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Technical Paper

Aerodynamics Development for a New EV Hatchback Considering Crosswind Sensitivity

An electric vehicle (EV) has less powertrain energy loss than an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICE), so its aerodynamic accounts have a larger portion of drag contribution of the total energy loss. This means that EV aerodynamic performance has a larger impact on the all-electric range (AER). Therefore, the target set for the aerodynamics development for a new EV hatchback was to improving AER for the customer’s benefit. To achieve lower aerodynamic drag than the previous model’s good aerodynamic performance, an ideal airflow wake structure was initially defined for the new EV hatchback that has a flat underbody with no exhaust system. Several important parameters were specified and proper numerical values for the ideal airflow were defined for them. As a result, the new EV hatchback achieves a 4% reduction in drag coefficient (CD) from the previous model.
Journal Article

Coupled 6DoF Motion and Aerodynamic Crosswind Simulation Incorporating Driver Model

Because of rising demands to improve aerodynamic performance owing to its impact on vehicle dynamics, efforts were previously made to reduce aerodynamic lift and yawing moment based on steady-state measurements of aerodynamic forces. In recent years, increased research on dynamic aerodynamics has partially explained the impact of aerodynamic forces on vehicle dynamics. However, it is difficult to measure aerodynamic forces while a vehicle is in motion, and also analyzing the effect on vehicle dynamics requires measurement of vehicle behavior, amount of steering and other quantities noiselessly, as well as an explanation of the mutual influence with aerodynamic forces. Consequently, the related phenomena occurring in the real world are still not fully understood.
Journal Article

New Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Pitch Sequence Optimization of CVT Variator Chain

A CVT variator chain system is superior in transmission efficiency to a belt system because of its lower internal friction. However, a chain produces more noise than a belt due to the long pitch length of contact between the pulleys and rocker pins. This study focuses on optimization of the pitch sequence for reducing chain noise. The previous pitch sequence was suitably combined of links of different lengths to improve noise dispersibility for reducing chain noise. First, the object function was defined as the reduction of the peak level of 1st-order chain noise combined with a well-balanced the levels on the low and high frequency sides. Interior background noise consisting of road noise and wind noise have the characteristic that they increase as the frequency decreases.
Technical Paper

Independent Control of Steering Force and Wheel Angles to Improve Straight Line Stability

This paper describes a control method to improve straight-line stability without sacrificing natural steering feel, utilizing a newly developed steering system controlling the steering force and the wheel angle independently. It cancels drifting by a road cant and suppresses the yaw angle induced by road surface irregularities or a side wind. Therefore drivers can keep the car straight with such a little steering input adjustment, thus reducing the driver's workload greatly. In this control method, a camera mounted behind the windshield recognizes the forward lane and calculate the discrepancy between the vehicle direction and the driving lane. This method has been applied to the test car, and the reduction of the driver's workload was confirmed. This paper presents an outline of the method and describes its advantages.
Technical Paper

Technology for distinctive handling performance of the newly developed Electric Vehicle

Electric Vehicle distinctive techniques in order to enhance the vehicle dynamic performance have been studied and applied to Nissan LEAF. From the viewpoint of performance design parameters, this paper introduces the application items focusing on effectuality for the vehicle behavior by means of the yawing motion and the rolling motion control of its vehicle. As the result, the effects of vehicle performance are shown in experimental data.
Technical Paper

HBMC (Hydraulic Body Motion Control System) for Production Vehicle Application

In order to satisfy increasing customer demands on ride quality as well as expectations for off-road performance of sport-utility vehicles (SUVs), it is necessary to develop technologies which offer enhanced levels of both performances. For ride quality, it is important to minimize body roll angle during cornering, which is achieved by suppressing suspension travel, and also to reduce vertical motion during straight-ahead travel. While for off-road performance, it is necessary to allow a long suspension stroke to allow a high level of off-road traction by delivering driving force reliably to the surface. These two performance parameters require a tradeoff with respect to vehicle roll stiffness. To reconcile these conflicting performance requirements, for first time in the world we adopted for production vehicles the system which connects the four shock absorbers together.
Journal Article

Development of a Slip Speed Control System for a Lockup Clutch (Part III)

It is difficult for a conventional robust control algorithm to assure the performance of a slip speed control system, because the plant (lockup system) includes the nonlinear characteristics of the hydraulic system and large changes in the parameters of the slip model at low vehicle speed. The purpose of this study is to reduce the fuel consumption and improve the drivability of vehicles at takeoff by using a slip speed control system. Providing a large feedback gain is effective in reducing the influence of nonlinearity. However, since the operating parameters of the lockup clutch change depending on the driving conditions, that is not possible. A feedback compensator with a gain-scheduled H∞ control method was used in this study to solve these problems. The effectiveness of the slip speed control system was demonstrated in driving tests. Using this control system, the slip speed can be controlled with high accuracy, thereby reducing unnecessary revving of the engine.
Technical Paper

Development of a Slip Speed Control System for a Lock-Up Clutch (Part II)

A new control system for the coasting range was designed with the μ-synthesis technique to achieve robust stability, based on the slip speed control system that was reported in our previous paper.(1) The results of driving tests conducted with the fuel supply cut off while coasting confirm that the new control system is able to avoid engine stall even under sudden hard braking on a low friction road (μ<0.1) at a vehicle speed of 20 km/h and a turbine speed of 1000 rpm. The system also allows the lock-up clutch to slip stably at a certain target slip speed at anytime while coasting and achieves robust performance against characteristic variations of the lock-up mechanism. This slip speed control system thus makes it possible to extend the fuel cut-off range to a lower engine speed of 800 rpm, down from 950 rpm, thereby improving fuel economy by about 1%.
Technical Paper

Compact and Long-Stroke Multiple-Link VCR Engine Mechanism

A multiple-link variable compression ratio (VCR) mechanism is suitable for a long-stroke engine by providing the following characteristics: (1) a nearly symmetric piston stroke and (2) an upper link that stays vertical around the time of the maximum combustion pressure. These two characteristics work to reduce force inputs to the piston. The maximum inertial force around top dead center is reduced by the effect of the first characteristic. The second characteristic is effective in reducing piston side thrust force and helps ease piston pin lubrication. Because of the combined effect of these characteristics, the piston skirt can be made smaller and the piston pin can be shortened. That makes it possible for the piston skirt and piston pin to move between the counterweights, resulting in a downward extension of the piston stroke. As a result, a longer-stroke engine mechanism can be achieved without making the cylinder block taller.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cornering and Braking Behavior Simulation Using a Finite Element Method

This paper presents a vehicle dynamic simulation using a finite element method for performing more accurate simulations under extreme operating conditions with large tire deformation. A new hourglass control scheme implemented in an explicit finite element analysis code LS-DYNA(1) is used to stabilize tire deformation. The tires and suspension systems are fully modeled using finite elements and are connected to a rigid body that represents the whole vehicle body as well as the engine, drive train system and all other interior parts. This model is used to perform cornering and braking behavior simulations and the results are compared with experimental data. In the cornering behavior simulation, the calculated lateral acceleration and yaw rate at the vehicle's center of gravity agree well with the experimental results. Their nonlinear behavior is also well expressed.
Technical Paper

Improvement of the High Rigidity Power-Roller Support Structure in a Half-Toroidal CVT

This paper describes the improvement made to the high rigidity power-roller support structure in a dual-cavity half-toroidal CVT to further increase torque capacity. As a result of re-analyzing the function and parts composition of the previous structure, a high rigidity power-roller support structure, which permits power roller movement only in the horizontal direction, has been adopted. This structure enables the thrust and radial stiffness of the power-roller support to be substantially improved over the previous structure.
Technical Paper

Development of a Slip Control System for a Lock-Up Clutch

Lock-up operation of an automatic transmission is known as one good method of improving fuel economy. However, locking up the transmission at low vehicle speeds can often cause undesirable vibration or booming noise. Slip control of the lock-up clutch can resolve these problems, but the speed difference of the lock-up clutch needs to be controlled at a certain value. This control system has to overcome large changes in the parameters of the lock-up system at low vehicle speeds and also changes with regard to the speed ratio in a continuously variable transmission (CVT). In this study, this complex non-linear system has been modeled as a first-order linear parameter varying (LPV) system. A robust control algorithm was applied taking various disturbances into account to design a new slip lock-up control system.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Test Procedure for Evaluation of Tripped Rollover Crashes

Rollover crashes have continued to be a source of extensive research into determining both vehicle performance, and occupant restraint capabilities. Prior research has utilized various test procedures, including the FMVSS 208 dolly fixture, as a basis for evaluating vehicle and restraint performance. This research, using 2001 Nissan Pathfinder sport utility vehicles (SUVs), was conducted to update the status of passenger vehicle rollover testing, and evaluate dynamic test repeatability with a new test procedure. A series of eight rollover tests was conducted using these SUV vehicles, mounted on a modified FMVSS 208 rollover dolly fixture, with instrumented dummies in both front seat positions. This test protocol involved launching the vehicles horizontally, after snubbing the dolly fixture, and having the leading-side tires contact curbing for a trip mechanism.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Rollover Restraint Performance With and Without Seat Belt Pretensioner at Vehicle Trip

Eight rollover research tests were conducted using the 2001 Nissan Pathfinder with a modified FMVSS 208 dolly rollover test method where the driver and right front dummy restraint performance was analyzed. The rollover tests were initiated with the vehicle horizontal, not at a roll angle. After the vehicle translated laterally for a short distance, a trip mechanism was introduced to overturn the vehicle. Retractor, buckle, and latch plate performance in addition to the overall seat belt performance was analyzed and evaluated in the rollover test series. Retractor pretensioners were activated near the rollover trip in three of the tests to provide research data on its effects. Various dummy sizes were utilized. The test series experienced incomplete data collection and a portion of the analog data was not obtained. National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) data was also analyzed to quantify the characteristics of real world rollovers and demonstrated the benefits of restraint use.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

Development of a Small Pitch Silent Chain for a Single-Stage Cam Drive System

In contrast to the conventional two-stage cam drive system with a 9.52- mm pitch roller chain, a newly developed silent chain with a 6.35-mm pitch has made it possible to achieve a single-stage system. One traditional drawback of silent chains has been wear elongation. In developing the new chain, reliability was substantially improved by identifying the factors causing wear elongation and their effects and also by optimizing the characteristics of the chain components. The application of this single-stage cam drive system to the new QG engine series has resulted in reduced chain noise, a more compact cylinder head and significant weight savings due to the smaller part count and other improvements.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Torque Capacity of a Metal Pushing V-Belt for CVTs

The mechanism causing the micro slip characteristic of a metal CVT belt during torque transmission was analyzed, focusing on the gap distribution between the elements. It was hypothesized that gaps between the elements cause slip to occur between the elements and the pulleys when the belt is squeezed between the two halves of the pulleys, and the slip ratio was calculated theoretically on that assumption. The μ-v (friction coefficient versus sliding velocity) characteristic between the elements and the pulleys was measured and the results were used in calculating the slip ratio. As a result, a simulation procedure was developed for predicting the slip-limit torque of the belt on the basis of calculations. The slip ratio found by simulation and the calculated slip-limit torque showed good quantitative agreement with the experimental data, thereby confirming the validity of the simulation procedure.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Improvement of Vehicle Roll Behavior

Vehicle roll behavior has a large influence on how drivers evaluate handling performance. This paper describes an approach to quantifying roll behavior experimentally and presents a method for designing suspension properties to improve the sensation of roll. In this study, it was found that using pitch motion as an evaluation index results in good correspondence with subjective evaluations. To obtain acceptable roll behavior, it is important to control pitch motion during roll to a lower mode at the front end relative to the rear. This desirable behavior can be achieved by designing suitable roll center characteristics, nonlinear load changes and damping force coefficients.
Technical Paper

Factoring Nonlinear Kinematics into New Suspension Design: A CAE Approach to Vehicle Roll Dynamics

Over the past several decades, vehicle dynamics have been treated mainly on the basis of linear theories. An actual vehicle, however, also shows nonlinear properties such as roll behavior induced by movement of the roll axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the vehicle roll dynamics in the nonlinear range. Suspensions were divided into two categories and computer-aided engineering (CAE) was used to conduct analyses of complicated kinematics. The results obtained provided theoretical support for designing the Multi-Link Beam Rear Suspension, a new type of suspension for front-wheel-drive cars.
Technical Paper

Development of Laser-Textured Dull Steel Sheets with Superior Press Formability

Surface roughness of steel sheet for automotive use is one of the most important control items, because the surface roughness influences image clarity of painted surface, press formability and easiness in handling during manufacturing and processing of steel sheets. Laser texturing technology is introduced into a roll finishing process of cold rolling, and new type of regular surface roughness profile can be processed on the surface of steel sheets. Effective application method of this technology is investigated at the present day. In Japan, Laser-textured dull steel sheets are used for outer-panels of automotive body as the first application. And image clarity after painting of outer panels has been successful in improving. Nowadays, Laser texturing technology is actually used for manufacturing the high image clarity steel sheets, and they are manufactured in large quantities. Another application of Laser texturing technology is for the inner parts which require pressformability.