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Technical Paper

Icing Test and Measurement Capabilities of the NRC’s Gas Turbine Laboratory

The National Research Council’s Gas Turbine Laboratory provides industry leading icing facilities that allow manufacturers to develop, validate and certify new products for flight in adverse conditions. This paper shows how NRC measurement techniques are used across the facilities, and presents a literature-review of recently developed capabilities. The overview includes new details on some facilities, and future capabilities that are in development or planned for the near future. Methods developed at the NRC for characterizing inclement conditions are discussed and include the Isokinetic Probe, Particle Shadow Velocimetry, the Particle Detection Probe, and a size-binned real-time thermodynamic evaporation model.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Extrusions for Automotive Crash Applications

One of the main applications for aluminum extrusions in the automotive sector is crash structures including crash rails, crash cans, bumpers and structural body components. The objective is usually to optimize the energy absorption capability for a given structure weight. The ability to extrude thin wall multi-void extrusions contributes to this goal. However, the alloy used also plays a significant role in terms of the ability to produce the required geometry, strength - which to a large extent controls the energy absorption capability and the “ductility” or fracture behavior which controls the strain that can be applied locally during crush deformation before cracking. This paper describes results of a test program to examine the crush behavior of a range of alloys typically supplied for automotive applications as a function of processing parameters including artificial ageing and quench rate.
Technical Paper

In-Cabin Aeroacoustics of a Full-Scale Transport Truck

The noise generated by the flow of air past a transport truck is a key design factor for the manufacturers of these vehicles as the sound levels in the cabin are a significant component of driver comfort. This paper describes a collaboration between Volvo GTT and the National Research Council Canada to measure the in-cabin aeroacoustics of a full-scale cab-over tractor in the NRC 9 m Wind Tunnel. Acoustic instrumentation was installed inside the tractor to record cabin noise levels and externally to acquire tunnel background noise data. Using a microphone mounted on the driver’s-side tunnel wall as a reference to remove variations in background noise levels between data points, differences in cabin noise levels were able to be detected when comparing the tractor with different configurations. The good repeatability of the data allowed for differences of as little as 0.5 dB to be measured.
Technical Paper

Progress towards a 3D Numerical Simulation of Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing using the Morphogenetic Approach

We have developed an original, three-dimensional icing modelling capability, called the “morphogenetic” approach, based on a discrete formulation and simulation of ice formation physics. Morphogenetic icing modelling improves on existing ice accretion models, in that it is capable of predicting simultaneous rime and glaze ice accretions and ice accretions with variable density and complex geometries. The objective of this paper is to show preliminary results of simulating complex three-dimensional features such as lobster tails and rime feathers forming on a swept wing. The results are encouraging. They show that the morphogenetic approach can predict realistically both the overall size and detailed structure of the ice accretion forming on a swept wing. Under cold ambient conditions, when drops freeze instantly upon impingement, the numerical ice structure has voids, which reduce its density.
Technical Paper

Development of a Supercooled Large Droplet Environment within the NRC Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel

Simulations of supercooled large droplet (SLD) icing environments within the NRC's Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel (AIWT) have been performed in which broad band mass distribution spectra are achieved that include a distinct pattern of liquid water content (LWC) over a range of droplet sizes (i.e., bi-modal distribution). The mass distribution is achieved through modification of the existing spray system of the AIWT to allow two spray profiles with differing LWC and median volumetric diameter (MVD) to be simultaneously injected into the flow. Results of spray profile distributions measured in the test section have demonstrated that freezing drizzle conditions, where MVD is either less than or greater than 40 μm, can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Carded Recycled Carbon Fiber Mats for the Production of Thermoset Composites via Infusion/Compression Molding

The use of carbon fiber reinforced thermoset composites has doubled in the last decade raising questions about the waste generated from manufacturing and at end-of-life, especially in the aircraft industry. In this study, 2.5 cm long carbon fibers were recovered from thermoset composite waste using a commercial scale pyrolysis process. Scanning electron microscopy, density measurements, single filament tensile testing as well as micro-droplet testing were performed to characterize the morphology, mechanical properties, and surface adhesion of the fibers. The recycled fibers appeared to be mostly undamaged and clean, exhibiting comparable mechanical properties to virgin carbon fibers. A carding process followed by an ultrasound treatment produced randomly aligned recycled fiber mats. These mats were used to fabricate composite plates, with fiber volume fractions up to 40 %, by infusion / compression molding.
Journal Article

Review of Canadian Flight Deck and Cabin Smoke and Fire Incidents: 2001-2010

This paper presents a review of the flight deck and cabin fire and smoke incidents reported to the Canadian airworthiness authorities over a ten year span. The fire and smoke related diversions are categorized to identify areas where efforts could be increased to improve safety. The costs of diversions are estimated to identify areas where operators could reduce costs by seeking technologies to reduce the number of diversions without any impact on safety. Only twenty-eight investigation reports into fire and smoke incidents onboard aircraft have been published over the past three decades. These reports are not sufficient to identify areas where operators can reduce their operating costs. The Canadian airworthiness authorities received over 1,000 smoke and fire incidents from the years 2001 to 2010, of which, over 680 reported fire and smoke in the flight deck and cabin compartments for various makes and models of aircraft.
Technical Paper

Controlling the Forming of Thermoplastics through Forming Power

Controlling the forming of large thermoplastic parts from a simulation requires very precise predictions of the pressure and volume profile evolution. Present pressure profile based simulations adequately predict the thickness distribution of a part, but the forming pressure and volume profile development lack the precision required for process control. However new simulations based on the amount of power required to form the material can accurately predict these pressure and volume profiles. In addition online monitoring of the forming power on existing machines can be easily implemented by installing a flow rate and pressure meter at the gas entrance, and if necessary, exits of the part. An important additional benefit is that a machine thus equipped can function as an online rheometer that can characterize the viscosity of the material at the operating point by tuning the simulation to the online measurements.
Technical Paper

Hot Forming of 7075 Aluminium Alloy Tubes to Produce Complex and Strong Components

Lightweight tubular products offering enhanced stiffness and strength have always been of major concern for transportation and recreational applications. Hence, industries have turned to complex-shaped tubes to increase product performance and reduce energy costs. High-performance aluminum alloys, like 7075 for instance, have good mechanical properties such as high strength, but low formability at ambient temperature. Fortunately, hot tensile tests on 7075 samples have yielded an increase in formability with temperature. Therefore, testing has recently been launched at the Aluminum Technology Center to develop a new product application. More precisely, a 1,000-ton hydraulic press was equipped with +600°C heating plates and fitted with a bicycle handlebar mold. The plates provide 10 separate heating zones that can be adjusted independently. A thermo-mechanical model was also developed using LS-DYNA to determine tube temperatures around the heating zones.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Performance Degradation - the Effects of Inflight Icing upon Lift, Drag and Propulsive Efficiency

Data is presented from a number of flight research aircraft, which have been involved in the research of the effects of inflight icing, in a variety of atmospheric supercooled droplet and mixed-phase icing environmental conditions. The aircraft Types considered cover both Pneumatic and Thermal Ice Protection Systems (IPS). Icing includes supercooled droplet impact icing upon airframe and propeller blades and cold-soaked frost icing. The drag effects of inflight icing, from mixed-phase small and large droplets encountered during the course of SALPEX cloud physics research operations, upon a Fokker F-27 turboprop transport aircraft, have been analyzed. Furthermore, during the course of AIRS 1.5 and AIRS II inflight icing flight research operations, the NRC Convair conducted aerodynamic characterization maneuvers, following and during icing accretion in a wide range of environmental conditions of altitude, air temperature, LWC and droplet spectra.
Technical Paper

Development and Commissioning of a Linear Compressor Cascade Rig for Ice Crystal Research

This paper describes the commissioning of a linear compressor cascade rig for ice crystal research. The rig is located in an altitude chamber so the test section stagnation pressure, temperature and Mach number can be varied independently. The facility is open-circuit which eliminates the possibility of recirculating ice crystals reentering the test section and modifying the median mass diameter and total water content in time. As this is an innovative facility, the operating procedures and instrumentation used are discussed. Sample flow quality data are presented showing the distribution of velocity, temperature, turbulence intensity and ice water concentration in the test section. The control and repeatability of experimental parameters is also discussed.
Journal Article

Reduction of Hot Tears: Alloy and Casting Process Optimization Using Neutron Diffraction

The continued need of vehicle weight reduction provides impetus for research into the development of novel automotive casting alloys and their processing technologies. Where possible, ferrous components are being replaced by aluminum (Al) and magnesium (Mg) alloy counterparts. This transition, however, requires a systematic optimization of the alloys and their manufacturing processes to enable production of defect-free castings. In this context, prevention of hot tears remains a challenge for Al and Mg alloy thin-wall castings. Hot tears form in semi-solid alloy subjected to localized tensile stress. Classical methods of stress measurement present numerous experimental limitations. In this research, neutron diffraction (ND) was used as a novel tool to obtain stress maps of castings and to quantify the effect of two processes used to eliminate hot tears in permanent mold castings: 1) increasing of the mold temperature during casting of Mg alloys, and 2) grain refinement of Al alloys.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Casting Parameters on an Improved AA6061 Aluminum Alloy for Semi-Solid Die Casting

A study was conducted to assess the performance and castability of a new AA6061 aluminum alloy variant specially designed for semi-solid pressure die casting. The AA6061 alloy has very desirable mechanical properties for the fabrication of automotive parts. However, it has limited castability due to its low silicon content. It is not well suited for shape casting processes which are, for their part, very interesting in terms of production costs for complex-shaped automotive components. In an effort to meet automotive industry requirements, new AA6061 alloy variants have been developed by Rio Tinto Alcan researchers over the past years, aiming to improve the castability of the alloy while maintaining its desirable mechanical properties, by increasing its die-filling capacity, decreasing its hot tearing tendency. The study described herein is an example of how the performance of a single variant was assessed in terms of castability. The full study was conducted on six separate variants.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of “Pyrolysis” as a Resource Recovery Option for Automobile Shredder Residue

Pyrolysis, the chemical cracking of organic materials such as polymeric materials represents an innovative technology to recover resources contained in automobile shredder residues (ASR). In this study the technical capabilities, economic viability and environmental impact of pyrolysis as applied to ASR has been investigated. Based upon data provided by pyrolysis equipment suppliers, the pyrolysis of ASR appears to be a viable option to deal with the growing quantities of this material currently being produced. However, the selection of the most appropriate pyrolysis technology is dependant upon local needs and requirements.