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Technical Paper

Approximating Convective Boundary Conditions for Transient Thermal Simulations with Surrogate Models for Thermal Packaging Studies

The need for transient thermal simulations in vehicle packaging studies has grown rapidly in recent years. To date, the computational costs associated with the transient simulation of 3D conjugate heat transfer phenomena has prohibited the widespread use of full vehicle transient simulations. This paper presents results from a recent study that explored a method to circumvent the computational costs associated with long transient conjugate heat transfer simulations. The proposed method first segregates the thermal structural and fluid physics domains to take advantage of time scale differences. The two domains are then re-coupled to calculate a series of steady state conjugate heat transfer simulations at various vehicle speeds. The local convection terms are then used to construct a set of surrogate models dependent on vehicle speed, that predict the local heat transfer coefficients and the local near wall fluid temperatures.
Journal Article

Time-Dependent Reliability-Based Design Optimization of Vibratory Systems

A methodology for time-dependent reliability-based design optimization of vibratory systems with random parameters under stationary excitation is presented. The time-dependent probability of failure is computed using an integral equation which involves up-crossing and joint up-crossing rates. The total probability theorem addresses the presence of the system random parameters and a sparse grid quadrature method calculates the integral of the total probability theorem efficiently. The sensitivity derivatives of the time-dependent probability of failure with respect to the design variables are computed using finite differences. The Modified Combined Approximations (MCA) reanalysis method is used to reduce the overall computational cost from repeated evaluations of the system frequency response or equivalently impulse response function. The method is applied to the shape optimization of a vehicle frame under stochastic loading.
Technical Paper

Dimension Study of Punched Hole Using Conical Tipped Punches

Dimensional problems for punched holes on a sheet metal stamping part include being undersized and oversized. Some important relationships among tools and products, such as the effect of conical punch tip angle, are not fully understood. To study this effect, sheets of AA6016 aluminum and BH210 steel were punched by punches with different conical tip angles. The test method and test results are presented. The piercing force and withdrawing force when using conical punches were also studied. The results indicate that the oversize issue for a punched hole in a stamped panel is largely due to the combination of the conical tip effect and the stretching-release effect.
Journal Article

Consequences of Deep Cycling 24 Volt Battery Strings

Deep charge and discharge cycling of 24 Volt battery strings composed of two 12 Volt VRLA batteries wired in series affects reliability and life expectancy. This is a matter of interest in vehicle power source applications. These cycles include those specific operational cases requiring the delivery of the full storage capacity during discharge. The concern here is related to applications where batteries serve as a primary power source and the energy content is an issue. It is a common practice for deep cycling a 24 volt battery string to simply add the specified limit voltages during charge and discharge for the individual 12 Volt batteries. In reality, the 12 Volt batteries have an inherent capacity variability and are not identical in their performance characteristics. The actual voltages of the individual 12 Volt batteries are not identical.
Technical Paper

Towards Improved Automotive HVAC Control through Internet Connectivity

Traditional Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) control systems are reactive by design and largely dependent on the on-board sensory data available on a Controller Area Network (CAN) bus. The increasingly common Internet connectivity offered in today's vehicles, through infotainment and telematic systems, makes data available that may be used to improve current HVAC systems. This includes real-time outside relative humidity, ambient temperature, precipitation (i.e., rain, snow, etc.), and weather forecasts. This data, combined with position and route information of the vehicle, may be used to provide a more comfortable experience to vehicle occupants in addition to improving driver visibility through more intelligent humidity, and defrost control. While the possibility of improving HVAC control utilizing internet connectivity seems obvious, it is still currently unclear as to what extent.
Journal Article

A Methodology for Design Decisions using Block Diagrams

Our recent work has shown that representation of systems using a reliability block diagram can be used as a decision making tool. In decision making, we called these block diagrams decision topologies. In this paper, we generalize the results and show that decision topologies can be used to make many engineering decisions and can in fact replace decision analysis for most decisions. We also provide a meta-proof that the proposed method using decision topologies is entirely consistent with decision analysis at the limit. The main advantages of the method are that (1) it provides a visual representation of a decision situation, (2) it can easily model tradeoffs, (3) it can incorporate binary attributes, (4) it can model preferences with limited information, and (5) it can be used in a low-fidelity sense to quickly make a decision.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Fuel Cell Performance and Water Accumulation in a Transparent PEM Fuel Cell

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells have grown in research and development for many applications due to their high efficiency and humble operating condition requirements. Water management in the cathode region of the PEM fuel cell is an essential and sensitive phenomenon for cold environments and fuel cell’s performance. This paper investigates the behavior of water production by constructing a transparent-cathode PEM fuel cell. The effects of pressure, relative humidity, and cathode stoichiometric ratio on the production of water as a function of time were studied. Each test set is compared to a reference state. The images of water liquid accumulation inside the cathode bipolar plate channels are shown with the corresponding polarization curves.
Technical Paper

Improving Time-To-Collision Estimation by IMM Based Kalman Filter

In a CAS system, the distance and relative velocity between front and host vehicles are estimated to calculate time-to-collision (TTC). The distance estimates by different methods will certainly include noise which should be removed to ensure the accuracy of TTC calculations. Kalman filter is a good tool to filter such type of noise. Nevertheless, Kalman filter is a model based filter, which means a correct model is important to get the good filtering results. Usually, a vehicle is either moving with a constant velocity (CV) or constant acceleration (CA) maneuvers. This means the distance data between front and host vehicles can be described by either constant velocity or constant acceleration model. In this paper, first, CV and CA models are used to design two Kalman filters and an interacting multiple model (IMM) is used to dynamically combine the outputs from two filters.
Journal Article

Offset Algorithm for Compound Angle Machining of Parts when Tool Motion is Unrestricted in Space

Although the performance of CNC machines is accurate, unavoidable human errors at the part loading position have serious repercussions on engine performance. In the present paper the authors would like to develop an algorithm for error compensation when the tool movement is unrestricted in space. The new solution algorithm will be in terms of the known initial system variables such as the part loading errors, drill tool inclinations, location of spindle etc. This modified paper employs the same principles of inverse kinematics as done in the earlier paper wherein a faulty compound-hole angle axis in space caused by the translational and rotational errors at the part loading position is identified with an imaginary true axis in space by enforcing identity through a modified machine axes taking into effect inclination of the drill tool in space. In the absence of any specific application, this algorithm is verified on Solid Works a commercial CAD tool and found to be correct.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Thermal Residual Strain Induced During the Hardening of a Sheet Metal and Reinforced Composite by Digital Shearography

Shearography is an interferometric, non-contact and full field method for direct measurement of first derivatives of deformation (strain). It is relatively insensitive to environmental disturbances and has been proven to be a practical measuring tool for nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT/NDE). In this paper it has been employed to study the thermal residual strains produced during the reinforcement of a composite to a sheet metal. The reinforced composite is used as an additive to provide extra strength to the sheet metal. The reinforcement process involves gradual heating of the glued composite to a temperature of around 175°C - 180°C and then allowing it cool down to room temperature. During the heating process both the composite and the sheet metal are strained, but during the cooling process some amount of strain is left behind in the sheet metal and it has a key role to play when the product is used for critical parts in automobile and aircraft industries.
Technical Paper

A Rigid Shearographic Endosscopic for Applications

Shearography has been proved to be highly effective for nondestructive testing (NDT), especially for NDT of composite materials used in the automotive and aerospace engineering. While its application in material testing and material research has already achieved more and more acceptance in research and industry, its applications are mainly limited to the inspection and testing of an object surface which can directly be observed by a shearographic camera. Its application is mainly limited to inspect and test an object surface which can directly be observed by a shearographic camera. It is impossible to inspect an internal surface of a container. If the reflected light of the surface, which has to be examined, can’t reach the shearographic camera there is still no inspection possible. This paper presents the development of a rigid shearographic endoscope. The development enabled shearographic inspection on both external and internal surfaces of objects.
Technical Paper

Oil Film Dynamic Characteristics for Journal Bearing Elastohydrodynamic Analysis Based on a Finite Difference Formulation

A fast and accurate journal bearing elastohydrodynamic analysis is presented based on a finite difference formulation. The governing equations for the oil film pressure, stiffness and damping are solved using a finite difference approach. The oil film domain is discretized using a rectangular two-dimensional finite difference mesh. In this new formulation, it is not necessary to generate a global fluidity matrix similar to a finite element based solution. The finite difference equations are solved using a successive over relaxation (SOR) algorithm. The concept of “Influence Zone,” for computing the dynamic characteristics is introduced. The SOR algorithm and the “Influence Zone” concept significantly improve the computational efficiency without loss of accuracy. The new algorithms are validated with numerical results from the literature and their numerical efficiency is demonstrated.