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Technical Paper

Duct Shape Optimization Using Multi-Objective and Geometrically Constrained Adjoint Solver

2019-04-02
2019-01-0823
In the recent years, adjoint optimization has gained popularity in the automotive industry with its growing applications. Since its inclusion in the mainstream commercial CFD solvers and its continuously added capabilities over the years, its productive usage became readily available to many engineers who were previously limited to interfacing the customized adjoint source code with CFD solvers. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate using an adjoint solver a method to optimize duct shape that meets multiple design objectives simultaneously. To overcome one of the biggest challenges in the duct design, i.e. the severe packaging constraints, the method here uses geometrically constrained adjoint to ensure that the optimum shape always fits into the user-defined packaging space. In this work, adjoint solver and surface sensitivity calculations are used to develop the optimization method.
Technical Paper

Copper Effect on the Ultrasonic Fatigue Life of A356 Aluminum Alloy Under Variable Humidity Levels

2018-04-03
2018-01-1411
Ultrasonic fatigue tests (testing frequency around 20kHz) have been conducted on A356 aluminum alloys with different copper contents and AS7GU aluminum alloy. Tests were performed in dry air and submerged in water conditions. The effect of copper content was investigated and it was concluded that copper content plays an important role influencing the humidity effect on A356 aluminum alloy ultrasonic fatigue lives. Also, for the same copper content, copper in solute solution or in precipitate have different humidity sensitivities.
Technical Paper

Development of Wireless Message for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0027
This paper summarizes the development of a wireless message from infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) for safety applications based on Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). During the development of the Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure (RSZW/LC) safety applications [1], the Basic Information Message (BIM) was developed to wirelessly transmit infrastructure-centric information. The Traveler Information Message (TIM) structure, as described in the SAE J2735, provides a mechanism for the infrastructure to issue and display in-vehicle signage of various types of advisory and road sign information. This approach, though effective in communicating traffic advisories, is limited by the type of information that can be broadcast from infrastructures.
Technical Paper

A Packaging Layout to Mitigate Crosstalk for SiC Devices

2018-04-03
2018-01-0462
SiC devices have inherent fast switching capabilities due to their superior material properties, and are considered potential candidates to replace Si devices for traction inverters in electrified vehicles in future. However, due to the comparatively low gate threshold voltage, SiC devices may encounter oscillatory false triggering especially during fast switching. This paper analyzed the causes of false triggering, and also studied the impact of a critical parasitic parameter - common source inductance. It is shown that crosstalk is the main cause for the false triggering in the case and some positive common source inductance help to mitigate the crosstalk issue. A packaging layout method is proposed to create the positive common source inductance through layout of control terminals / busbars, and/or the use of control terminal bonded wires at different height.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Engine Air Induction System Hydrocarbon Traps

2017-03-28
2017-01-1014
Engine air induction systems hydrocarbon trap (HC trap) designs to limit evaporative fuel emissions, have evolved over time. This paper discusses a range of HC traps that have evolved in engine air induction systems. (AIS) The early zeolite flow through HC trap utilized an exhaust catalyst technology internal stainless steel furnace brazed substrate coated with zeolite media. This HC trap was installed in the AIS clean air tube. This design was heavy, complicated, and expensive but met the urgency of the implementation of the new evaporative emissions regulation. The latest Ford Motor Company HC trap is a simple plastic tray containing activated carbon with breathable non-woven polyester cover. This design has been made common across multiple vehicle lines with planned production annual volume in the millions. The cost of the latest HC trap bypass design is approximately 5% of the original stainless steel zeolite flow through HC trap.
Technical Paper

MyFord Dock Development

2017-03-28
2017-01-1694
Demand for enhanced infotainment systems with features like navigation, real-time traffic, music streaming service, mirroring and others is increasing, forcing automakers to develop solutions that fulfill customer needs. However, many of those systems are too expensive to be fitted to an entry-level vehicle leaving a gap in the market that fails customer’s expectation. This gap is usually filled by a smartphone which may have all the features the customer wants but in many cases it cannot be properly fitted in the vehicle due to lack of specific storage space. This paper describes how the engineering team developed an innovative, flexible and effective solution that holds a smartphone in an ergonomic location.
Journal Article

The Effects of CO, C2H4, and H2O on the NOx Storage Performance of Low Temperature NOx Adsorbers for Diesel Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-0942
Model low temperature NOx adsorbers (LTNA) consisting of Pd on a ceria/zirconia washcoat on monoliths were evaluated for low temperature NOx storage under lean conditions to assess their potential for adsorbing the cold-start NOx emissions on a diesel engine during the period before the urea/SCR system becomes operational. A reactor-based transient test was performed with and without C2H4, CO/H2, and H2O to assess the effects of these species on the NOx storage performance. In the absence of C2H4 or CO/H2, H2O severely suppressed the NOx storage of these model LTNAs at temperatures below 100°C, presumably by blocking the storage sites. When C2H4 was included in the feedgas, H2O still suppressed the NOx storage below 100°C. However, the C2H4 significantly increased the NOx storage efficiency above 100°C, attributable to the formation of alkyl nitrites or alkyl nitrates on the catalyst.
Technical Paper

High Frequency Sloshing - Energy Dissipation and Viscous Damping through CFD

2017-03-28
2017-01-1317
Liquid sloshing is an important issue in ground transportation, aerospace and automotive applications. Effects of sloshing in a moving liquid container can cause various issues related to vehicle stability, safety, component fatigue, audible noise and, liquid level measurement. The sloshing phenomenon is a highly nonlinear oscillatory movement of the free-surface of liquid inside a container under the effect of continuous or momentarily excitation forces. These excitation forces can result from sudden acceleration, braking, sharp turning or pitching motions. The sloshing waves generated by the excitation forces can impact on the tank surface and cause additional vibrations. For the loads with the frequencies between 2 to 200 Hz, the structural fatigue failure is a major concern for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Benefits of On-Board Measurement of Ambient Humidity Part-1: Effect on Spark Timing and Combustion Efficiency

2016-04-05
2016-01-1067
Engine Mapping is usually performed under nominal conditions which include a humidity level of 8 g/Kg. Customers driving at different conditions (which may range from 1 g/Kg in colder and dry climates and up to 35 g/Kg as in tropical climates) may experience less-than-optimal engine combustion which results in reduced onroad fuel economy. Humidity has an EGR-equivalent effect, and measuring it will correct the spark timing, mainly at Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) and borderline conditions, and claim back some of those losses. This paper aims at quantifying the small fuel economy benefits associated with on-board humidity measurement for certain customer use cases at high humidity conditions. Dyno data was collected for a Ford 2.3L GTDI engine at three speed load points, and intake air humidity was varied between 20% and 80% relative humidity. The effect of humidity compensation on spark timing, combustion phasing, knock, and consequently on overall engine efficiency was analyzed.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Benefits of On-Board Measurement of Ambient Humidity Part-2: Effect on Torque Estimation Accuracy and Drivability

2016-04-05
2016-01-1068
Engine Mapping is usually performed under nominal conditions which include a humidity level of 8 g/Kg. Customers driving at different humidity conditions (which may range from 1 g/Kg in dry and colder climates and up to 35 g/Kg as in tropical climates) may experience a degraded performance due to the errors in engine torque estimation provided by the ECU. The torque estimation error interacts with many other features that affect drivability, such as the peak performance of the engine, transmission shift quality, etc. This paper extends the investigation in Part-1 by analyzing and quantifying the torque estimation error that may result in certain customer use cases at high humidity conditions, due to the mismatch between calibrated and actual conditions. The analysis is mainly performed for Speed-Density systems (MAP sensor based) but the effect of mass air flow sensor (MAF sensor) based systems is also briefly considered.
Journal Article

Effect of Humidity on the Very High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of a Cast Aluminum Alloy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0371
In this paper, fatigue tests on a cast aluminum alloy (AS7GU-T64) were performed under different frequencies and humidity levels. Tests conducted under conventional frequency in laboratory air have been compared to tests conducted under ultrasonic frequency in dry air, saturated humidity and in distilled water. It was observed that the highest and lowest fatigue lives correspond to ultrasonic fatigue tests in dry air and in distilled water, respectively. Unlike specimens tested at conventional frequency, all of the specimens tested at ultrasonic frequency presented a large amount of slip facets on the fatigue crack propagation fracture surface.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Water Condensation inside the Tubes of an Automotive Compact Charge Air Cooler

2016-04-05
2016-01-0224
To address the need of increasing fuel economy requirements, automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are increasing the number of turbocharged engines in their powertrain line-ups. The turbine-driven technology uses a forced induction device, which increases engine performance by increasing the density of the air charge being drawn into the cylinder. Denser air allows more fuel to be introduced into the combustion chamber, thus increasing engine performance. During the inlet air compression process, the air is heated to temperatures that can result in pre-ignition resulting and reduced engine functionality. The introduction of the charge air cooler (CAC) is therefore, necessary to extract heat created during the compression process. The present research describes the physics and develops the optimized simulation method that defines the process and gives insight into the development of CACs.
Journal Article

Impact of Accelerated Hydrothermal Aging on Structure and Performance of Cu-SSZ-13 SCR Catalysts

2015-04-14
2015-01-1022
In this contribution, nuanced changes of a commercial Cu-SSZ-13 catalyst with hydrothermal aging, which have not been previously reported, as well as their corresponding impact on SCR functions, are described. In particular, a sample of Cu-SSZ-13 was progressively aged between 550 to 900°C and the changes of performance in NH3 storage, oxidation functionality and NOx conversion of the catalyst were measured after hydrothermal exposure at each temperature. The catalysts thus aged were further characterized by NH3-TPD, XRD and DRIFTS techniques for structural changes. Based on the corresponding performance and structural characteristics, three different regimes of hydrothermal aging were identified, and tentatively as assigned to “mild”, “severe” and “extreme” aging. Progressive hydrothermal aging up to 750°C decreased NOx conversion to a small degree, as well as NH3 storage and oxidation functions.
Technical Paper

New Insights into the Unique Operation of Small Pore Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst: Overlapping NH3 Desorption and Oxidation Characteristics for Minimizing Undesired Products

2014-04-01
2014-01-1542
An operational challenge associated with SCR catalysts is the NH3 slip control, particularly for commercial small pore Cu-zeolite formulations as a consequence of their significant ammonia storage capacity. The desorption of NH3 during increasing temperature transients is one example of this challenge. Ammonia slipping from SCR catalyst typically passes through a platinum based ammonia oxidation catalyst (AMOx), leading to the formation of the undesired byproducts NOx and N2O. We have discovered a distinctive characteristic, an overlapping NH3 desorption and oxidation, in a state-of-the-art Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst that can minimize NH3 slip during temperature transients encountered in real-world operation of a vehicle.
Journal Article

Compatibility Assessment of Plastic Infrastructure Materials to Test Fuels Representing Gasoline Blends Containing Ethanol and Isobutanol

2014-04-01
2014-01-1465
The compatibility of plastic materials used in gasoline storage and dispensing applications was determined for test fuels representing neat gasoline (Fuel C), and blends containing 25% ethanol (CE25a), 16% isobutanol (CiBu16a), and 24% isobutanol (CiBu24a). A solubility analysis was also performed and compared to the volume swell results obtained from the test fuel exposures. The plastic specimens were exposed to each test fuel for16 weeks at 60°C. After measuring the wetted volume and hardness, the specimens were dried for 65 hours at 60°C and then remeasured for volume and hardness. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), which measures the storage modulus as a function of temperature, was also performed on the dried specimens to determine the temperature associated with the onset of the glass-to-rubber transition (Tg). For many of the plastic materials, the solubility analysis was able to predict the relative volume swell for each test fuel.
Technical Paper

1D Model of a Copper Exchanged Small Pore Zeolite Catalyst Based on Transient SCR Protocol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1578
Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are the leading aftertreatment technology for diesel engines, but there are major challenges associated with meeting future NOx emission standards, especially under transient drive cycle conditions that include large swings in exhaust temperatures. Here we present a simplified, transient, one-dimensional integral model of NOx reduction by NH₃ on a commercial small-pore Cu-zeolite urea-SCR catalyst for which detailed kinetic parameters have not been published. The model was developed and validated using data acquired from bench reactor experiments on a monolith core, following a transient SCR reactor protocol. The protocol incorporates NH₃ storage, NH₃ oxidation, NO oxidation and three global SCR reactions under isothermal conditions, at three space velocities and at three NH₃/NOx ratios.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Magnesium Front End Autoparts: A Revision to 2010-01-0275

2012-12-31
2012-01-2325
The Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project under the sponsorship of Canada, China, and USA aims to develop key technologies and a knowledge base for increased use of magnesium in automobiles. The primary goal of this life cycle assessment (LCA) study is to compare the energy and potential environmental impacts of advanced magnesium based front end parts of a North American-built 2007 GM-Cadillac CTS using the current steel structure as a baseline. An aluminium front end is also considered as an alternate light structure scenario. A “cradle-to-grave” LCA is conducted by including primary material production, semi-fabrication production, autoparts manufacturing and assembly, transportation, use phase, and end-of-life processing of autoparts. This LCA study was done in compliance with international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2].
Journal Article

Development of Integrated Modular Motor Drive for Traction Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0344
This paper introduces a promising approach for developing an integrated traction motor drive based on the Integrated Modular Motor Drive (IMMD) concept. The IMMD concept strives to meet aggressive power density and performance targets by modularizing both the machine and power electronics and then integrating them into a single combined machine-plus-drive structure. Physical integration of the power electronics inside the machine makes it highly desirable to increase the power electronics operating temperature including higher power semiconductor junction temperatures and improved device packaging. Recent progress towards implementing the IMMD concept in an integrated traction motor drive is summarized in this paper. Several candidate permanent magnet (PM) machine configurations with different numbers of phases between 3 and 6 are analyzed to compare their performance characteristics and key application features.
Technical Paper

The Use of Discrete Wavelet Transform in Road Loads Signals Compression

2009-10-06
2009-36-0238
Wavelets are a powerful mathematical tool used to multi-resolution time-frequency decomposition of signals, in order to analyze them in different scales and obtain different aspects of the information. Despite being a relatively new tool, wavelets have being applied in several areas of human knowledge, especially in signal processing, with emphasis in encoding and compression of image, video and audio. Based on a previous successful applications (FRAZIER, 1999) together a commitment to quality results, this paper evaluates the use of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) as an compression algorithm to reduce the amount of data collected in road load signals (load history) which are used by the durability engineering teams in the automotive industry.
Journal Article

Design Considerations for Hydrogen Management System on Ford Hydrogen Fueled E-450 Shuttle Bus

2009-04-20
2009-01-1422
As part of a continuous research and innovation effort, Ford Motor Company has been evaluating hydrogen as an alternative fuel option for vehicles with internal combustion engines since 1997. Ford has recently designed and built an Econoline (E-450) shuttle bus with a 6.8L Triton engine that uses gaseous hydrogen fuel. Safe practices in the production, storage, distribution, and use of hydrogen are essential for the widespread public and commercial acceptance of hydrogen vehicles. Hazards and risks inherent in the application of hydrogen fuel to internal combustion engine vehicles are explained. The development of a Hydrogen Management System (H2MS) to detect hydrogen leaks in the vehicle is discussed, including the evolution of the H2MS design from exploration and quantification of risks, to implementation and validation of a working system on a vehicle. System elements for detection, mitigation, and warning are examined.
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