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Technical Paper

Development of Plastic Region Tightening 1.6-GPa Ultra-High Strength Bolt with High Delayed Fracture Resistance

2019-04-02
2019-01-1116
A new variable compression turbo (VC-Turbo) engine, which has a multi-link system for controlling the compression ratio from 8:1 to 14:1, requires high axial force for fastening the multi-links because of high input loads and the downsizing requirement. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt with plastic region tightening. One of the biggest technical concerns is delayed fracture. In this study, quenched and tempered alloy steels were chosen for the 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Practical Electric Consumption by Drag Reducing under Cross Wind

2016-04-05
2016-01-1626
Reducing vehicle fuel consumption has become one of the most important issues in recent years in connection with environmental concerns such as global warming. Therefore, in the vehicle development process, attention has been focused on reducing aerodynamic drag as a way of improving fuel economy. When considering environmental issues, the development of vehicle aerodynamics must take into account real-world driving conditions. A crosswind is one of the representative conditions. It is well known that drag changes in a crosswind compared with a condition without a crosswind, and that the change depends on the vehicle shape. It is generally considered that the influence of a crosswind is relatively small since drag accounts for a small proportion of the total running resistance. However, for electric vehicles, the energy loss of the drive train is smaller than that of an internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of an On-Board Fuel Reforming Catalyst for a Gasoline Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1955
On-board hydrogen generation technology using a fuel reforming catalyst is an effective way to improve the fuel efficiency of automotive internal combustion engines. The main issue to be addressed in developing such a catalyst is to suppress catalyst deterioration caused by carbon deposition on the catalyst surface due to sulfur adsorption. Enhancing the hydrocarbon and water activation capabilities of the catalyst is important in improving catalyst durability. It was found that the use of a rare earth element is effective in improving the water activation capability of the catalyst. Controlling the hydrocarbon activation capability of the catalyst for a good balance with water activation was also found to be effective in improving catalyst durability.
Journal Article

Study of an On-board Fuel Reformer and Hydrogen-Added EGR Combustion in a Gasoline Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0902
To improve the fuel economy via high EGR, combustion stability is enhanced through the addition of hydrogen, with its high flame-speed in air-fuel mixture. So, in order to realize on-board hydrogen production we developed a fuel reformer which produces hydrogen rich gas. One of the main issues of the reformer engine is the effects of reformate gas components on combustion performance. To clarify the effect of reformate gas contents on combustion stability, chemical kinetic simulations and single-cylinder engine test, in which hydrogen, CO, methane and simulated gas were added to intake air, were executed. And it is confirmed that hydrogen additive rate is dominant on high EGR combustion. The other issue to realize the fuel reformer was the catalyst deterioration. Catalyst reforming and exposure test were carried out to understand the influence of actual exhaust gas on the catalyst performance.
Journal Article

Instantaneous Estimation of Road Friction based on Front Tire SAT using Kalman Filter

2013-04-08
2013-01-0680
This paper proposes a method of estimating road friction and tire slip angle in a cornering maneuver. The method can estimate front tire road friction accurately at low lateral acceleration because it is based on the tire self-aligning torque (SAT) that exhibits high sensitivity to road friction at low slip angles. Road friction and tire slip angle, which are mutually interdependent, are estimated simultaneously using an extended Kalman filter designed around a model describing the relationship between road friction and SAT and a vehicle lateral dynamic model. The front tire SAT is calculated with a mathematical model that describes the torque transmission characteristics from the electric power steering torque to SAT. Therefore, the proposed method is readily applicable to production vehicles. Results of an experimental study show that the change in road friction is instantaneously estimated at low lateral acceleration.
Journal Article

Study of the Impact of High Biodiesel Blends on Engine Oil Performance

2011-08-30
2011-01-1930
In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. This report is designed to determine how high biodiesel blends affect oil quality through testing on 2005 regulations engines with DPFs. When blends of 10-20% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) with diesel fuel are employed with 10W-30 engine oil, the oil change interval is reduced to about a half due to a drop in oil pressure. The oil pressure drop occurs because of the reduced kinematic viscosity of engine oil, which resulting from dilution of poorly evaporated RME with engine oil and its accumulation, however, leading to increased wear of piston top rings and cylinder liners.
Technical Paper

Low-cost FC Stack Concept with Increased Power Density and Simplified Configuration: Utilizing an Advanced MEA with Integrated Molded Frame

2011-05-17
2011-39-7260
In 2006, Nissan began limited leasing of the X-TRAIL FCV equipped with their in-house developed Fuel Cell (FC) stack. Since then, the FC stack has been improved in durability, cold start-up capability, cost and size with the aim of promoting full-scale commercialization of FCVs. However, reduction of cost and size has remained a significant challenge because limited mass transport through the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) has made it difficult to increase the rated current density of the FC. Furthermore, it has been difficult to reduce the variety of FC stack components due to the complex stack configuration. In this study, improvements have been achieved mainly by adopting an advanced MEA to overcome these difficulties. First, the adoption of a new MEA and separators has improved mass transport through the MEA for increased rated current density. Second, an integrated molded frame (IMF) has been adopted as the MEA support.
Journal Article

Low-Cost FC Stack Concept with Increased Power Density and Simplified Configuration Utilizing an Advanced MEA

2011-04-12
2011-01-1344
In 2006, Nissan began limited leasing of the X-TRAIL FCV equipped with their in-house developed Fuel Cell (FC) stack. Since then, the FC stack has been improved in cost, size, durability and cold start-up capability with the aim of promoting full-scale commercialization of FCVs. However, reduction of cost and size has remained a significant challenge because limited mass transport through the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) has made it difficult to increase the rated current density of the FC. Furthermore, it has been difficult to reduce the variety of FC stack components due to the complex stack configuration. In this study, improvements have been achieved mainly by adopting an advanced MEA to overcome these difficulties. First, the adoption of a new MEA and separators has improved mass transport through the MEA for increased rated current density. Second, an integrated molded frame (IMF) has been adopted as the MEA support.
Technical Paper

Development of “Hybrid EPS”

2011-04-12
2011-01-0564
Hydraulic power steering is applied for petrol and diesel models of Infinity M series to provide supreme feeling of steering. Power assist of hydraulic power steering (here after called HPS), however, does not work when hybrid vehicle is in EV drive mode because the engine, which is the power source stops and the power is not supplied. Electric Power Steering (hereafter called EPS), therefore, “MUST” be installed to assist the power. Here comes the need that Nissan has developed our Hybrid EPS for Infinity M Hybrid model to keep providing supreme feeling of steering of hydraulic power steering without huge packaging change from the standard packaging of petrol & diesel models with hydraulic power steering. Our Hybrid EPS is the 1st hybrid EPS system in the world that is effectuated by oil pressure, and succesively realized by unique and excellent technology of Nissan.
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Exhaust Emissions to Advanced Aftertreatment Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-1292
In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. In the impact on exhaust emissions, the impact of high biodiesel blends into diesel fuel on diesel emissions was evaluated. The wide variety of biodiesel blendstock, which included not only some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters(FAME) but also hydrofined biodiesel(HBD) and Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel(FTD), were selected to evaluate. The main blend level evaluated was 5, 10 and 20% and the higher blend level over 20% was also evaluated in some tests. The main advanced technologies for exhaust aftertreatment systems were diesel particulate filter(DPF), Urea selective catalytic reduction (Urea-SCR) and the combination of DPF and NOx storage reduction catalyst(NSR).
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Performance of Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

2008-10-06
2008-01-2494
Biodiesel Fuel (BDF) Research Work Group works on identifying technological issues on the use of high biodiesel blends (over 5 mass%) in conventional diesel vehicles under the Japan Auto-Oil Program started in 2007. The Work Group conducts an analytical study on the issues to develop measures to be taken by fuel products and vehicle manufacturers, and to produce new technological findings that could contribute to the study of its introduction in Japan, including establishment of a national fuel quality standard covering high biodiesel blends. For evaluation of the impacts of high biodiesel blends on performance of diesel particulate filter system, a wide variety of biodiesel blendstocks were prepared, ranging from some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to another type of BDF such as hydrotreated biodiesel (HBD). Evaluation was mainly conducted on blend levels of 20% and 50%, but also conducted on 10% blends and neat FAME in some tests.
Technical Paper

A System for Neutralizing Static Electricity on the Human Body in a Vehicle

2008-04-14
2008-01-0786
People often feel discomfort when entering or exiting a vehicle because of a static electric shock. In the electronics industry, ionizers have been developed to prevent electrostatic discharges and contamination sticking around or on circuit components. Ionizers incorporate corona discharge principles to neutralize the static electric field. Using this idea, we developed an in-vehicle system to neutralize the human body charge. To accomplish this, the mechanism by which the human body attains a charge when exiting a vehicle was first defined. That definition was then used to determine the design characteristics of the system.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Prediction of Unburned HCs in a Lean-Burn Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0477
Three-dimensional combustion simulation tools together with the Universal Coherent Flamelet Model (UCFM), a flame propagation model, have been applied to SI lean-burn combustion to study the influence of the equivalence ratio on the amount of unburned hydrocarbons (HCs). Unburned HCs from piston-cylinder crevices were taken into the consideration by using a calculation grid incorporating the actual crevice volume and shape and by applying an autoignition model to post-flame phenomena. The calculation results show the general tendencies for the total amount of unburned HCs and their distribution in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

A Study of an Analysis Method for Trace Substances in Vehicle Exhaust Gas

2007-04-16
2007-01-0306
A new method for measuring unregulated substances in the exhaust gas is being investigated to clarify the influence of the vehicles' exhaust emissions into the environment. This paper explains our work on developing an analysis method for detecting and quantifying trace substances in the exhaust gas. A new analysis method was examined that uses thermal desorption to analyze trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vehicle exhaust gas. This technique is faster than conventional methods and does not require any preconditioning of the samples before analysis. While lead and chloromethane were detected in the exhaust gas samples, it was made clear that these substances did not originate in the engine system. Accordingly, the results of this study indicate that careful attention must be paid to the test environment and the presence of measurement interfering substances in exhaust samples when measuring trace constituents in the exhaust gas from low-emission vehicles.
Technical Paper

Combination of Combustion Concept and Fuel Property for Ultra-Clean DI Diesel

2004-06-08
2004-01-1868
Experimental investigations were previously conducted with a direct-injection diesel engine with the aim of reducing exhaust emissions, especially nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). As a result of that work, a combustion concept, called Modulated Kinetics (MK) combustion, was developed that reduces NOx and smoke simultaneously through low-temperature combustion and premixed combustion to achieve a cleaner diesel engine. In subsequent work, it was found that applying a low compression ratio was effective in expanding the MK combustion region on the high-load side. The MK concept was then combined with an exhaust after-treatment system and applied to a test vehicle. The results indicated the attainment of ULEV emission levels, albeit in laboratory evaluations. In the present work, the combination of the MK combustion concept and certain fuel properties has been experimentally investigated with the aim of reducing exhaust emissions further.
Technical Paper

Research on High Strength Material and Its Surface Modification for Parts Used Under Rolling Contact Cycles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0633
This paper describes a newly developed steel composition and surface modification methods for improving the rolling contact fatigue strength of parts used in transmission systems, especially continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) to increase their torque capacity. The mechanisms of two types of typical rolling contact fatigue phenomenon in case hardening steel were examined with the aim of improving rolling contact fatigue strength. One concerned white etching constituents (WEC) and the other one concerned peculiar microstructural changes caused by hydrogen originating from decomposition of the lubrication oil as a result of repeated rolling contact stress cycles. The rolling contact fatigue strength limit due to WEC has been improved markedly by dispersing fine M23C6 alloy carbides in the martensite matrix at the subsurface layer of parts.
Technical Paper

Linear-shaped Si-Ge thermoelectric module

2000-06-12
2000-05-0053
A linear-shaped module based on Si-Ge alloys has been made for thermoelectric generation. The module is designed for generating electricity by exhaust heat of, e.g., plants, furnaces or automobiles. The module consists of 9 couples of p- and n-type Si-Ge alloy-based thermoelectric semiconductors. Carbon layers are made on both sides of the p- and n-type elements, and then the elements are electrically connected in series using Mo electrodes by blazing method. The size of the module is approximately 3.5 mm in width, 70 mm in length and 9.3 mm in height. Maximum power of the module was 2.0 W at a temperature difference of 509 K between the hot and cold sides of the module. A variation of generating power was measured for 150 modules. Maximum power of every module-block consisting of 10 modules was evaluated at a temperature difference of 400 K. The maximum power of the module-blocks was varied from 6.9 W to 8.7 W.
Technical Paper

Development of the Nissan Fuel Cell Vehicle

2000-04-02
2000-01-1584
Nissan has recently developed and begun driving tests of a fuel cell vehicle equipped with a methanol reformer that produces hydrogen through the use of a catalyst to induce chemical reactions between methanol and water. With this onboard fuel cell system, only methanol in the form of a liquid fuel needs to be supplied, making the system highly practical as an automotive powertrain for near-future application. The Nissan Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) adopts a high-efficiency neodymium magnet synchronous traction motor combined with lithium-ion batteries that enable the vehicle to achieve optimum electric power by switching between a fuel cell-powered driving mode and a battery-powered driving mode. This presentation will cover the current status of the FCV development program and driving test results.
Technical Paper

In-line Hydrocarbon (HC) Adsorber System for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions

2000-03-06
2000-01-0892
An adsorber system for reducing cold-start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions has been developed combining existing catalyst technologies with a zeolite-based HC adsorber. The series flow in-line concept offers a passive and simplified alternative to other technologies by incorporating one additional adsorber substrate into existing converters without any additional valving, purging lines, secondary air, or special substrates. Major technical issues to be resolved for practical use of this system are 1) the ability to adsorb a wide range of HC molecular sizes in the cold exhaust gas and 2) the temperature difference between HC desorption from the adsorber and activation of the catalyst to convert desorbed HCs. This paper describes the current development status of hydrocarbon adsorber aftertreatment technologies. We report results obtained with a variety of adsorber properties, washcoat structures of adsorber catalyst and start-up and underfloor catalyst system combinations.
Technical Paper

Emission Reduction Technologies for Turbocharged Engines

1999-10-25
1999-01-3629
It is projected that compliance with Japanese new exhaust emission regulations set to be enforced in 2000 year will be difficult for turbocharged engines with conventional technologies. This is mainly because of the delay in catalyst lightoff at engine start due to the lower exhaust gas temperature of turbocharged engines compared with that of their naturally aspirated counterparts. Compliance will be particularly difficult for V-6 engines on account of the large heat mass of the exhaust system, resulting in a slower temperature rise. Previously, improvement of hydrocarbon (HC) conversion rates following engine start depended solely on the low-temperature characteristic of the catalyst. The catalyst system described here adopts a completely new mechanism that traps HCs before the catalyst lights off and then desorbs them for conversion after the engine warms up.
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