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Technical Paper

Development of Plastic Region Tightening 1.6-GPa Ultra-High Strength Bolt with High Delayed Fracture Resistance

2019-04-02
2019-01-1116
A new variable compression turbo (VC-Turbo) engine, which has a multi-link system for controlling the compression ratio from 8:1 to 14:1, requires high axial force for fastening the multi-links because of high input loads and the downsizing requirement. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt with plastic region tightening. One of the biggest technical concerns is delayed fracture. In this study, quenched and tempered alloy steels were chosen for the 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt.
Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

Application of 980 MPa Grade Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

2018-04-03
2018-01-0625
There are strong demands for vehicle weight reductions so as to improve fuel economy. At the same time, it is also necessary to ensure crash safety. One effective measure for accomplishing such both requirements conflicting each other is to apply advanced high strength steel (AHSS) of 780 MPa grade or higher to the vehicle body. On the other hand, higher strength steels generally tend to display lower elongation causing formability deterioration. Nissan Motor Corporation have jointly developed with steel manufacturers a new 980 MPa grade AHSS with high formability with the aim of substituting it for the currently used 590 MPa grade high-tensile steel. Several application technologies have been developed through the verifications such as formability, resistance spot weldability, crashworthiness, and delayed fracture.
Journal Article

Silicon Carbide Inverter for EV/HEV Application featuring a Low Thermal Resistance Module and a Noise Reduction Structure

2017-03-28
2017-01-1669
This paper presents the technologies incorporated in an electric vehicle (EV)/hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) inverter built with power semiconductors of silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) instead of conventional silicon (Si) insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). A SiC inverter prototype of 2.9 L in size for driving an 80-kW motor was fabricated and evaluated on a motor test bench. The SiC inverter prototype attained average efficiency of 98.5% in the Worldwide harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) driving mode. The two main technologies achieved with this SiC inverter prototype are described. The first one is a new direct-cooled power module with a thick copper (Cu) heat spreader located under the semiconductors that improves thermal resistance by 34% compared with a conventional direct-cooled power module.
Technical Paper

Research on the Effect of Lubricant Oil and Fuel Properties on LSPI Occurrence in Boosted S. I. Engines

2016-10-17
2016-01-2292
The effects of lubricant oil and fuel properties on low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) occurrence in boosted S.I. engines were experimentally evaluated with multi-cylinder engine and de-correlated oil and fuel matrices. Further, the auto-ignitability of fuel spray droplets and evaporated homogeneous fuel/oil mixtures were evaluated in a combustion bomb and pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) tests to analyze the fundamental ignition process. The work investigated the effect of engine conditions, fuel volatility and various lubricant additives on LSPI occurrence. The results support the validity of aspects of the LSPI mechanism hypothesis based on the phenomenon of droplets of lubricant oil/fuel mixture (caused by adhesion of fuel spray on the liner wall) flying into the chamber and autoigniting before spark ignition.
Technical Paper

A Model Based Design Methodology for Variable Flux PMSMs to Obtain Desired Speed-Torque Characteristics

2016-04-05
2016-01-1233
Variable flux permanent magnet synchronous machines (VFPMSMs) have been designed by using finite element analysis (FEA) to evaluate speed-torque capability considering requirement for magnetization state (MS) manipulation. However, due to its unique characteristic to change the MS, numerous combinations of design parameters need to be evaluated to achieve a final design. To accelerate the design process, this paper presents a method that consists of an equivalent magnetic circuit model and a process to obtain magnet width and thickness that satisfy target maximum torque and power factor (P.F.) capability. This model includes magnet operating point analysis under given magnet width and thickness condition to achieve target MS and avoid demagnetization at full load. This analysis provides desired stator magnetomotive force, magnet and stator induced flux linkage. Therefore, expected torque and P.F. capability is calculated.
Technical Paper

Reciprocal Measurements of the Vehicle Transfer Function for Road Noise

2015-06-15
2015-01-2241
Road Noise is generated by the change of random displacement input inside the tire contact patch. Since the existing 3 or 6 directional electromagnetic shakers have a flat surface at the tire contact patch, these shakers cannot excite the vehicle in a manner representative of actual on-road road noise input. Therefore, this paper proposes a new experimental method to measure the road noise vehicle transfer function. This method is based on the reciprocity between the tire contact patch and the driver's ear location. The reaction force sensor of the tire contact patch is newly developed for the reciprocal loud speaker excitation at the passenger ear location. In addition, with this equipment, it is possible to extract the dominant structural mode shapes creating high sound pressure in the automotive interior acoustic field. This method is referred to as experimental structure mode participation to the noise of the acoustic field in the vibro-acoustic coupling analysis.
Technical Paper

Development of GF-5 0W-20 Fuel-Saving Engine Oil for DLC-Coated Valve Lifters

2014-04-01
2014-01-1478
A suitable GF-5 engine oil formulation is investigated to improve the fuel economy of gasoline engines with hydrogen-free DLC-coated valve lifters. Molybdenum dithocarbamate (MoDTC) is shown to be a suitable friction modifier for low viscosity grade engine oils like 0W-20. A suitable Ca salicylate detergent is also determined from several types examined for maximizing the friction reduction effects of MoDTC. The most suitable Ca salicylate has a chemical structure capable of forming a borophosphate glass film on metal surfaces, which is known to improve the effects of MoDTC. A high viscosity index Group III base oil (VI>140) is also effective in improving fuel efficiency. It is further clarified that the structural design of the polymethacrylate viscosity modifier is another important factor in reducing engine friction.
Technical Paper

Variable Characteristic Permanent Magnet Motor for Automobile Application

2014-04-01
2014-01-1869
This paper describes a variable magnetomotive force interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine for use as a traction motor on automobiles in order to reduce total energy consumption during duty cycles and cut costs by using Dy-free magnets. First, the principle of a variable magnetomotive force flux-intensifying IPM (VFI-IPM) machine is explained. A theoretical operating point analysis of the magnets using a simplified model with nonlinear B-H characteristics is presented and the results are confirmed by nonlinear finite element analysis. Four types of magnet layouts were investigated for the magnetic circuit design. It was found that a radial magnetization direction with a single magnet is suitable for the VFI-IPM machine. Magnetization controllability was investigated with respect to the magnet thickness, width and coercive force for the prototype design. The estimated variable motor speed and torque characteristics are presented.
Technical Paper

Prediction and Analysis Technology Development for Impact Noise

2014-04-01
2014-01-0895
In order to enhance product attraction, it is important to reduce the impact noise when a vehicle go over bumps such as bridge joints. Vehicle performance to transitional noise phenomena is not yet analyzed well. In this paper, a prediction method is established by vector composition and inverse Fourier transform with the combination of Multibody Dynamics (MBD) and FEM. Also, a root cause analysis method is established with the following three mechanism analysis methods; transfer path analysis, mode contribution analysis, and panel contribution analysis.
Technical Paper

1.2GPa Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

2014-04-01
2014-01-0991
To reduce the Body in White (BIW) mass, it is necessary to expand the application of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) to complex shaped parts. In order to apply AHSS to complex shaped parts with thinner gauge, high formability steel is required. However, higher strength steels tend to display lower elongations, compared with low/medium strength steels. Current AHSS are applied to limited parts for this reason. The new 1.2GPa material, with high formability, was developed to solve this issue. The mechanical property targets for the high elongation 1.2GPa material were achieved by precise metallurgical optimization. Many material aspects were studied, such as formability, weldabilty, impact strength, and delayed fracture. As the result of this development, 1.2GPa AHSS has been applied to a new vehicle launched in 2013.The application of this material was the 1st in the world, and achieved a 11kg mass reduction.
Video

Technical Breakthroughs in Development of a Single Motor Full Hybrid System

2011-11-18
Nissan has released our original HEV system in Japan on November 2010, and will release it in US market on March 2011. The 1 motor 2 clutch parallel type using conventional 7 speed automatic transmission has been employed without torque converter and with a manganese cathode and laminated type Li-ion Battery. This system is well recognized its higher efficiency but lower weight and cost, however, has never realized due to technical difficulties of smoothness. At this session, performance achievements and hinged breakthrough technologies will be presented. Presenter Tetsuya Takahashi, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
Technical Paper

Development of HMI and Telematics Systems for a Reliable and Attractive Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0554
This paper describes the HMI, navigation and telematics systems developed specifically for the Nissan LEAF electric vehicle to dispel drivers' anxieties about operating an EV. Drivers of EVs will need to understand various new kinds of information about the vehicle's operational status that differ from conventional gasoline-engine vehicles. Additionally, owing to the current driving range of EVs and limited availability of charging stations, drivers will want to know acccurate the remaining driving range, amount of power and the latest information about charging station locations. It will also be important to ensure that people unfamiliar with EVs will be able to operate them easily as rental cars or in car-sharing systems without experiencing any inconvenience.
Journal Article

Development of Precision Rolling Machine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0978
This paper proposes a rolling machine that forms fine corrugated section patterns for thin sheets. A prototype of the machine was made and the performance of the machine was tested. As compared with press forming, rolling has the advantages of the high forming limit, the low forming reaction force, the easy control of the thin sheet's curve and high productivity. We confirmed these four advantages by using finite element analyses and the prototype rolling machine. Stainless steel sheets and titanium sheets, which were one of the materials with a low forming limit, were used. Firstly, the rolling showed a 1.3-times higher forming limit than the press forming in the case that a fine corrugated section pattern was formed in a stainless steel sheet of 22-mm square sizes. Secondly, the forming reaction force of the rolling was about one-twentieth of the press forming without coining, and the experimental results agreed with the finite element simulation.
Journal Article

Dissimilar Joining of Aluminum Alloy and Steel by Resistance Spot Welding

2009-04-20
2009-01-0034
This study concerns a dissimilar materials joining technique for aluminum (Al) alloys and steel for the purpose of reducing the vehicle body weight. The tough oxide layer on the Al alloy surface and the ability to control the Fe-Al intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness are issues that have so far complicated the joining of Al alloys and steel. Removing the oxide layer has required a high heat input, resulting in the formation of a thick Fe-Al IMC layer at the joint interface, making it impossible to obtain satisfactory joint strength. To avoid that problem, we propose a unique joining concept that removes the oxide layer at low temperature by using the eutectic reaction between Al in the Al alloy and zinc (Zn) in the coating on galvanized steel (GI) and galvannealed steel (GA). This makes it possible to form a thin, uniform Fe-Al IMC layer at the joint interface. Welded joints of dissimilar materials require anticorrosion performance against electrochemical corrosion.
Technical Paper

Road-load Input Contribution Analysis for Suspension Durability using a Multi-axial Road Simulator

2008-04-14
2008-01-1482
The durability test with road-load input is necessary for evaluating durability of body and chassis structure in automotive applications. This paper shows the method to analyze road-load input to a suspension system for development of a simple component level bench test. This method enables the extraction of the essential inputs to evaluate the durability of suspension parts using the transfer function (frequency response function) measured by Multi-axial Road Simulator and wheel force transducers. These extracted inputs contribute to development of a new realistic component bench test.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Method for Predicting the Risk of Crossing-Collisions at Intersection

2008-04-14
2008-01-0524
The probability or risk of traffic accidents must be estimated quantitatively in order to implement effective traffic safety measures. In this study, various statistical data and probability theory were used to examine a method for predicting the risk of crossing-collisions, representing a typical type of accident at intersections in Japan. Crossing-collisions are caused by a variety of factors, including the road geometry and traffic environment at intersections and the awareness and intentions of the drivers of the striking and struck vehicles. Bayes' theorem was applied to find the accident probability of each factor separately. Specifically, the probability of various factors being present at the time of a crossing-collision was estimated on the basis of traffic accident data and observation survey data.
Technical Paper

Uniform Quenching Technology by Using Controlled High Pressure Gas after Low Pressure Carburizing

2008-04-14
2008-01-0365
To reduce quenching distortion, step gas quenching has been proposed in recent years, which refers to rapid gas cooling of steel from austenitizing temperature to a point above or below Ms temperature, where it is held for a specific period of time, followed by gas cooling. In this study, by using infrared thermography combined with conventional thermocouple, a new temperature monitoring and control system was developed to realize the step gas quenching process of a hypoid ring gear after low pressure carburizing. The test production results indicate that by using the new monitoring and control system, we can control the gas quenching process and the distortion of carburized gear treated by step gas quenching can be reduced significantly compared with standard gas quenching.
Technical Paper

Effective Numerical Simulation Tool for Real-World Rollover Accidents by Combining PC-Crash and FEA

2007-04-16
2007-01-1773
With SUVs and minivans accounting for a larger share of the US market in the past decade, rollover accidents have drawn greater attention, leading to more active research from different perspectives. This ranges from investigations for elucidating the basic causes and mechanisms of rollover accidents to studies of more advanced occupant protection measures. As the phenomenon of a rollover accident is longer in duration than frontal, side or rear impacts, it is relatively difficult [1] to simulate such accidents for experimental verification and also for proper evaluation of occupant restraint system performance. In this work, we focused on the trip-over type, which occurs most frequently, and performed simulations to reproduce real-world rollover accidents by combining PC-Crash and FEA.
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