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Technical Paper

Performance of Next Generation Gasoline Particulate Filter Materials under RDE Conditions

In order to meet the challenging CO2 targets beyond 2020 without sacrificing performance, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology, in combination with turbo charging technology, is expanding in the automotive industry. However, while this technology does provide a significant CO2 reduction, one side effect is increased Particle Number (PN) emission. As a result, from September 2017, GDI vehicles in Europe are required to meet the stringent PN emission limits of 6x1011 #/km under the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). In addition, it is required to meet PN emission of 9x1011 #/km under Real Driving Emission (RDE) testing, which includes a Conformity Factor (CF) of 1.5 to account for current measurement inaccuracies on the road. This introduction of RDE testing in Europe and China will especially provide a unique challenge for the design of exhaust after-treatment systems due to its wide boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Particle Number Emission Reduction for GDI Engines with Gasoline Particulate Filters

In order to meet the challenging CO2 targets beyond 2020 despite keeping high performance engines, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology usually combined with charged aspiration is expanding in the automotive industry. While providing more efficient powertrains to reduce fuel consumption one side effect of GDI is the increased particle formation during the combustion process. For the first time for GDI from September 2014 there is a Particle Number (PN) limit in EU of 6x10 sup 12 #/km, which will be further reduced by one order of magnitude to 6x10 sup 11 #/km effective from September 2017 to be the same level as applied to Diesel engines. In addition to the PN limit of the certification cycle NEDC further certification of Real Driving Emissions (RDE) including portable PN measurements are under discussion by the European Commission. RDE test procedure requires stable and low emissions in a wide range of engine operations and durable over a distance of 160 000 km.
Journal Article

Development and Testing of the Ultera® Dual Stage Catalyst System on Gasoline-Fueled Light Duty Vehicles (LDV’s)

All vehicles sold today are required to meet emissions standards based on specific driving cycles. Emissions standards are getting tighter and the introduction of real driving tests is imminent, potentially calling for improved aftertreatment systems. A dual stage catalyst system, with exhaust temperature control, can provide a robust solution to meet challenging modes of operation such as rapid acceleration and other heavy-duty transients. The Ultera® technology, developed and successfully implemented on stationary natural gas CHP (Combined Heat and Power) engines, introduces a second stage catalyst downstream of a three-way catalyst. Air is injected between the two stages to provide oxygen required for the second stage reaction that removes additional CO and NMOG. Critical to the process is to avoid the reformation of NOx.
Technical Paper

Development of New High Porosity Diesel Particulate Filter for Integrated SCR Technology/Catalyst

Diesel engines are widely used to reduce CO2 emission due to its higher thermal efficiency over gasoline engines. Considering long term CO2 targets, as well as tighter gas emission, especially NOx, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between CO2 and NOx and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by a catalytic converter, such as a SCR catalyst. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher engine out NOx emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, close-coupled a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system with integration of SCR catalyst technology is preferred. For SCR catalyst activity, it is known that the catalyst loading amount has an influence on NOx performance, so a high SCR catalyst loading will be required.
Journal Article

Development of New High Porosity Diesel Particulate Filter for Integrated SCR Technology/Catalyst

Since the implementation of Euro 6 in September 2014, diesel engines are facing another drastic reduction of NOx emission limits from 180 to only 80 mg/km during NEDC and real driving emissions (RDE) are going to be monitored until limit values are enforced from September 2017. Considering also long term CO2 targets of 95 g/km beyond 2020, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between NOx and CO2 and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by additional devices such as EGR or a catalytic converter. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher NOx engine out emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, new aftertreatment systems will incorporate close-coupled DeNOx systems.
Technical Paper

Strategies Toward the Sustainable and Cost-Effective Use of the Platinum Group Metals: An Analysis of Critical Topics Affecting the PGM and Automotive Industries

Platinum Group Metal (PGM) use is dominated by the automotive industry. The PGM market is sensitive to shifts in the drivers for emission control and the delicate supply-demand balance. Technology shifts in the emission control industry are particularly impactful because of the automotive market's dominance and the consequent ability to significantly affect metal prices. On the supply side, evolving ore ratios of platinum, palladium and rhodium, production ramp-up times, geopolitical factors, and labor relations contribute to a challenging production environment. This is mitigated by a growing above-ground supply from spent autocatalysts. The availability of spent autocatalyst is critical to alleviate the pressure on primary supply and is especially important in light of the hurdles primary PGM producers face. This paper reviews technology developments, legislative drivers, and consumer trends in the automotive industry and their impact on PGM demand.
Technical Paper

Newly Developed Cordierite Honeycomb Substrate for SCR Coating Realizing System Compactness and Low Backpressure

Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Lean NOx Trap (LNT) systems are key technologies to reduce NOx emission for diesel on-highway vehicles to meet worldwide tighter emission regulations. In addition DeNOx catalysts have already been applied to several commercial off-road applications. Adding the DeNOx catalyst to existing Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) emission control system requires additional space and will result in an increase of emission system back pressure. Therefore it is necessary to address optimizing the DeNOx catalyst in regards to back pressure and downsizing. Recently, extruded zeolite for DeNOx application has been considered. This technology improves NOx conversion at low temperature due to the high catalyst amount. However, this technology has concerned about strength and robustness, because the honeycomb body is composed of catalyst.
Technical Paper

High Porosity DPF Design for Integrated SCR Functions

Diesel engines are more fuel efficient due to their high thermal efficiency, compared to gasoline engines and therefore, have a higher potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Since diesel engines emit higher amounts of Particulate Matter (PM), DPF systems have been introduced. Today, DPF systems have become a standard technology. Nevertheless, with more stringent NOx emission limits and CO2 targets, additional NOx emission control is needed. For high NOx conversion efficiency, SCR catalysts technology shows high potential. Due to higher temperature at the close coupled position and space restrictions, an integrated SCR concept on the DPFs is preferred. A high SCR catalyst loading will be required to have high conversion efficiency over a wide range of engine operations which causes high pressure for conventional DPF materials.

New Particulate Matter Sensor for On Board Diagnosis

The presentation describes technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. As in other years, the reader will find a wide range of topics from various parts of the world. This is reflective of the worldwide scope and effort to reduce diesel exhaust emissions. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) technologies as well as sensors and other emissions related developments. Presenter Atsuo Kondo, NGK Insulators, Ltd.
Technical Paper

Application of Converter Efficiency Simulation Tool for Substrate Design

As emissions regulations are becoming more stringent, various efforts to improve emission performance have been carried out in different areas including the honeycomb structure of catalytic converters. This report describes the development of a simulation tool to predict emission performance and simulation results for different cell structures. The simulation model was developed based on global kinetic chemical reaction model [1]. Having tuned the reaction parameters through a light-off test and estimated oxygen storage capacity through an oxygen storage test, we ultimately tuned the model in a vehicle test (with Bags 1 and 2, FTP 75). As a result, the simulated cumulative tailpipe emissions are within ±25 percent of the test results. Parameter analyses indicate that the amount of emissions decreased as the density of cells increased and that the amount of emissions also decreased the thinner the wall thicknesses were.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cell Shape on Mass Transfer and Pressure Loss

To meet stringent emissions regulations, high conversion efficiency is required. This calls for advanced catalyst substrates with thinner walls and higher cell density. Higher cell density is needed because it brings higher mass transfer from the gas to the substrate wall. Basically, the increase in total surface area (TSA) causes higher mass transfer. However, not only the TSA, but the cell shape also has a great effect on mass transfer. There are two main kinds of substrates. One is the extruded ceramic substrate and the other is the metal foil type substrate. These have different cell shapes due to different manufacturing processes. For the extruded ceramic substrate, it is possible to fabricate various cell shapes such as triangle, hexagon, etc. as well as the square shape. The difference in the cell shape changes not only the mass transfer rate, but also causes pressure loss change. This is an important item to be considered in the substrate design.
Technical Paper

Influence of Cell Shape Between Square and Hexagonal Cells

Developing ultra thin wall ceramic substrates is necessary to meet stricter emissions regulations, in part because substrate cell walls need to be thinner in order to improve warm-up and light-off characteristics and lower exhaust system backpressure. However, the thinner the cell wall becomes, the poorer the mechanical and thermal characteristics of the substrate. Furthermore, the conditions under which the ultra thin wall substrates are used are becoming more severe. Therefore both the mechanical and thermal characteristics are becoming important parameters in the design of advanced converter systems. Whereas square cells are used world-wide in conjunction with oxidation and/or three-way catalysts, hexagonal cells, with features promoting a homogeneous catalyst coating layer, have found limited use as a NOx absorber due to its enhanced sulfur desorption capability.
Technical Paper

Development of the NOx Adsorber Catalyst for Use with High-Temperature Condition

NOx adsorber has already been used for the after-treatment system of series production vehicle installed with a lean burn or direct injection engine [1,2,3]. In order to improve NOx adsorbability at high temperatures, many researchers have recently been trying an addition of potassium (K) as well as other conventional NOx adsorbents. Potassium, however, reacts easily with the cordierite honeycomb substrate at high temperatures, and not only causes a loss in NOx adsorbability but also damages the substrate. Three new technologies have been proposed in consideration of the above circumstances. First, a new concept of K-capture is applied in washcoat design, mixed with zeolite, to improve thermal stability of K and to keep high NOx conversion efficiency, under high temperatures, of NOx adsorber catalyst. Second, another new technology, pre-coating silica over the boundary of a substrate and washcoat, is proposed to prevent the reaction between potassium and cordierite.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Catalytic Performance during Light-off Phase with Different Wall Thickness, Cell Density and Cell Shape

Further stringent emission legislation requires advanced technologies, such as sophisticated engine management and advanced catalyst and substrate to achieve high catalytic performance, especially during the light-off phase. This paper presents the results of calculations and measurements of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide light-off performance for substrates of different wall thickness, cell density and cell shapes. The experimental data from catalyst light-off testing on an engine dynamometer are compared with theoretical results of computer modeling under different temperature ramps and flow rates. The reaction kinetics in the computer modeling are derived from the best fit for the performance of conventional ceramic substrate (6mil/400cpsi), by comparing the theoretical and experimental results on both HC and CO emissions. The calibrated computer model predicts the effects of different wall thickness, cell density and cell shape.
Technical Paper

Application of Advanced Three-Way Catalyst Technologies on High Cell Density Ultra Thin-Wall Ceramic Substrates for Future Emission Legislations

The future emission limits for gasoline fuelled passenger cars require more and more efficient exhaust gas aftertreatment devices - the catalytic converter being one essential part of the complex system design. The present paper summarizes the results of several basic research programs putting major emphasis on the application of highly sophisticated three-way catalyst technologies being taylored for the utilization on ultra thin-wall ceramic substrates. In the first part of the investigation the following effects were examined in detail: Different washcoat loadings at constant PGM-loadings Different volumes of catalysts for constant amounts of PGM and washcoat Similar washcoat technologies at different ratios of WC-loading to precious metal concentration in the washcoat.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Catalytic Performance for Ultra Thin Wall and High Cell Density Substrates

New ultra-low vehicle emission legislation requires advanced catalyst systems to achieve high conversion requirements. Manufacturers have to improve both the washcoat formulations and the catalyst substrate technology to meet these new regulations. This paper will present the results of a computer modeling study on the effects of ultra-thinwall catalysts on hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide light-off performance improvement. The experimental data from catalyst light-off testing on an engine dynamometer are compared with theoretical results of advanced substrate modeling for ultra-thin wall ceramic substrates. Results show that thermal mass has the greatest effect on light-off performance. Decreases in wall thickness offer the greatest benefit to light-off performance by lowering the thermal mass of the substrate, thus allowing it to reach light-off temperature faster.
Technical Paper

Long Term Stable NOx Sensor with Integrated In-Connector Control Electronics

This paper describes improvements achieved with regard to the long term stability and the system integrability of a previously described thick film NOx sensor for gasoline lean burn and diesel applications. (1, 2, 3) Durability test up to 1000 hours consisting of a temperature cycle have been carried out by a stoichiometric operating gasoline engine test bench. The NOx sensor demonstrates the NOx output shift in terms of the NOx sensitivity less than 5 % on a model gas apparatus and ± 7 % measuring accuracy in practical operating condition on a diesel engine after 1000 hours that is equivalent to approximately 60K miles driving. The integration of the control electronics for the sensor in its connector is achieved for the sensitive measuring current in the μA-range or less on vehicle applications. The developed electronics functions closed-loop controls for a tip temperature and oxygen pumps as well as a diagnosis of sensor malfunctions.
Technical Paper

High Cell Density and Thin Wall Substrate for Higher Conversion Ratio Catalyst

Although air pollution has mitigated since the introduction of exhaust emission regulations, further reduction of it especially in the metropolitan areas is anticipated. An effective way to resolve this issue is to improve the catalyst performance. Of many approaches, improving substrate is one promising way to achieve this goal. Results of applying high cell density and light- weight substrates, coupled with high precious metal content, are discussed theoretically and verified experimentally here. The significant improvements made in the low temperature activity and warmed-up conversions by increasing geometrical surface areas and lowering thermal mass of high cell density substrates are described.
Technical Paper

In-line Hydrocarbon Adsorber for Cold Start Emissions - Part II

The in-line hydrocarbon (HC) adsorber is a passive after-treatment technology to address cold-start hydrocarbons in automotive engine exhaust gas. A major technical challenge of the in-line HC adsorber is the difference between the HC release temperature of the adsorber and the light-off temperature of the burn-off (BO) Catalyst. We call this phenomenon the “reversed-temperature difference”. To reduce the reversed temperature difference, NGK has proposed a new “In-line HC Adsorber System” which consists of light-off (LO) Catalyst + Barrel Zeolite Adsorber (BZA), with a hole through the center, BO Catalyst and secondary air injection management (SAE 970266). This, our latest paper, describes the evaluation of various adsorbents and the effect of the center hole on the Adsorber BZA. The adsorber system, which had the Adsorber BZA with a 25mm ϕ center hole and adsorbent coated, confirmed 30% lower FTP NMHC emission versus a system with no center hole or adsorbent coating.