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Technical Paper

Development of a Cold Start Fuel Penalty Metric for Evaluating the Impact of Fuel Composition Changes on SI Engine Emissions Control

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines initiative (Co-Optima) aims to simultaneously transform both transportation fuels and engines to maximize performance and energy efficiency. Researchers from across the DOE national laboratories are working within Co-Optima to develop merit functions for evaluating the impact of fuel formulations on the performance of advanced engines. The merit functions relate overall engine efficiency to specific measurable fuel properties and will serve as key tools in the fuel/engine co-optimization process. This work focused on developing a term for the Co-Optima light-duty boosted spark ignition (SI) engine merit function that captures the effects of fuel composition on emissions control system performance. For stoichiometric light-duty SI engines, the majority of NOx, NMOG, and CO emissions occur during cold start, before the three-way catalyst (TWC) has reached its “light-off” temperature.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Fuel-Borne Sodium Effects on a DOC-DPF-SCR Heavy-Duty Engine Emission Control System: Simulation of Full-Useful Life

For renewable fuels to displace petroleum, they must be compatible with emissions control devices. Pure biodiesel contains up to 5 ppm Na + K and 5 ppm Ca + Mg metals, which have the potential to degrade diesel emissions control systems. This study aims to address these concerns, identify deactivation mechanisms, and determine if a lower limit is needed. Accelerated aging of a production exhaust system was conducted on an engine test stand over 1001 h using 20% biodiesel blended into ultra-low sulfur diesel (B20) doped with 14 ppm Na. This Na level is equivalent to exposure to Na at the uppermost expected B100 value in a B20 blend for the system full-useful life. During the study, NOx emissions exceeded the engine certification limit of 0.33 g/bhp-hr before the 435,000-mile requirement.
Journal Article

Vehicle Efficiency and Tractive Work: Rate of Change for the Past Decade and Accelerated Progress Required for U.S. Fuel Economy and CO2 Regulations

A major driving force for change in light-duty vehicle design and technology is the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) joint final rules concerning Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for model years 2017 (MY17) through 2025 (MY25) passenger cars and light trucks. The chief goal of this current study is to compare the already rapid pace of fuel economy improvement and technological change over the previous decade to the required rate of change to meet regulations over the next decade. EPA and NHTSA comparisons of the model year 2005 (MY05) US light-duty vehicle fleet to the model year 2015 (MY15) fleet shows improved fuel economy (FE) of approximately 26% using the same FE estimating method mandated for CAFE regulations. Future predictions by EPA and NHTSA concerning ensemble fleet fuel economy are examined as an indicator of required vehicle rate-of-change.
Technical Paper

SI Engine Trends: A Historical Analysis with Future Projections

It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 80 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined unadjusted fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio and specific output have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Impact of Road Grade and Curvature on Truck Driving for Vehicle Simulation

Driver is a key component in vehicle simulation. An ideal driver model simulates driving patterns a human driver may perform to negotiate road profiles. There are simulation packages having the capability to simulate driver behavior. However, it is rarely documented how they work with road profiles. This paper proposes a new truck driver model for vehicle simulation to imitate actual driving behavior in negotiating road grade and curvature. The proposed model is developed based upon Gipps' car-following model. Road grade and curvature were not considered in the original Gipps' model although it is based directly on driver behavior and expectancy for vehicles in a stream of traffic. New parameters are introduced to capture drivers' choice of desired speeds that they intend to use in order to negotiating road grade and curvature simultaneously. With the new parameters, the proposed model can emulate behaviors like uphill preparation for different truck drivers.
Journal Article

Effect of Accelerated Aging Rate on the Capture of Fuel-Borne Metal Impurities by Emissions Control Devices

Small impurities in the fuel can have a significant impact on the emissions control system performance over the lifetime of the vehicle. Of particular interest in recent studies has been the impact of sodium, potassium, and calcium that can be introduced either through fuel constituents, such as biodiesel, or as lubricant additives. In a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a series of accelerated aging studies have been performed to understand the potential impact of these metals on the emissions control system. This paper explores the effect of the rate of accelerated aging on the capture of fuel-borne metal impurities in the emission control devices and the subsequent impact on performance. Aging was accelerated by doping the fuel with high levels of the metals of interest. Three separate evaluations were performed, each with a different rate of accelerated aging.
Technical Paper

The Electric Drive Advanced Battery (EDAB) Project: Development and Utilization of an On-Road Energy Storage System Testbed

As energy storage system (ESS) technology advances, vehicle testing in both laboratory and on-road settings is needed to characterize the performance of state-of-the-art technology and also identify areas for future improvement. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), through its support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), is collaborating with ECOtality North America and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to conduct on-road testing of advanced ESSs for the Electric Drive Advanced Battery (EDAB) project. The project objective is to test a variety of advanced ESSs that are close to commercialization in a controlled environment that simulates usage within the intended application with the variability of on-road driving to quantify the ESS capabilities, limitations, and performance fade over cycling of the ESS.
Journal Article

Application of a Tractive Energy Analysis to Quantify the Benefits of Advanced Efficiency Technologies for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Trucks Using Characteristic Drive Cycle Data

Accurately predicting the fuel savings that can be achieved with the implementation of various technologies developed for fuel efficiency can be very challenging, particularly when considering combinations of technologies. Differences in the usage of highway vehicles can strongly influence the benefits realized with any given technology, which makes generalizations about fuel savings inappropriate for different vehicle applications. A model has been developed to estimate the potential for reducing fuel consumption when advanced efficiency technologies, or combinations of these technologies, are employed on highway vehicles, particularly medium- and heavy-duty trucks. The approach is based on a tractive energy analysis applied to drive cycles representative of the vehicle usage, and the analysis specifically accounts for individual energy loss factors that characterize the technologies of interest.
Journal Article

A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Through Supervisory Control Methods

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple “cold” start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events may have a significant impact on the tailpipe emissions due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal emissions tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts.
Technical Paper

A Systems Approach to Life Cycle Truck Cost Estimation

A systems-level modeling framework developed to estimate the life cycle cost of medium- and heavy-duty trucks is discussed in this paper. Costs are estimated at a resolution of five major subsystems and 30+ subsystems, each representing a specific manufacturing technology. Interrelationships among various subsystems affecting cost are accounted for. Results of a specific Class 8 truck are finally discussed to demonstrate the modeling framework's capability, including the analysis of cost-effectiveness of some of the competing alternative system design options being considered by the industry today.
Technical Paper

Particulate Matter and Aldehyde Emissions from Idling Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

As part of a multi-agency study concerning emissions and fuel consumption from heavy-duty diesel truck idling, Oak Ridge National Laboratory personnel measured CO, HC, NOx, CO2, O2, particulate matter (PM), aldehyde and ketone emissions from truck idle exhaust. Two methods of quantifying PM were employed: conventional filters and a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). A partial flow micro-dilution tunnel was used to dilute the sampled exhaust to make the PM and aldehyde measurements. The work was performed at the U.S. Army's Aberdeen Test Center's (ATC) climate controlled chamber. ATC performed 37 tests on five class-8 trucks (model years ranging from 1992 to 2001). One was equipped with an 11 hp diesel auxiliary power unit (APU), and another with a diesel direct-fired heater (DFH). The APU powers electrical accessories, heating, and air conditioning, whereas a DFH heats the cab in cold weather. Both devices offer an alternative to extended truck-engine idling.
Technical Paper

A Novel Capability for Crush Testing Crash Energy Management Structures at Intermediate Rates

The crush performance of lightweight composite automotive structures varies significantly between static and dynamic test conditions. This paper discusses the development of a new dynamic testing facility that can be used to characterize crash performance at high loads and constant speed. Previous research results from the Energy Management Working Group (EMWG) of the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) showed that the static crush resistance of composite tubes can be significantly greater than dynamic crush results at speeds greater than 2 m/s. The new testing facility will provide the unique capability to crush structures at high loads in the intermediate velocity range. A novel machine control system was designed and projections of the machine performance indicate its compliance with the desired test tolerances. The test machine will be part of a national user facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and will be available for use in the summer of 2002.
Technical Paper

High-Volume, Low-Cost Precursors for Carbon Fiber Production

Carbon fiber composite use in automobiles and light trucks could dramatically reduce energy use and engine-out emissions. However, worldwide capacity of 28,000 tonnes per year of carbon fiber from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and petroleum pitch could support limited automotive use. Production of high-volume, industrial-grade fiber from renewable and recycled polymers (lignin, recycled plastics, regenerated cellulosics) could meet automotive demand. Profiles of material volumes, carbon content, and melting points indicate several attractive candidates for production melt-spun carbon fiber feedstocks. Effects on the carbon fiber production cycle and its integration into automotive production are discussed.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Aftertreatment Research for Heavy Vehicles

The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 emission regulations for light-duty vehicles will require effective exhaust emission controls (aftertreatment) for diesels in these applications. Diesel-powered heavy trucks face a similar situation for the 2007 regulations announced by EPA in December 2000. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and evaluation of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R&D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments.
Technical Paper

Performance of a NOX Adsorber and Catalyzed Particle Filter System on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

A prototype emissions control system consisting of a close-coupled lightoff catalyst, catalyzed diesel particle filter (CDPF), and a NOX adsorber was evaluated on a Mercedes A170 CDI. This laboratory experiment aimed to determine whether the benefits of these technologies could be utilized simultaneously to allow a light-duty diesel vehicle to achieve levels called out by U.S. Tier 2 emissions legislation. This research was carried out by driving the A170 through the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP), US06, and highway fuel economy test (HFET) dynamometer driving schedules. The vehicle was fueled with a 3-ppm ultra-low sulfur fuel. Regeneration of the NOX adsorber/CDPF system was accomplished by using a laboratory in-pipe synthesis gas injection system to simulate the capabilities of advanced engine controls to produce suitable exhaust conditions. The results show that these technologies can be combined to provide high pollutant reduction efficiencies in excess of 90% for NOX and PM.
Technical Paper

Overview of Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects Program

This paper describes the results of Phase 1 of the Diesel Emission Control - Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program. The objective of the program is to determine the impact of fuel sulfur levels on emissions control systems that could be used to lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from vehicles with diesel engines. The DECSE program has now issued four interim reports for its first phase, with conclusions about the effect of diesel sulfur level on PM and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions from the high-temperature lean-NOx catalyst, the increase of engine-out sulfate emissions with higher sulfur fuel levels, the effect of sulfur content on NOx adsorber conversion efficiencies, and the effect of fuel sulfur content on diesel oxidation catalysts, causing increased PM emissions above engine-out emissions under certain operating conditions.