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Technical Paper

The Effects of Inboard Shoulder Belt and Lap Belt Loadings on Chest Deflection

2018-11-12
2018-22-0002
Chest injuries occur frequently in frontal collisions. During impact, tension in the lap belt is transferred to the inboard shoulder belt, which compresses the lower ribs of the occupant. In this research, inboard shoulder belt and lap belt geometries and forces were investigated to reduce chest deflection. First, the inboard shoulder belt geometry was changed by the lap/shoulder belt (L/S) junction for the rear seat occupant in sled tests using Hybrid III finite element simulation, sled tests and THOR simulation. As the L/S junction was closer to the ASIS (anterior superior iliac spine), chest deflection of the Hybrid III was smaller. The L/S junction around the ilium has the potential to reduce chest deflection without significant increase of head excursion. For THOR, although the chest deflection reduction effect due to closer L/S junction to the ASIS was observed, chest deflection was still substantially large since the lap belt overrode the ASIS.
Technical Paper

Strain-rate Dependency of Axonal Tolerance for Uniaxial Stretching

2017-11-13
2017-22-0003
This study aims to clarify the relation between axonal deformation and the onset of axonal injury. Firstly, to examine the influence of strain rate on the threshold for axonal injury, cultured neurons were subjected to 12 types of stretching (strains were 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 and strain rates were 10, 30, 50, and 70 s-1). The formation of axonal swellings and bulbs increased significantly at strain rates of 50 and 30 s-1 with strains of 0.15 and 0.20, respectively, even though those formations did not depend on strain rates in cultures exposed to a strain of 0.10. Then, to examine the influence of the strain along an axon on axonal injury, swellings were measured at every axonal angle in the stretching direction. The axons that were parallel to stretching direction were injured the most. Finally, we proposed an experimental model that subjected an axon to more accurate strain.
Technical Paper

Association of Impact Velocity with Risks of Serious Injuries and Fatalities to Pedestrians in Commercial Truck-Pedestrian Accidents

2016-11-07
2016-22-0007
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between truck-pedestrian crash impact velocity and the risks of serious injury and fatality to pedestrians. We used micro and macro truck-pedestrian accident data from the Japanese Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) database. We classified vehicle type into five categories: heavy-duty trucks (gross vehicle weight [GVW] ≥11 × 103 kg [11 tons (t)], medium-duty trucks (5 × 103 kg [5 t] ≤ GVW < 11 × 103 kg [11 t]), light-duty trucks (GVW <5 × 103 kg [5 t]), box vans, and sedans. The fatality risk was ≤5% for light-duty trucks, box vans, and sedans at impact velocities ≤ 30 km/h and for medium-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤20 km/h. The fatality risk was ≤10% for heavy-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤10 km/h. Thus, fatality risk appears strongly associated with vehicle class.
Technical Paper

Performance of Collision Damage Mitigation Braking Systems and their Effects on Human Injury in the Event of Car-to-Pedestrian Accidents

2011-11-07
2011-22-0017
The number of traffic deaths in Japan was 4,863 in 2010. Pedestrians account for the highest number (1,714, 35%), and vehicle occupants the second highest (1,602, 33%). Pedestrian protection is a key countermeasure to reduce casualties in traffic accidents. A striking vehicle's impact velocity could be considered a parameter influencing the severity of injury and possibility of death in pedestrian crashes. A collision damage mitigation braking system (CDMBS) using a sensor to detect pedestrians could be effective for reducing the vehicle/pedestrian impact velocity. Currently in Japan, cars equipped with the CDMBS also have vision sensors such as a stereo camera for pedestrian detection. However, the ability of vision sensors in production cars to properly detect pedestrians has not yet been established. The effect of reducing impact velocity on the pedestrian injury risk has also not been determined.
Technical Paper

Head Impact Mechanisms of a Child Occupant Seated in a Child Restraint System as Determined by Impact Testing

2011-11-07
2011-22-0006
In side collision accidents, the head is the most frequently injured body region for child occupants seated in a child restraint system (CRS). Accident analyses show that a child's head can move out of the CRS shell, make hard contact with the vehicle interior, and thus sustain serious injuries. In order to improve child head protection in side collisions, it is necessary to understand the injury mechanism of a child in the CRS whose head makes contact with the vehicle interior. In this research, an SUV-to-car oblique side crash test was conducted to reconstruct such head contacts. A Q3s child dummy was seated in a CRS in the rear seat of the target car. The Q3s child dummy's head moved out beyond the CRS side wing, moved laterally, and made contact with the side window glass and the doorsill. It was demonstrated that the hard head contact, which produced a high HIC value, could occur in side collisions.
Technical Paper

Nerve Level Traumatic Brain Injury in in Vivo/in Vitro Experiments

2010-11-03
2010-22-0010
The number of traffic deaths in Japan was 4,914 in 2009. Since the head was the most common site of injury in traffic accidents (2,302, 47%), traumatic brain injury causes the fatalities in these accidents. The aim of the present study was to quantify micro injuries in the animal brain for gaining insight and understanding of the human brain injury tolerance. Using porcine brain matter, in vitro stress relaxation experiments and in vivo impact experiments were conducted. In both experiments, the distribution of the damage ratio of the transverse to longitudinal length of cells, hereafter, referred to as an aspect ratio, in the brain matter under loading was examined. In the in vitro stress relaxation experiments, specimens were compressed vertically with a compression velocity of 1 mm/s, and the displacement was held for 140 sec when the compression strain reached the target strain. In the experiments, there were five categories of compression strain: 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 percent.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Passenger Compartment Strength in Car-to-Car Frontal Crashes

2003-03-03
2003-01-0909
The strength of the passenger compartment is crucial for occupant safety in severe car-to-car frontal offset collisions. Car-to-car crash tests including minicars were carried out, and a low end of crash force was observed in a final stage of impact for cars with large intrusion into the passenger compartment. From overload tests, the strength could be evaluated from collapsing the passenger compartment. Based on the test, the end of crash force as well as the maximum forces might be important criteria to determine the passenger compartment strength, which in turn could predict the large intrusion into the passenger compartment in car-to-car crashes. A 64 km/h ODB test was insufficient to evaluate the potential strength of the passenger compartment because the maximum forces could not be determined in this test.
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