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Technical Paper

Characterization of Hydroprocessed Used Cooking Oils as High Cetane Number Blending Component for Automotive Diesel

2018-09-10
2018-01-1745
Renewable substitutes for transportation fuels have had an important role in the recent years. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are produced from two stage hydrotreating process of vegetable oils. The second stage of this hydroteating process is used to convert normal paraffins to isoparaffins in order to improve cold flow properties of these fuels. As this stage is a high energy consuming process, it is of interest to investigate the characteristics and the usability of the first stage of hydrotreatment of lipids. This paper examines the properties of alternative fuel derived from the hydrotreatment of used cooking oil (UCO). Used cooking oil is a difficult feedstock for biodiesel production. The hydrotreating of UCO converts triglycerides mainly into normal paraffins within the diesel fuel range. The hydrotreated UCO (HUCO) has an excellent cetane number and cetane index (>90), but very poor cold flow properties.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Improvers and Their Effect on Microbial Stability of Diesel/Biodiesel Blends

2018-09-10
2018-01-1751
Additives that enhance properties, such as cetane number or cold flow, are introduced in diesel-biodiesel blends in order to upgrade its performance as well as to aid its handling and distribution. Furthermore, in order to protect the engine and fuel operating system equipment, diesel fuel may be treated with corrosion inhibitors and detergents. However, additives could also have an impact on other parameters beyond those that they are intended to boost. In the present study the effect of diesel fuel improvers on fuel’s microbial stability is examined. An additive-free ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) was blended with Soybean Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) and the resulting blend was treated separately with a series of commercially available diesel fuel additives.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Stabilizing Effect of n-Butanol on Diesel-Bioethanol Blends

2018-09-10
2018-01-1744
In accordance to the current environmental policy of the European Union by 2020, 10% of the transport fuel in every country comes from renewable sources such as biofuels. One of the most popular biofuels, (bio) ethanol is a probable suitable candidate for addition in diesel fuel because of its cleaner combustion and the ability to reduce emissions of gaseous pollutants. However, its use presents some important problems, attributed mainly to its incompatibility with diesel fuel during mixing due to the difference in the polarity. For this reason, substances that act as stabilizers of these mixtures are used, one of the most suitable being butanol. This substance is compatible with diesel fuel and ethanol, acting as a chemical bridge between the two, but also exhibits positive combustion behavior, as it is also an oxygenate that can be produced from renewable sources as well. The aim of this work was to investigate the behavior of diesel-ethanol mixtures using butanol as co-solvent.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Stability and Ignition Quality of Diesel-Biodiesel-Butanol Blends

2017-10-08
2017-01-2320
FAME is the most common renewable component of conventional automotive diesel. Despite the advantages, biodiesel is more susceptible to oxidative deterioration and due to its chemical composition as well as its higher affinity to water, is considered to be a favorable substrate for microorganisms. On the other hand, apart from biodiesel, alcohols are considered to be promising substitutes to conventional diesel fuel because they can offer higher oxygen concentration leading to better combustion characteristics and lower exhaust emissions. More specifically, n-butanol is a renewable alcohol demonstrating better blending capabilities and properties when it is added to diesel fuel, as its composition is closer to conventional fuel, when compared ethanol to for example. Taking into consideration the alleged disinfectant properties of alcohols, it would be interesting to examine also the microbial stability of blends containing n-butanol in various concentrations.
Technical Paper

Effect of Phenolic Type Antioxidant Additives on Microbial Stability of Biodiesel Fuel

2017-10-08
2017-01-2334
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a variety of phenolic type antioxidant additives on the microbial stability of biodiesel and diesel/biodiesel blends. Six synthetic phenolic type antioxidant agents were added in FAME at concentrations up to 1000 ppm. Treated FAME was also blended with Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel at a concentration of 7% v/v in order to examine the activity of the substances in the final blends. The oxidation stability in the presence of the phenolic compounds was determined by carrying out measurements under accelerated oxidation process in the Rancimat unit. The effectiveness of those antioxidant agents against microbial contamination in biodiesel fuel was studied under certain testing protocols for detecting microbiological activity in the fuel supply chain and for evaluating antimicrobials against fuel bio-deterioration.
Technical Paper

A Study on Microbial Contamination of Alcohol-Blended Unleaded Gasoline

2016-10-17
2016-01-2259
The fuel supply chain faces challenges associated with microbial contamination symptoms. Microbial growth is an issue usually known to be associated with middle distillate fuels and biodiesel, however, incidents where microbial populations have been isolated from unleaded gasoline storage tanks have also been recently reported. Alcohols are employed as gasoline components and the use of these oxygenates is rising, especially ethanol, which can be a renewable alternative to gasoline, as well. Despite their alleged disinfectant properties, a number of field observations suggests that biodeterioration could be a potential issue in fuel systems handling ethanol-blended gasoline. For this reason, in this study, the effect of alcohols on microbial proliferation in unleaded gasoline fuel was assessed. Ethanol (EtOH), iso-propyl alcohol (IPA) and tert-butyl-alcohol (TBA) were evaluated as examples of alcohols utilized in gasoline as oxygenates.
Technical Paper

Monoglyceride Content in Marine Diesel Fuel-A Guide

2014-10-13
2014-01-2775
Problems with the low-temperature operability performance of biodiesel in blends with petroleum diesel are infrequent, but continue to limit the use of biodiesel during winter months. A troubling aspect of this problem is that in some cases precipitates above the blend Cloud Point (CP) have been detected and have led to plugging of fuel filters and subsequent engine stalling, as well as plugging of fuel dispenser filters. Many researchers found that the saturated monoglyceride content was a main component of the material that was found on plugged fuel filters, as well as traces of Saturated DiGlycerides (SDG), were also present on the plugged fuel filters. This is the reason which forced the organization of standardization to suggest a procedure in order to predict the content of the Saturated MonoGlycerides (SMG) even with uncertainty which can vary from −50% to +50%. The model which was used will be the same as that which was introduced in the Annex C of EN 14214+A1:2013.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel Fuel using the Rancimat and the RSSOT methods

2014-10-13
2014-01-2758
For many years Rancimat was the only standardized method for measuring the oxidation stability of FAME and FAME/diesel blends. However this method is not applicable to pure conventional petroleum products and so the effect of FAME on diesel fuel stability could not be evaluated directly. Recently a Rapid Small Scale Oxidation Test (RSSOT) that covers the determination of the stability of biofuels and petroleum products was developed and standardized. In this study the oxidation stability of seven different types of FAMEs was assessed, either neat or blended with three types of ULSD fuel, by employing both the Rancimat and the RSSOT accelerated oxidation methods. The determinations from either test were analyzed and a comparative assessment of these two method was carried out.
Journal Article

Characterization of Hydroprocessed Used Cooking Oils in Blend with Low Quality Gasoil Samples

2014-04-01
2014-01-1468
The scope of this work is to examine the use of hydroprossed used cooking oils as substitute for automotive diesel fuel. Hydroprocessing is an alternative method for the transformation of vegetable oils into high quality transport fuels, even if the quality of the oils is low, such as used cooking oils. In the present work, the utilization of hydroprocessed used cooking oil (HUCO) as neat fuel was proved to be very difficult, due to its very poor cold flow properties; therefore, mixtures of the HUCO with low quality middle distillates (a low cetane number gasoil and a light cycle oil) were prepared and evaluated. Throughout the process the formed blends were evaluated according to the european standard EN 590. The following points were mainly recorded: The lower density of HUCO was beneficial, permitting the use of poor quality distillates, in specific concentrations, and the high cetane number of HUCO was appreciable, improving the worse behavior of the other components.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on the Impact of Biodiesel Origin and Type on the Exhaust Emissions from a Euro 4 Pick-up Truck

2010-10-25
2010-01-2273
This study investigates the impact of mid-high biodiesel blends on the criteria and PAH emissions from a modern pick-up diesel vehicle. The vehicle was a Euro 4 (category N1, subclass III) compliant common-rail light-duty goods pick-up truck fitted with a diesel oxidation catalyst. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed on a chassis dynamometer equipped with CVS, following the European regulations. All measurements were conducted over the certification New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the real traffic-based Artemis driving cycles. Aiming to evaluate the fuel impact on emissions, a soy-based biodiesel, a palm-based biodiesel, and an oxidized biodiesel obtained from used frying oils were blended with a typical automotive ultra-low-sulfur diesel at proportions of 30, 50 and 80% by volume. The experimental results revealed that CO₂ emissions and fuel consumption exhibited an increase with biodiesel over all driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Tribological Evaluation of the Aviation Kerosene for Use in CI Engines

2009-11-02
2009-01-2804
To reduce the fuel related logistic burden, NATO Armed Forces are advancing the use of a single fuel for both aircraft and ground equipment. To this end, F-34 is replacing distillate diesel fuel in many applications. Yet, unacceptable wear due to poor lubricity was illustrated by tests conducted with kerosene on High Frequency Reciprocating Rig. Therefore, HFRR tests were performed with fatty acid methyl esters of sunflower, palm, cotton-seed, tobacco-seed, olive, rape-seed and used frying oils, at volume concentrations from 0.05% to 0.6%. This study showed that the biodiesels used, produced a significant decrease in the wear scar diameter at concentrations of 0.2% to 0.4 %. Biodiesels derived from non-polyunsaturated oils, such as palm and olive gave better lubrication at certain concentrations.
Journal Article

Regulated and Unregulated Emissions of a Euro 4 SUV Operated with Diesel and Soy-based Biodiesel Blends

2009-11-02
2009-01-2690
In this study, regulated, unregulated exhaust emissions and fuel consumption with ultra low sulphur diesel and soy-based biodiesel blends at proportions of 10 and 30% v/v have been investigated. A Euro 4 compliant SUV, equipped with a 2.2 litre common-rail diesel engine and an oxidation catalyst was tested on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) technique. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the non-legislated Artemis driving cycles which simulate urban, rural, and highway driving conditions in Europe. The regulated pollutants were characterized by determined NOx, PM, CO, and HC. CO2 was also quantified in the exhaust. Overall, 16 PAHs, 4 nitro-PAHs, 6 oxy-PAHs, 13 carbonyl compounds and particulate alkanes ranged from C13 to C35 were determined in the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Determination of Physicochemical Properties of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE) - Diesel Fuel Blends

2009-06-15
2009-01-1788
In this study, the transesterification process of 4 different vegetable oils (sunflower, rapeseed, olive oil and used frying oil) took place utilizing ethanol, in order to characterize the ethyl esters and their blends with diesel fuel obtained as fuels for internal combustion engines. All ethyl esters were synthesized using calcium ethoxide as a heterogeneous solid base catalyst. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil, the molar ratio of ethanol to oil, and the reaction temperature were studied on conversion of sunflower oil to optimize the reaction conditions in both stages. The rest of the vegetable oils were converted to ethyl esters under optimum reaction parameters. The optimal conditions for first stage transesterification were an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, catalyst amount (3.5%), and 80 °C temperature, whereas the maximum yield of ethyl esters reached 80.5%.
Technical Paper

Effect of Metals in the Oxidation Stability and Lubricity of Biodiesel Fuel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1829
The introduction to the European market of higher levels of biodiesel blends focuses the research interest on the compatibility problems of the diesel fuel distribution system. The influence of metals in the oxidation stability and lubricity of two different types of commercially available FAMEs (without antioxidant additive) was investigated. Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) and Tin (Sn), were added in the form of solid metals (heterogeneous catalysis in liquid phase oxidation) and examined for their impact on the oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel. Oxidation stability was determined by Rancimat accelerated oxidation method, according to European Standard EN14214. Additionally, in order to examine the effect of the above mentioned metals in the presence of antioxidant additive, BHT was added in both biodiesel samples and oxidation stability determinations were carried out, as well.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Biodiesel on PAHs, Nitro-PAHs and Oxy-PAHs Emissions from a Light Vehicle Operated Over the European and the Artemis Driving Cycles

2009-06-15
2009-01-1895
This study examines the effects of neat soy-based biodiesel (B100) and its 50% v/v blend (B50) with low sulphur automotive diesel on vehicle PAH emissions. The measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) according to the European regulated technique. The vehicle was a Euro 2 compliant diesel passenger car, equipped with a 1.9 litre common-rail turbocharged direct injection engine and an oxidation catalyst. Emissions of PAHs, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs were measured over the urban phase (UDC) and the extra-urban phase (EUDC) of the type approval cycle (NEDC). In addition, for evaluating realistic driving performance the non-legislated Artemis driving cycles (Urban, Road and Motorway) were used. Overall, 12 PAHs, 4 nitro-PAHs, and 6 oxy-PAHs were determined. The results indicated that PAH emissions exhibited a reduction with biodiesel during all driving modes.
Journal Article

Evaluation of the Oxidation Stability of Diesel/Biodiesel Blends using the Modified Rancimat Method

2009-06-15
2009-01-1828
This study describes the effect of different types of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) on the oxidative stability of low and ultra low sulfur automotive diesel fuels. Eight different samples of FAME were employed to create blends of 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 10% v/v with four different types of diesel fuels. The samples were analyzed using the modified Rancimat method (EN 15751). The aim of this paper was to evaluate the impact of biodiesel source material and biodiesel concentration in diesel fuel, on the oxidation stability of the final blend. Moreover, the effect of sulfur content and the presence of cracked stocks in the base diesel fuel, on the oxidation stability of the final blends were also investigated.
Journal Article

Thermodynamic Analysis of SI Engine Operation on Variable Composition Biogas-Hydrogen Blends Using a Quasi-Dimensional, Multi-Zone Combustion Model

2009-04-20
2009-01-0931
In this work, a quasi-dimensional, multi-zone combustion model is analytically presented, for the prediction of performance and nitric oxide (NO) emissions of a homogeneous charge spark ignition (SI) engine, fueled with biogas-H2 blends of variable composition. The combustion model is incorporated into a closed cycle simulation code, which is also fully described. Combustion is modeled on the basis of turbulent entrainment theory and flame stretch concepts. In this context, the entrainment speed, by which unburned gas enters the flame region, is simulated by the turbulent burning velocity of a flamelet model. A flame stretch submodel is also included, in order to assess the flame response on the combined effects of curvature, turbulent strain and nonunity Lewis number mixture. As far as the burned gas is concerned, this is treated using a multi-zone thermodynamic formulation, to account for the spatial distribution of temperature and NO concentration inside the burned volume.
Journal Article

Impact of Simultaneous ETBE and Ethanol Addition on Motor Gasoline Properties

2008-10-06
2008-01-2503
This study examines the impact of ETBE and ethanol addition on the main properties of motor gasoline. European Union mandates the use of biofuels in all transport fuels, according to the 2003/30/EC Directive. The addition of ethanol, a known octane enhancing component, in small proportions significantly increases the vapor pressure of the final gasoline, exceeding the maximum specification limits. ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) is on the other hand an excellent but expensive octane enhancing component with beneficial impact on vapor pressure of the final gasoline. This paper examines the ability of ETBE to act as a stabilizer in gasoline - ethanol blends. Two gasoline samples with different chemical compositions and characteristics were prepared by blending basic refinery components. In each sample, ETBE was added in concentrations of 2, 4, and 6 % V/V respectively. In each of these ETBE - gasoline blends, ethanol was added in concentrations from 1 to 6 % V/V in 1% steps.
Technical Paper

Diesel/Soy Methyl Ester Blends Emissions Profile from a Passenger Vehicle Operated on the European and the Athens Driving Cycles

2007-10-29
2007-01-4043
The need of a more realistic and dynamic driving cycle which simulates real-world driving conditions in the largest city in the greater area of Balkans, led to the development of the Athens Driving Cycle (ADC). Emission and fuel consumption measurements were conducted over the ADC and compared with those of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) using a chassis dynamometer. A Euro II compliant diesel vehicle was used in this study, fuelled with a typical automotive diesel fuel and biodiesel blends at proportions of 5, 10, and 20 % respectively. The unregulated emissions were characterized by determining the soluble organic fraction (SOF) in the particulate matter, together with qualitative hydrocarbon analysis present in the SOF fraction, and of carbonyl compounds (aldehydes, ketones). Emissions of NOx, CO, THC, CO2, and PM10 were also measured over the two test cycles.
Technical Paper

Use of JP-8 Aviation Fuel and Biodiesel on a Diesel Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-3033
The present paper aims to discuss the quality characteristics of Jet Fuels used in the Greek market in comparison with fuels used in other countries and to evaluate jet fuels along with diesel and biodiesel on a diesel engine. To establish the quality characteristics for Jet Fuels of the Greek market, fuel samples were collected from the local refineries on a regular basis, thus monitoring the fuel quality fluctuation over time. JP8, along with diesel and biodiesel, were used alone and in mixtures on a single cylinder stationary diesel engine. Emissions and volumetric fuel consumption were measured under various loads.
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