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Technical Paper

Reliable Processes of Simulating Liner Roughness and Its Lubrication Properties

2019-04-02
2019-01-0178
Topology of liner finish is critical to the performance of internal combustion engines. Proper liner finish simulation processes lead to efficient engine design and research. Fourier methods have been well studied to numerically generate liner topology. However, three major issues wait to be addressed to make the generation processes feasible and reliable. First, in order to simulate real plateau honed liners, approaches should be developed to calculate accurate liner geometric parameters. These parameters are served as the input of the generation algorithm. Material ratio curve, the common geometry calculation method, should be modified so that accurate root mean square of plateau height distribution could be obtained. Second, the set of geometric parameters used in generating liner finish (ISO 13565-2) is different from the set of parameters used in manufacturing industry (ISO 13565-3). Quantitative relations between these two sets should be studied.
Technical Paper

Flex Fuel Gasoline-Alcohol Engines For Near Zero Emissions Plug-In Hybrid Long Haul Trucks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0565
Internal combustion engines for plug-in hybrid heavy duty trucks, especially long haul trucks, can play an important role in facilitating use of battery power. Power from a low carbon electricity source could thereby be employed without an unattractive vehicle cost increase or range limitation. The ideal engine should be powered by a widely available affordable liquid fuel, should minimize air pollutant emissions, and should provide lower greenhouse gas emissions. Diesel engines fall short in meeting these objectives, especially because of high NOx emissions. In this paper we describe features of flex fuel alcohol enhanced gasoline engines in series hybrid powertrains where the engines have the same or greater efficiency of diesel engines while also having 90% lower NOx emissions. Ethanol or methanol is employed to increase knock resistance and provide improved combustion.
Technical Paper

Failure Prediction for Robot Reducers by Combining Two Machine Learning Methods

2019-04-02
2019-01-0508
There are many production robots used at car manufacturing plants, and each of them is fitted with several reducers. A breakdown of one of these reducers may cause a huge loss due to the stoppage of all production lines. Therefore, condition-based maintenance is currently being used to predict failures by predetermined thresholds for average and standard deviations. However, this method can cause many false alarms or some false negatives. There are some ways of suppressing false alarms, such as detecting a change in the probability density function. However, when false alarms are suppressed using the probability density function in the operational range, some false negatives may occur, leading to a breakdown of a reducer and huge loss. A false negative is caused by overlooking an anomaly with slight changes and it is difficult to detect using only the probability density function.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Oil Transport between Piston Skirt and Cylinder Liner in Internal Combustion Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0590
The distribution of lubricating oil plays a critical role in determining the friction between piston skirt and cylinder liner, which is one of the major contributors to the total friction loss in internal combustion engines. In this work, based upon the experimental observation an existing model for the piston secondary motion and skirt lubrication was improved with a physics-based model describing the oil film separation from full film to partial film. Then the model was applied to a modern turbo-charged SI engine. The piston-skirt FMEP predicted by the model decreased with larger installation clearance, which was also observed from the measurements using IMEP method at the rated. It was found that the main period of the cycle exhibiting friction reduction is in the expansion stroke when the skirt only contacts the thrust side for all tested installation clearances.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 2): Evaluation of Thermal Environment and Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin

2019-04-02
2019-01-0698
In the previous paper (Part 1), measurements of equivalent temperature (teq) using a clothed thermal manikin and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation were discussed. In this paper (Part 2), the outline of the proposed mesh-free simulation method is described and comparisons between teq in the calculations and measurements under summer cooling with solar radiation and winter heating without solar radiation conditions in a vehicle cabin are discussed. The key factors for evaluating teq on each body segment of the clothed thermal manikin under cooling and heating conditions are also discussed. In the mesh-free simulation, even if there is a hole or an unnecessary shape on the CAD model, only a group of points whose density is controlled in the simulation area is generated without modifying the CAD model. Therefore, the fluid mesh required by conventional CFD code is not required, and the analysis load is significantly reduced.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 1): Measurement of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin and Development of a Numerical Thermal Manikin

2019-04-02
2019-01-0697
The present paper is Part 1 of two consecutive studies. Part 1 describes three subjects: definition of the equivalent temperature (teq), measurements of teq using a clothed thermal manikin in a vehicle cabin, and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation. After defining teq, a method for measuring teq with a clothed thermal manikin was examined. Two techniques were proposed in this study: the definition of “the total heat transfer coefficient between the skin surface and the environment in a standard environment (hcal)” based on the thermal insulation of clothing (Icl), and a method of measuring Icl in consideration of the area factor (fcl), which indicates the ratio of the clothing surface to the manikin surface area. Then, teq was measured in an actual vehicle cabin by the proposed method under two conditions: a summer cooling condition with solar radiation and a winter heating condition without solar radiation.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Sensitivity Analysis of Wheel Shape Factors

2019-04-02
2019-01-0667
Wheels play an important role in determining the aerodynamic drag of passenger vehicles. This is because the contribution of wheels to aerodynamic drag comes from not only the wheels themselves, but also from the interference effect between wheel wakes and the base wake. As far as the authors are aware, there have been no reports about aerodynamic drag sensitivity to wheel shape factors for different vehicle types and different exterior body shapes. The purpose of this study was to clarify CD sensitivity to wheel shape factors for a sedan and an SUV, including different rear fender shapes. Many different wheel configurations were investigated in terms of the CD, base pressure and flow fields in wind tunnel tests. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to clarify CD sensitivity to each wheel shape factor based on the test data. This study revealed high CD sensitivity factors for both the sedan and SUV.
Technical Paper

Analyzing the Limitations of the Rider and Electric Motorcycle at the Pikes Peak International Hill Climb Race

2019-04-02
2019-01-1125
This paper describes a post-race analysis of team KOMMIT EVT’s electric motorcycle data collected during the 2016 Pikes Peak International Hill Climb (PPIHC). The motorcycle consumed approximately 4 kWh of battery energy with an average and maximum speed of 107 km/h and 149 km/h, respectively. It was the second fastest electric motorcycle with a finishing time of 11:10.480. Data was logged of the motorcycle’s speed, acceleration, motor speed, power, currents, voltages, temperatures, throttle position, GPS position, rider’s heart rate and the ambient environment (air temperature, pressure and humidity). The data was used to understand the following factors that may have prevented a faster time: physical fitness of the rider, thermal limits of the motor and controller, available battery energy and the sprocket ratio between the motor and rear wheel.
Technical Paper

Direct Measurement of Aftertreatment System Stored Water Levels for Improved Dew Point Management Using Radio Frequency Sensing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0739
Reducing cold-start emissions to meet increasingly stringent emissions limits requires fast activation of exhaust system sensors and aftertreatment control strategies. One factor delaying the activation time of current exhaust sensors, such as NOx and particulate matter (PM) sensors, is the need to protect these sensors from water present in the exhaust system. Exposure of the ceramic sensing element to water droplets can lead to thermal shock and failure of the sensor. In order to prevent such failures, various algorithms are employed to estimate the dew point of the exhaust gas and determine when the exhaust system is sufficiently dry to enable safe sensor operation. In contrast to these indirect, model-based approaches, this study utilized radio frequency (RF) sensors typically applied to monitor soot loading levels in diesel and gasoline particulate filters, to provide a direct measurement of stored water levels on the ceramic filter elements themselves.
Technical Paper

Development of Plastic Region Tightening 1.6-GPa Ultra-High Strength Bolt with High Delayed Fracture Resistance

2019-04-02
2019-01-1116
A new variable compression turbo (VC-Turbo) engine, which has a multi-link system for controlling the compression ratio from 8:1 to 14:1, requires high axial force for fastening the multi-links because of high input loads and the downsizing requirement. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt with plastic region tightening. One of the biggest technical concerns is delayed fracture. In this study, quenched and tempered alloy steels were chosen for the 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt.
Technical Paper

Phenomenological Investigations of Mid-Channel Ash Deposit Formation and Characteristics in Diesel Particulate Filters

2019-04-02
2019-01-0973
Accumulation of lubricant and fuel derived ash in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) during vehicle operation results in a significant increase of pressure drop across the after-treatment system leading to loss of fuel economy and reduced soot storage capacity over time. Under certain operating conditions, the accumulated ash and/or soot cake layer can collapse resulting in ash deposits upstream from the typical ash plug section, henceforth termed mid-channel ash deposits. In addition, ash particles can bond (either physically or chemically) with neighboring particles resulting in formation of bridges across the channels that effectively block access to the remainder of the channel for the incoming exhaust gas stream. This phenomenon creates serious long-term durability issues for the DPF, which often must be replaced. Mid-channel deposits and ash bridges are extremely difficult to remove from the channels as they often sinter to the substrate.
Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

Optimization-Based Robust Architecture Design for Autonomous Driving System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0473
With the recent advancement in sensing and controller technologies architecture design of an autonomous driving system becomes an important issue. Researchers have been developing different sensors and data processing technologies to solve the issues associated with fast processing, diverse weather, reliability, long distance recognition performance, etc. Necessary considerations of diverse traffic situations and safety factors of autonomous driving have also increased the complexity of embedded software as well as architecture of autonomous driving. In these circumstances, there are almost countless numbers of possible architecture designs. However, these design considerations have significant impacts on cost, controllability, and system reliability. Thus, it is crucial for the designers to make a challenging and critical design decision under several uncertainties during the conceptual design phase.
Technical Paper

Experiments and Analyses on Stability/Mid-Channel Collapse of Ash-Deposit Wall Layers and Pre-Mature Clogging of Diesel Particulate Filters

2019-04-02
2019-01-0972
The conventional concept of soot and ash wall deposits (i.e. cake-layers) gradually building up along the channels of a ceramic honeycomb and then periodically or continuously being swept downstream toward the end-plugs of the channels may not always occur in practice. When deposits irregularly form on or detach from the walls, causing premature clogging usually around the mid-sections of the channels (also known as Mid-Channel Collapse), and the particulate filter is prone to experiencing significantly elevated back pressure, resulting in the need for earlier repair or replacement than desired. Here we describe related experiments that were performed, accompanied by analysis and simulation, in order to investigate the factors that contribute to the patterns of wall deposits that form-particularly of ash-and the effects of these irregular patterns.
Technical Paper

Development of New I4 2.5L Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1199
A new 2.5L 4-cylinder direct-injection engine (PR25DD) was developed for use on the new 2019 model year Altima as a successor to the QR25DE engine mounted on the previous model. The development concept defined for this new 4-cylinder engine was to achieve acceleration, fuel economy and noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) performance at the highest possible levels by incorporating the latest technologies, including a world’s first application. The PR25DD engine continues Nissan’s new engine concept of recent years with regard to the basic engine systems, including the use of direct injection, an electrically operated valve timing control (VTC) system, cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), an integrated exhaust manifold, mirror bore coating and a variable displacement oil pump [1]. In addition to these features, it also adopts a resin intake port.
Technical Paper

Mechanism Analysis on the Effect of Fuel Properties on Knocking Performance at Boosted Conditions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0035
In recent years, boosted and downsized engines have gained much attention as a promising technology to improve fuel economy; however, knocking is a common issue of such engines that requires attention. To understand the knocking phenomenon under downsized and boosted engine conditions deeply, fuels with different Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) were prepared, and the knocking performances of these fuels were evaluated using a single cylinder engine, operated under a variety of conditions. Experimental results showed that the knocking performance at boosted conditions depend on both RON and MON. While higher RON showed better anti-knocking performance, lower MON showed better anti-knocking performance. Furthermore, the tendency for a reduced MON to be beneficial became stronger at lower engine speeds and higher boost pressures, in agreement with previously published modelling work.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamics Development for a New EV Hatchback Considering Crosswind Sensitivity

2018-04-03
2018-01-0715
An electric vehicle (EV) has less powertrain energy loss than an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICE), so its aerodynamic accounts have a larger portion of drag contribution of the total energy loss. This means that EV aerodynamic performance has a larger impact on the all-electric range (AER). Therefore, the target set for the aerodynamics development for a new EV hatchback was to improving AER for the customer’s benefit. To achieve lower aerodynamic drag than the previous model’s good aerodynamic performance, an ideal airflow wake structure was initially defined for the new EV hatchback that has a flat underbody with no exhaust system. Several important parameters were specified and proper numerical values for the ideal airflow were defined for them. As a result, the new EV hatchback achieves a 4% reduction in drag coefficient (CD) from the previous model.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of an Open-grill Vehicle Aerodynamics Simulation Method Considering Dirty CAD Geometries

2018-04-03
2018-01-0733
In open-grille vehicle aerodynamics simulation using computational fluid dynamics, in addition to basic flow characteristics, such as turbulent flow with a Reynolds number of several million on the bluff body, it is important to accurately estimate the cooling air flow introduced from the front opening. It is therefore necessary to reproduce the detailed geometry of the entire vehicle including the engine bay as precisely as possible. However, there is a problem of generating a good-quality calculation grid with a small workload. It usually takes several days to a week for the pretreatment process to make the geometry data ‘clean’ or ‘watertight’. The authors proposed a computational method for complex geometries with a hierarchical Cartesian grid and a topology-independent immersed boundary method with dummy cells that discretize the geometry on a cell-by-cell basis and can set an imaginary point arbitrarily.
Technical Paper

NVH Development of a High Torque SUV Using a Novel Active Torque Rod System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0685
During the last decade, fuel economy mandates (CAFE regulations) have driven engine downsizing and down-speeding trends. More recently, downsized turbos are percolating down to heavier SUVs and trucks. Larger/heavier vehicles require high torque engines to provide attractive dynamic performance. While higher torque requirements can be satisfied with new innovations like the variable compression engine, larger and more upscale vehicles also need to deliver higher quietness requirements. For this, the vibration control system for combustion induced forces with high torque engines become very important. To address both dynamic performance and quietness requirements, active engine mounts have been previously adopted, however challenges for light-weighting, downsizing, and costs have still persisted.
Technical Paper

Application of 980 MPa Grade Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

2018-04-03
2018-01-0625
There are strong demands for vehicle weight reductions so as to improve fuel economy. At the same time, it is also necessary to ensure crash safety. One effective measure for accomplishing such both requirements conflicting each other is to apply advanced high strength steel (AHSS) of 780 MPa grade or higher to the vehicle body. On the other hand, higher strength steels generally tend to display lower elongation causing formability deterioration. Nissan Motor Corporation have jointly developed with steel manufacturers a new 980 MPa grade AHSS with high formability with the aim of substituting it for the currently used 590 MPa grade high-tensile steel. Several application technologies have been developed through the verifications such as formability, resistance spot weldability, crashworthiness, and delayed fracture.
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