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Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Improvers and Their Effect on Microbial Stability of Diesel/Biodiesel Blends

2018-09-10
2018-01-1751
Additives that enhance properties, such as cetane number or cold flow, are introduced in diesel-biodiesel blends in order to upgrade its performance as well as to aid its handling and distribution. Furthermore, in order to protect the engine and fuel operating system equipment, diesel fuel may be treated with corrosion inhibitors and detergents. However, additives could also have an impact on other parameters beyond those that they are intended to boost. In the present study the effect of diesel fuel improvers on fuel’s microbial stability is examined. An additive-free ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) was blended with Soybean Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) and the resulting blend was treated separately with a series of commercially available diesel fuel additives.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Hydroprocessed Used Cooking Oils as High Cetane Number Blending Component for Automotive Diesel

2018-09-10
2018-01-1745
Renewable substitutes for transportation fuels have had an important role in the recent years. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are produced from two stage hydrotreating process of vegetable oils. The second stage of this hydroteating process is used to convert normal paraffins to isoparaffins in order to improve cold flow properties of these fuels. As this stage is a high energy consuming process, it is of interest to investigate the characteristics and the usability of the first stage of hydrotreatment of lipids. This paper examines the properties of alternative fuel derived from the hydrotreatment of used cooking oil (UCO). Used cooking oil is a difficult feedstock for biodiesel production. The hydrotreating of UCO converts triglycerides mainly into normal paraffins within the diesel fuel range. The hydrotreated UCO (HUCO) has an excellent cetane number and cetane index (>90), but very poor cold flow properties.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Stabilizing Effect of n-Butanol on Diesel-Bioethanol Blends

2018-09-10
2018-01-1744
In accordance to the current environmental policy of the European Union by 2020, 10% of the transport fuel in every country comes from renewable sources such as biofuels. One of the most popular biofuels, (bio) ethanol is a probable suitable candidate for addition in diesel fuel because of its cleaner combustion and the ability to reduce emissions of gaseous pollutants. However, its use presents some important problems, attributed mainly to its incompatibility with diesel fuel during mixing due to the difference in the polarity. For this reason, substances that act as stabilizers of these mixtures are used, one of the most suitable being butanol. This substance is compatible with diesel fuel and ethanol, acting as a chemical bridge between the two, but also exhibits positive combustion behavior, as it is also an oxygenate that can be produced from renewable sources as well. The aim of this work was to investigate the behavior of diesel-ethanol mixtures using butanol as co-solvent.
Technical Paper

Effect of Phenolic Type Antioxidant Additives on Microbial Stability of Biodiesel Fuel

2017-10-08
2017-01-2334
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a variety of phenolic type antioxidant additives on the microbial stability of biodiesel and diesel/biodiesel blends. Six synthetic phenolic type antioxidant agents were added in FAME at concentrations up to 1000 ppm. Treated FAME was also blended with Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel at a concentration of 7% v/v in order to examine the activity of the substances in the final blends. The oxidation stability in the presence of the phenolic compounds was determined by carrying out measurements under accelerated oxidation process in the Rancimat unit. The effectiveness of those antioxidant agents against microbial contamination in biodiesel fuel was studied under certain testing protocols for detecting microbiological activity in the fuel supply chain and for evaluating antimicrobials against fuel bio-deterioration.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Stability and Ignition Quality of Diesel-Biodiesel-Butanol Blends

2017-10-08
2017-01-2320
FAME is the most common renewable component of conventional automotive diesel. Despite the advantages, biodiesel is more susceptible to oxidative deterioration and due to its chemical composition as well as its higher affinity to water, is considered to be a favorable substrate for microorganisms. On the other hand, apart from biodiesel, alcohols are considered to be promising substitutes to conventional diesel fuel because they can offer higher oxygen concentration leading to better combustion characteristics and lower exhaust emissions. More specifically, n-butanol is a renewable alcohol demonstrating better blending capabilities and properties when it is added to diesel fuel, as its composition is closer to conventional fuel, when compared ethanol to for example. Taking into consideration the alleged disinfectant properties of alcohols, it would be interesting to examine also the microbial stability of blends containing n-butanol in various concentrations.
Technical Paper

Lubricity of Diesel Fuel Hydrocarbons and Surrogate Fuels

2017-10-08
2017-01-2292
The aim of this study is to investigate the lubricity of hydrocarbons that constitute components of petroleum diesel fuel. A number of typical hydrocarbon compounds were selected as representative of the group types of alkanes (paraffins), cycloalkanes (naphthenes) and aromatics, similar to those that are present in diesel fuel. The lubricity of these substances was examined in a High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) apparatus according to the ISO 12156-1 standard method. Thereafter, a series of diesel surrogate fuel were prepared from the above substances based on literature data for diesel fuel composition and on the previously obtained results. These model fuels were assessed regarding their lubricating performance in order to evaluate how each individual component can affect the lubricity of the final fuel.
Technical Paper

A Study on Microbial Contamination of Alcohol-Blended Unleaded Gasoline

2016-10-17
2016-01-2259
The fuel supply chain faces challenges associated with microbial contamination symptoms. Microbial growth is an issue usually known to be associated with middle distillate fuels and biodiesel, however, incidents where microbial populations have been isolated from unleaded gasoline storage tanks have also been recently reported. Alcohols are employed as gasoline components and the use of these oxygenates is rising, especially ethanol, which can be a renewable alternative to gasoline, as well. Despite their alleged disinfectant properties, a number of field observations suggests that biodeterioration could be a potential issue in fuel systems handling ethanol-blended gasoline. For this reason, in this study, the effect of alcohols on microbial proliferation in unleaded gasoline fuel was assessed. Ethanol (EtOH), iso-propyl alcohol (IPA) and tert-butyl-alcohol (TBA) were evaluated as examples of alcohols utilized in gasoline as oxygenates.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Diluent Addition on Flame Characteristics in a Single Cylinder Optical Diesel Engine

2015-09-06
2015-24-2438
The present work investigates the effect of low levels CO2 addition on the combustion characteristics inside a single cylinder optical engine operated under low load conditions. The effects of dilution levels (up to 7.5% mass flow rate CO2 addition), the number of pilot injections (single or double pilot injections) and injection pressure (25 or 40 MPa), are evaluated towards the direction of achieving a partially premixed combustion (PPC) operation mode. The findings are discussed based on optical measurements and via pressure trace and apparent rate of heat release analyses in a Ricardo Hydra optical light duty diesel engine. The engine was operated under low IMEP levels of the order of 1.6 bar at 1200 rpm and with a CO2 diluent-enhanced atmosphere resembling an environment of simulated low exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates. Flame propagation is captured by means of high speed imaging and OH, CH and C2 line-of-sight chemiluminescence respectively.
Technical Paper

Monoglyceride Content in Marine Diesel Fuel-A Guide

2014-10-13
2014-01-2775
Problems with the low-temperature operability performance of biodiesel in blends with petroleum diesel are infrequent, but continue to limit the use of biodiesel during winter months. A troubling aspect of this problem is that in some cases precipitates above the blend Cloud Point (CP) have been detected and have led to plugging of fuel filters and subsequent engine stalling, as well as plugging of fuel dispenser filters. Many researchers found that the saturated monoglyceride content was a main component of the material that was found on plugged fuel filters, as well as traces of Saturated DiGlycerides (SDG), were also present on the plugged fuel filters. This is the reason which forced the organization of standardization to suggest a procedure in order to predict the content of the Saturated MonoGlycerides (SMG) even with uncertainty which can vary from −50% to +50%. The model which was used will be the same as that which was introduced in the Annex C of EN 14214+A1:2013.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel Fuel using the Rancimat and the RSSOT methods

2014-10-13
2014-01-2758
For many years Rancimat was the only standardized method for measuring the oxidation stability of FAME and FAME/diesel blends. However this method is not applicable to pure conventional petroleum products and so the effect of FAME on diesel fuel stability could not be evaluated directly. Recently a Rapid Small Scale Oxidation Test (RSSOT) that covers the determination of the stability of biofuels and petroleum products was developed and standardized. In this study the oxidation stability of seven different types of FAMEs was assessed, either neat or blended with three types of ULSD fuel, by employing both the Rancimat and the RSSOT accelerated oxidation methods. The determinations from either test were analyzed and a comparative assessment of these two method was carried out.
Journal Article

Characterization of Hydroprocessed Used Cooking Oils in Blend with Low Quality Gasoil Samples

2014-04-01
2014-01-1468
The scope of this work is to examine the use of hydroprossed used cooking oils as substitute for automotive diesel fuel. Hydroprocessing is an alternative method for the transformation of vegetable oils into high quality transport fuels, even if the quality of the oils is low, such as used cooking oils. In the present work, the utilization of hydroprocessed used cooking oil (HUCO) as neat fuel was proved to be very difficult, due to its very poor cold flow properties; therefore, mixtures of the HUCO with low quality middle distillates (a low cetane number gasoil and a light cycle oil) were prepared and evaluated. Throughout the process the formed blends were evaluated according to the european standard EN 590. The following points were mainly recorded: The lower density of HUCO was beneficial, permitting the use of poor quality distillates, in specific concentrations, and the high cetane number of HUCO was appreciable, improving the worse behavior of the other components.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Phases in a DI Diesel Engine Based on Instantaneous Cyclic Heat Transfer Experimental Data

2013-04-08
2013-01-1646
In the present paper a new method is proposed for the analysis of the two main phases of the engine exhaust stroke blowdown and displacement. The method is based on the processing of fast-response experimental temperatures obtained from the exhaust manifold wall during the engine cycle. A novel experimental installation has been developed, which separates the engine transient temperature signals into two groups, namely the long- and the short- term response ones. This has been achieved by processing the respective signals acquired from two independent data acquisition systems. Furthermore, a new pre-amplification unit for fast response thermocouples, appropriate heat flux sensors and an innovative, object-oriented, control code for fast data acquisition have been designed and applied. For the experimental procedure a direct injection (DI), air-cooled diesel engine is used.
Technical Paper

Production of Biobased Lubricant Basestocks with Improved Performance

2012-09-10
2012-01-1620
The ability of a catalyst to enhance the performance of synthesized biobased lubricant basestock was investigated in this study. Pomace olive oil, cottonseed oil, used frying oil and methyl oleate were utilized as starting materials for the production of the biobased lubricants and a two stages transesterification methodology was followed. Initially the oils were converted to their corresponding fatty acid methyl esters via methanolysis. The resulting methylesters were subsequently transesterified with TMP producing the desired oleochemical ester. These syntheses were carried out in the presence of either sodium methoxide or Ca/TEA alkoxide as catalysts. Following the purification phase, the synthesized esters were evaluated as potential biolubricants regarding their physicochemical properties such as viscosity index, pour point and acid value.
Technical Paper

Identification and Correction of the Error Induced by the Sampling Method Used to Monitor Cylinder Pressure of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1155
Cylinder pressure measurements are common practice for internal combustion reciprocating engines during field or lab applications for the purpose of combustion analysis, condition monitoring etc. The most accurate method is to measure cylinder pressure using a crank angle encoder as a trigger source to guarantee cylinder pressure measurement at predefined crank angle events. This solution, even though favorable, presents a number of practical difficulties for field applications and increased cost, for this reason its use is practically restricted to lab applications. Therefore a commonly used approach for ad hoc measurements is to digitize samples at fixed time intervals and then convert time into crank angle assuming a constant rotational speed. But if engine rotational speed is not constant within the engine cycle this may result to incorrect cylinder pressure CA referencing.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a New Diagnostic Technique to Detect and Account for Load Variation during Cylinder Pressure Measurement of Large-Scale Four-Stroke Diesel Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1342
High efficiency, power concentration and reliability are the main requirements from Diesel Engines that are used in most technical applications. This becomes more important with the increase of engine size. For this reason the aforementioned characteristics are of significant priority for both marine and power generation applications. To guarantee efficient engine operation and maximum power output, both research and commercial communities are increasingly interested in methods used for supervision, fault-detection and fault diagnosis of large scale Diesel Engines. Most of these methods make use of the measured cylinder pressure to estimate various critical operating parameters such as, brake power, fuel consumption, compression status, etc. The results obtained from the application of any diagnostic technique, used to assess the current engine operating condition and identify the real cause of the malfunction or fault, depend strongly on the quality of these data.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on the Impact of Biodiesel Origin and Type on the Exhaust Emissions from a Euro 4 Pick-up Truck

2010-10-25
2010-01-2273
This study investigates the impact of mid-high biodiesel blends on the criteria and PAH emissions from a modern pick-up diesel vehicle. The vehicle was a Euro 4 (category N1, subclass III) compliant common-rail light-duty goods pick-up truck fitted with a diesel oxidation catalyst. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed on a chassis dynamometer equipped with CVS, following the European regulations. All measurements were conducted over the certification New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the real traffic-based Artemis driving cycles. Aiming to evaluate the fuel impact on emissions, a soy-based biodiesel, a palm-based biodiesel, and an oxidized biodiesel obtained from used frying oils were blended with a typical automotive ultra-low-sulfur diesel at proportions of 30, 50 and 80% by volume. The experimental results revealed that CO₂ emissions and fuel consumption exhibited an increase with biodiesel over all driving conditions.
Journal Article

Regulated and Unregulated Emissions of a Euro 4 SUV Operated with Diesel and Soy-based Biodiesel Blends

2009-11-02
2009-01-2690
In this study, regulated, unregulated exhaust emissions and fuel consumption with ultra low sulphur diesel and soy-based biodiesel blends at proportions of 10 and 30% v/v have been investigated. A Euro 4 compliant SUV, equipped with a 2.2 litre common-rail diesel engine and an oxidation catalyst was tested on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) technique. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the non-legislated Artemis driving cycles which simulate urban, rural, and highway driving conditions in Europe. The regulated pollutants were characterized by determined NOx, PM, CO, and HC. CO2 was also quantified in the exhaust. Overall, 16 PAHs, 4 nitro-PAHs, 6 oxy-PAHs, 13 carbonyl compounds and particulate alkanes ranged from C13 to C35 were determined in the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Tribological Evaluation of the Aviation Kerosene for Use in CI Engines

2009-11-02
2009-01-2804
To reduce the fuel related logistic burden, NATO Armed Forces are advancing the use of a single fuel for both aircraft and ground equipment. To this end, F-34 is replacing distillate diesel fuel in many applications. Yet, unacceptable wear due to poor lubricity was illustrated by tests conducted with kerosene on High Frequency Reciprocating Rig. Therefore, HFRR tests were performed with fatty acid methyl esters of sunflower, palm, cotton-seed, tobacco-seed, olive, rape-seed and used frying oils, at volume concentrations from 0.05% to 0.6%. This study showed that the biodiesels used, produced a significant decrease in the wear scar diameter at concentrations of 0.2% to 0.4 %. Biodiesels derived from non-polyunsaturated oils, such as palm and olive gave better lubrication at certain concentrations.
Technical Paper

Effect of Metals in the Oxidation Stability and Lubricity of Biodiesel Fuel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1829
The introduction to the European market of higher levels of biodiesel blends focuses the research interest on the compatibility problems of the diesel fuel distribution system. The influence of metals in the oxidation stability and lubricity of two different types of commercially available FAMEs (without antioxidant additive) was investigated. Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) and Tin (Sn), were added in the form of solid metals (heterogeneous catalysis in liquid phase oxidation) and examined for their impact on the oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel. Oxidation stability was determined by Rancimat accelerated oxidation method, according to European Standard EN14214. Additionally, in order to examine the effect of the above mentioned metals in the presence of antioxidant additive, BHT was added in both biodiesel samples and oxidation stability determinations were carried out, as well.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Biodiesel on PAHs, Nitro-PAHs and Oxy-PAHs Emissions from a Light Vehicle Operated Over the European and the Artemis Driving Cycles

2009-06-15
2009-01-1895
This study examines the effects of neat soy-based biodiesel (B100) and its 50% v/v blend (B50) with low sulphur automotive diesel on vehicle PAH emissions. The measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) according to the European regulated technique. The vehicle was a Euro 2 compliant diesel passenger car, equipped with a 1.9 litre common-rail turbocharged direct injection engine and an oxidation catalyst. Emissions of PAHs, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs were measured over the urban phase (UDC) and the extra-urban phase (EUDC) of the type approval cycle (NEDC). In addition, for evaluating realistic driving performance the non-legislated Artemis driving cycles (Urban, Road and Motorway) were used. Overall, 12 PAHs, 4 nitro-PAHs, and 6 oxy-PAHs were determined. The results indicated that PAH emissions exhibited a reduction with biodiesel during all driving modes.
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