results show that thermal mass has the greatest effect on light-off performance. Decreases in wall thickness offer the greatest benefit to light-off performance by lowering the thermal mass of the substrate, thus allowing it to reach light-off temperature faster.
Technical Paper

Study of Ceramic Catalyst Optimization for Emission Purification Efficiency

1994-03-01
940784
In this study, to satisfy increasingly strict emission regulations, the conversion efficiency of a 0.11 mm (4 mil) thin-wall catalyst is discussed. The effects of catalyst bulk density on reducing heat mass to improve catalyst emission conversion in the early cold transient mode (Bag 1 in the FTP-75 mode) is quantitatively discussed. To analyze the effects of low heat mass, catalyst's bed temperatures were measured. Effects of the geometric surface area (GSA) and volume of the catalyst were also analyzed. An early feedback control system with an HEGO oxygen sensor and a secondary air injection control system with an original oxygen sensor were compared with an original control system on THC, CO, and NOx emission amounts.
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