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Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamics Development for a New EV Hatchback Considering Crosswind Sensitivity

2018-04-03
2018-01-0715
An electric vehicle (EV) has less powertrain energy loss than an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICE), so its aerodynamic accounts have a larger portion of drag contribution of the total energy loss. This means that EV aerodynamic performance has a larger impact on the all-electric range (AER). Therefore, the target set for the aerodynamics development for a new EV hatchback was to improving AER for the customer’s benefit. To achieve lower aerodynamic drag than the previous model’s good aerodynamic performance, an ideal airflow wake structure was initially defined for the new EV hatchback that has a flat underbody with no exhaust system. Several important parameters were specified and proper numerical values for the ideal airflow were defined for them. As a result, the new EV hatchback achieves a 4% reduction in drag coefficient (CD) from the previous model.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 2L Gasoline VC-Turbo Engine with the World’s First Variable Compression Ratio Technology

2018-04-03
2018-01-0371
A new 2L gasoline turbo engine, named KR20DDET was developed with the world’s first mass-producible variable compression turbo (VC-Turbo) technology using a multi-link variable compression ratio (VCR) mechanism. It is well known that increasing the compression ratio improves gasoline engine thermal efficiency. However, there has always been a compromise for engine designers because of the trade-off between increasing the compression ratio and knocking. At Nissan we have been working on VCR technology for more than 20 years and have now successfully applied this technology to a mass production engine. This technology uses a multi-link mechanism to change the top and bottom dead center positions, thereby allowing the compression ratio to be continuously changed. The VC-Turbo engine with this technology can vary the compression ratio from 14:1 for obtaining high thermal efficiency to 8:1 for delivering high torque by taking advantage of the strong synergy with turbocharging.
Technical Paper

Research on the Effect of Lubricant Oil and Fuel Properties on LSPI Occurrence in Boosted S. I. Engines

2016-10-17
2016-01-2292
The effects of lubricant oil and fuel properties on low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) occurrence in boosted S.I. engines were experimentally evaluated with multi-cylinder engine and de-correlated oil and fuel matrices. Further, the auto-ignitability of fuel spray droplets and evaporated homogeneous fuel/oil mixtures were evaluated in a combustion bomb and pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) tests to analyze the fundamental ignition process. The work investigated the effect of engine conditions, fuel volatility and various lubricant additives on LSPI occurrence. The results support the validity of aspects of the LSPI mechanism hypothesis based on the phenomenon of droplets of lubricant oil/fuel mixture (caused by adhesion of fuel spray on the liner wall) flying into the chamber and autoigniting before spark ignition.
Journal Article

An Investigation on the Ignition Characteristics of Lubricant Component Containing Fuel Droplets Using Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2168
With the development of downsized spark ignition (SI) engines, low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) has been observed more frequently as an abnormal combustion phenomenon, and there is a critical need to solve this issue. It has been acknowledged that LSPI is not directly triggered by autoignition of the fuel, but by some other material with a short ignition delay time. It was previously reported that LSPI can be caused by droplets of lubricant oil intermixed with the fuel. In this work, the ignition behavior of lubricant component containing fuel droplets was experimentally investigated by using a constant volume chamber (CVC) and a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM), which enable visualization of the combustion process in the cylinder. Various combinations of fuel compositions for the ambient fuel-air mixture and fractions of base oil/metallic additives/fuel for droplets were tested.
Journal Article

A Study of Combustion Technology for a High Compression Ratio Engine: The Influence of Combustion Chamber Wall Temperature on Knocking

2016-04-05
2016-01-0703
Technologies for improving the fuel economy of gasoline engines have been vigorously developed in recent years for the purpose of reducing CO2 emissions. Increasing the compression ratio is an example of a technology for improving the thermal efficiency of gasoline engines. A significant issue of a high compression ratio engine for improving fuel economy and low-end torque is prevention of knocking under a low engine speed. Knocking is caused by autoignition of the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder and seems to be largely affected by heat transfer from the intake port and combustion chamber walls. In this study, the influence of heat transfer from the walls of each part was analyzed by the following three approaches using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experiments conducted with a multi-cooling engine system. First, the temperature rise of the air-fuel mixture by heat transfer from each part was analyzed.
Technical Paper

Development of an On-Board Fuel Reforming Catalyst for a Gasoline Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1955
On-board hydrogen generation technology using a fuel reforming catalyst is an effective way to improve the fuel efficiency of automotive internal combustion engines. The main issue to be addressed in developing such a catalyst is to suppress catalyst deterioration caused by carbon deposition on the catalyst surface due to sulfur adsorption. Enhancing the hydrocarbon and water activation capabilities of the catalyst is important in improving catalyst durability. It was found that the use of a rare earth element is effective in improving the water activation capability of the catalyst. Controlling the hydrocarbon activation capability of the catalyst for a good balance with water activation was also found to be effective in improving catalyst durability.
Journal Article

Study of an On-board Fuel Reformer and Hydrogen-Added EGR Combustion in a Gasoline Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0902
To improve the fuel economy via high EGR, combustion stability is enhanced through the addition of hydrogen, with its high flame-speed in air-fuel mixture. So, in order to realize on-board hydrogen production we developed a fuel reformer which produces hydrogen rich gas. One of the main issues of the reformer engine is the effects of reformate gas components on combustion performance. To clarify the effect of reformate gas contents on combustion stability, chemical kinetic simulations and single-cylinder engine test, in which hydrogen, CO, methane and simulated gas were added to intake air, were executed. And it is confirmed that hydrogen additive rate is dominant on high EGR combustion. The other issue to realize the fuel reformer was the catalyst deterioration. Catalyst reforming and exposure test were carried out to understand the influence of actual exhaust gas on the catalyst performance.
Technical Paper

Impingement Behavior of Fuel Droplets on Oil Film

2015-04-14
2015-01-0913
In a direct injection gasoline engine, the impingement of injected fuel on the oil film, i.e. cylinder liner gives rise to various problems such as abnormal combustion, oil dilution and particulate matter emission. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the impingement behavior of the fuel spray onto the oil film. However, there is little information on the impingement behavior of the fuel droplet onto the oil film, whereas many investigations on the impingement behavior of the fuel droplet onto the fuel film are reported. In this study, fundamental investigations were performed for the purpose of clarifying the impingement behavior of the fuel spray onto the oil film. A single fuel droplet mixed with fluorescence dye was dripped on the oil film. To separately measure the fuel and the oil after impingement, simultaneous Mie scattering and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) methods were performed.
Technical Paper

Prediction and Analysis Technology Development for Impact Noise

2014-04-01
2014-01-0895
In order to enhance product attraction, it is important to reduce the impact noise when a vehicle go over bumps such as bridge joints. Vehicle performance to transitional noise phenomena is not yet analyzed well. In this paper, a prediction method is established by vector composition and inverse Fourier transform with the combination of Multibody Dynamics (MBD) and FEM. Also, a root cause analysis method is established with the following three mechanism analysis methods; transfer path analysis, mode contribution analysis, and panel contribution analysis.
Journal Article

Analysis of Oil Film Generation on the Main Journal Bearing Using a Thin-Film Sensor and Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL) Model

2013-04-08
2013-01-1217
Reducing friction in the crankshaft main bearings is an effective means of improving the fuel efficiency of reciprocating internal combustion engines. To realize these improvements, it is necessary to understand the lubricating conditions, in particular the oil film pressure distributions between crankshaft and bearings. In this study, we developed a thin-film pressure sensor and applied it to the measurement of engine main bearing oil film pressure in a 4-cylinder, 2.5 L gasoline engine. This thin-film sensor is applied directly to the bearing surface by sputtering, allowing for measurement of oil film pressure without changing the shape and rigidity of the bearing. Moreover, the sensor material and shape were optimized to minimize influence from strain and temperature on the oil film pressure measurement. Measurements were performed at the No. 2 and 5 main bearings.
Technical Paper

Fuel Enrichment Control System by Catalyst Temperature Estimation to Enable Frequent Stoichiometric Operation at High Engine Speed/Load Condition

2013-04-08
2013-01-0341
Fuel economy can be improved by reducing engine displacement, thanks to the resulting smaller friction losses and pumping losses. However, smaller engines frequently operate at high-engine speed and high-load, when pressure on the accelerator increases during acceleration and at high speed. To protect exhaust system components from thermal stress, exhaust gas temperature is reduced by fuel enrichment. To improve fuel economy, it is important to increase the frequency of stoichiometric operation at high-engine speed and high-load. Usually, the start timing of fuel enrichment is based upon temperature requirements to protect the catalyst. In the high-engine speed and high-load zone, the threshold temperature of catalyst protection is attained after some time because of the heat mass. Therefore, stoichiometric operation can be maintained until the catalyst temperature reaches the threshold temperature.
Journal Article

Improvement of Combustion Stability under Cold Ambient Condition by Mixture Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-1303
For diesel engine, lower compression ratio has been demanded to improve fuel consumption, exhaust emission and maximum power recently. However, low compression ratio engine might have combustion instability issues under cold temperature condition, especially just after engine started. As a first step of this study, cold temperature combustion was investigated by in-cylinder pressure analysis and it found out that higher heat release around top dead center, which was mainly contributed by pilot injection, was the key factor to improve engine speed fluctuation. For further understanding of combustion in cold condition, particularly mixture formation near a glow plug, 3D CFD simulation was applied. Specifically for this purpose, TI (Time-scale Interaction) combustion model has been developed for simulating combustion phenomena. This model was based on a reasonable combustion mode, taking into account the characteristic time scale of chemical reactions and turbulence eddy break-up.
Technical Paper

Low-cost FC Stack Concept with Increased Power Density and Simplified Configuration: Utilizing an Advanced MEA with Integrated Molded Frame

2011-05-17
2011-39-7260
In 2006, Nissan began limited leasing of the X-TRAIL FCV equipped with their in-house developed Fuel Cell (FC) stack. Since then, the FC stack has been improved in durability, cold start-up capability, cost and size with the aim of promoting full-scale commercialization of FCVs. However, reduction of cost and size has remained a significant challenge because limited mass transport through the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) has made it difficult to increase the rated current density of the FC. Furthermore, it has been difficult to reduce the variety of FC stack components due to the complex stack configuration. In this study, improvements have been achieved mainly by adopting an advanced MEA to overcome these difficulties. First, the adoption of a new MEA and separators has improved mass transport through the MEA for increased rated current density. Second, an integrated molded frame (IMF) has been adopted as the MEA support.
Journal Article

Low-Cost FC Stack Concept with Increased Power Density and Simplified Configuration Utilizing an Advanced MEA

2011-04-12
2011-01-1344
In 2006, Nissan began limited leasing of the X-TRAIL FCV equipped with their in-house developed Fuel Cell (FC) stack. Since then, the FC stack has been improved in cost, size, durability and cold start-up capability with the aim of promoting full-scale commercialization of FCVs. However, reduction of cost and size has remained a significant challenge because limited mass transport through the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) has made it difficult to increase the rated current density of the FC. Furthermore, it has been difficult to reduce the variety of FC stack components due to the complex stack configuration. In this study, improvements have been achieved mainly by adopting an advanced MEA to overcome these difficulties. First, the adoption of a new MEA and separators has improved mass transport through the MEA for increased rated current density. Second, an integrated molded frame (IMF) has been adopted as the MEA support.
Technical Paper

Development of New 1.6Liter Four Cylinder Turbocharged Direct Injection Gasoline Engine with Intake and Exhaust Valve Timing Control System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0419
This paper describes a new 1.6-liter four-cylinder gasoline turbocharged engine with a direct injection gasoline (DIG) system and a twin continuously variable valve timing control (CVTC) system. Demands for higher environmental performance make it necessary to improve engine efficiency further. At the same time, improvement of power performance is important to enhance the appeal of vehicles and make them attractive to consumers. In order to meet these requirements, a 1.6-liter direct injection gasoline turbocharged engine has been developed. By using many friction reduction technologys, this engine achieves the high power performance of a 2.5-liter NA(Naturally Aspirated) gasoline engine and low fuel consumption comparable to that of a smaller displacement engine. In addition, this engine achieves low exhaust emission performance to comply with the US LEV2-ULEV and EU Euro5 emission requirements.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Analysis of Combustion Initiation Characteristics of Low Temperature Plasma Ignition for Internal Combustion Gasoline Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0660
In recent years, the study of volumetric ignition using high-speed (nanosecond) pulsed low temperature plasma for gasoline engines was reported by authors [ 1 ]. However, the fundamental analysis of ignition characteristics of the low temperature plasma ignition and the analysis of combustion initiation mechanism of the low temperature plasma ignition was not enough in the previous paper. In this study, a low temperature plasma igniter of a barrier discharge (silent discharge) model was developed for trial purpose. A fundamental analysis of ignition characteristics was carried out when the low temperature plasma ignition was applied as the ignition system for gasoline engine using single-cylinder. The difference between the ignition characteristics of the low temperature plasma and the thermal plasma of a conventional spark plug was investigated by comparing a combustion characteristic of both in various driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Crank-angle-resolved Measurements of Air-fuel Ratio, Temperature, and Liquid Fuel Droplet Scattering in a Direct-injection Gasoline Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2246
Simultaneous crank-angle-resolved measurements of gasoline vapor concentration, gas temperature, and liquid fuel droplet scattering were made with three-color infrared absorption in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with premium gasoline. The infrared light was coupled into and out of the cylinder using fiber optics incorporated into a modified spark plug, allowing measurement at a location adjacent to the spark plug electrode. Two mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser wavelengths were simultaneously produced by difference-frequency-generation in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) using one signal and two pump lasers operating in the near-infrared (near-IR). A portion of the near-IR signal laser residual provided a simultaneous third, non-resonant, wavelength for liquid droplet detection. This non-resonant signal was used to subtract the influence of droplet scattering from the resonant mid-IR signals to obtain vapor absorption signals in the presence of droplet extinction.
Technical Paper

A New Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model Applicable to Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0544
Gasoline engines employ various mechanisms for improvement of fuel consumption and reduction of exhaust emissions to deal with environmental problems. Direct fuel injection is one such technology. This paper presents a new quasi-dimensional combustion model applicable to direct injection gasoline engine. The Model consists of author's original in-cylinder turbulence and mixture homogeneity sub model suitable for direct fuel injection conditions. Model validation results exhibit good agreement with experimental and 3D CFD data at steady state and transient operating conditions.
Journal Article

A Study of the Knocking Mechanism in Terms of Flame Propagation Behavior Based on 3D Numerical Simulations

2009-04-20
2009-01-0699
The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of knocking with respect to flame propagation behavior based on 3D simulations conducted with the Universal Coherent Flamelet Model. Flame propagation behavior under the influence of in-cylinder flow was analyzed on the basis of the calculated results and experimental visualizations. Tumble and swirl flows were produced in the cylinder by inserting various baffle plates in the middle of the intake port. A comparison of the measured and calculated flame propagation behavior showed good agreement for various in-cylinder flow conditions. The results indicate that in-cylinder flow conditions vary the flame propagation shape from the initial combustion period and strongly influence the occurrence of knocking.
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