Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Numerical Methodology of Tuning a System to Target Frequencies by Adding Mass

2019-06-05
2019-01-1596
To ensure ride comfort, the dynamic characteristics, such as natural frequencies, of a vehicle is often tuned to a specific value by managing the magnitude and location of some masses and/or configuration of stiffeners without sacrificing the structural strength and overall fuel performance of the vehicle. We first formulate the mathematical statement of the problem in a constrained eigenvalue form. Optimal solutions are sought using various finite element techniques. A novel methodology involving genetic algorithm and Newton’s iterative method is developed to solve the constrained eigenvalue problems. Several examples, including discrete and continuous systems, are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed methodology. The strategy of managing the mass location and distribution to target a preferred natural frequency or frequencies is given in the conclusion.
Technical Paper

Approximating Convective Boundary Conditions for Transient Thermal Simulations with Surrogate Models for Thermal Packaging Studies

2019-04-02
2019-01-0904
The need for transient thermal simulations in vehicle packaging studies has grown rapidly in recent years. To date, the computational costs associated with the transient simulation of 3D conjugate heat transfer phenomena has prohibited the widespread use of full vehicle transient simulations. This paper presents results from a recent study that explored a method to circumvent the computational costs associated with long transient conjugate heat transfer simulations. The proposed method first segregates the thermal structural and fluid physics domains to take advantage of time scale differences. The two domains are then re-coupled to calculate a series of steady state conjugate heat transfer simulations at various vehicle speeds. The local convection terms are then used to construct a set of surrogate models dependent on vehicle speed, that predict the local heat transfer coefficients and the local near wall fluid temperatures.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Springback (Side-Wall-Curl) of Sheet Metal based on the DBS System

2019-04-02
2019-01-1088
Springback is a common phenomenon in automotive manufacturing processes, caused by the elastic recovery of the internal stresses during unloading. A thorough understanding of springback is essential for the design of tools used in sheet metal forming operations. A DBS (Draw-bead Simulator) has been used to simulate the forming process for two different sheet metals: aluminum and steel. Two levels of pulling force and two die radii have been enforced to the experimental process to get different springback. Also, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system has been adopted to capture the sheet contour and measure the amount of side-wall-curl (sheet springback) after deformation. This paper presents the influence of the material properties, force, and die radius on the deformation and springback after forming. A thorough understanding of this phenomenon is essential, seeing that any curvature in the part wall can affect quality and sustainability.
Technical Paper

Modelling of a Discrete Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System for Fuel Consumption Evaluation - Part 2: Modelling Results

2019-04-02
2019-01-0472
Variable Compression Ratio systems are an increasingly attractive solution for car manufacturers in order to reduce vehicle fuel consumption. By having the capability to operate with a range of compression ratios, engine efficiency can be significantly increased by operating with a high compression ratio at low loads, where the engine is normally not knock-limited, and with a low compression ratio at high load, where the engine is more prone to knock. In this way, engine efficiency can be maximized without sacrificing performance. This study aims to analyze how the effectiveness of a VCR system is affected by various powertrain and vehicle parameters. By using a Matlab model of a VCR system developed in Part 1 of this work, the influence of the vehicle characteristics, the drive cycle, and of the number of stages used in the VCR system was studied.
Technical Paper

GPU Implementation for Automatic Lane Tracking in Self-Driving Cars

2019-04-02
2019-01-0680
The development of efficient algorithms has been the focus of automobile engineers since self-driving cars become popular. This is due to the potential benefits we can get from self-driving cars and how they can improve safety on our roads. Despite the good promises that come with self-driving cars development, it is way behind being a perfect system because of the complexity of our environment. A self-driving car must understand its environment before it makes decisions on how to navigate, and this might be difficult because the changes in our environment is non-deterministic. With the development of computer vision, some key problems in intelligent driving have been active research areas. The advances made in the field of artificial intelligence made it possible for researchers to try solving these problems with artificial intelligence. Lane detection and tracking is one of the critical problems that need to be effectively implemented.
Technical Paper

Bendability Study of 7xxx Aluminum Alloy Based on the DIC Technique

2019-04-02
2019-01-1265
Bendability is a critical characteristic of sheet metal during the stamping process in automobile industry. Bending operation plays an important role in the panels forming of vehicles. In this study, the recently developed “Incremental Bending” method was utilized to evaluate the ambient bendability of 7xxx series avoiding bending crack. A 3D digital image correlation (DIC) measurement system is improved to capture the displacement and strain information on the stretched side of the sheet samples. The background, experimental method and data post-procedure are introduced in detail. After several sequential images acquisition and data processing, the major strain histories on the stretch zone of the samples are measured. With different bending process and parameters, the location of peak strain and the surface major strain distribution were evaluated as a function of R/T ratio (the inner radius over sheet thickness).
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Spark Plug Orientation Effects on Flame Kernel Growth

2019-01-15
2019-01-0005
Spark plug design is critical for the performance of spark ignited (SI) engines, however, its orientation is frequently not controlled for most of production engines, which has great impacts on ignition and subsequent flame propagation processes. In the present work, a recently developed comprehensive ignition system model--the VTF ignition model, has been employed to investigate the effects of spark plug orientation on ignition and flame kernel growth. Three orientations for the spark plug, including downstream, crossflow, and upstream relative to the flow, have been considered under a typical a high-speed high-load condition in a GDI engine. Electrical circuitry model was validated by comparing the simulation results with measured secondary current and secondary voltage with good agreement.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation and Optimization of Computational Methods for High Pressure Fuel Pipe Brazed Joints

2018-04-03
2018-01-1222
A V-engine high pressure fuel pipe have experienced several failures during dyno engine validations at brazed joints due to combination of static and dynamic engine loads. The braze fillet experience high local stress concentration with large gradients and it was critical to capture strain contour at this spot to properly understand the failure. Strain gauges was used to measure strain but was incapable of capturing the braze fillet due to the small fillet radius and lack of real estate to install the gauge (braze fillet radius ~ 0.10 mm). A whole field optical experiment method Digital Image Correlation was utilized to successfully captured strain contour at area of interest and results fed back to computational model.
Technical Paper

Test of Inclined Double Beads on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1221
Draw beads are widely used in the binder of a draw die for regulating the restraining force and control the draw-in of a metal blank. Different sheet materials and local panel geometry request different local draw bead configurations. Even the majority of draw bead is single draw bead, the alternative double draw bead does have its advantages, such as less bending damage may be brought to the sheet material and more bead geometry features available to work on. In this paper, to measure the pulling force when a piece of sheet metal passing through a draw bead on an inclined binder, the AA5XXX and AA6XXX materials were tested and its strain were measured with a digital image correlation (DIC) system. Five different types of double bead configurations were tested. The beads are installed in a Stretch-Bend-Draw-System (SBDS) test device. The clearance between a male and a female bead is 10% thicker than the sheet material. A tensile machine was used to record the pulling force.
Technical Paper

Modified Experimental Approach to Investigate Coefficient of Friction and Wear under Lubricated Fretting Condition by Utilizing SRV Test Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0835
Fretting is an important phenomenon that happens in many mechanical parts. It is the main reason in deadly failures in automobiles, airliners, and turbine engines. The damage is noticed between two surfaces clamped together by bolts or rivets that are nominally at rest, but have a small amplitude oscillation because of vibration or local cyclic loading. Fretting damage can be divided into two types. The first type is the fretting fatigue damage where a crack would initiate and propagate at specific location at the interface of the mating surfaces. Cracks usually initiate in the material with lower strength because of the local cyclic loading conditions which eventually lead to full failure. The second type is the fretting wear damage because of external vibration. Researchers have investigated this phenomenon by theoretical modeling and experimental approaches. Although a lot of research has been done on fretting damage, some of the parameters have not been well studied.
Journal Article

A Group-Based Space-Filling Design of Experiments Algorithm

2018-04-03
2018-01-1102
Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is an important tool routinely used to simulate complex engineering systems. Virtual simulations enhance engineering insight into prospective designs and potential design issues and can limit the need for expensive engineering prototypes. For complex engineering systems, however, the effectiveness of virtual simulations is often hindered by excessive computational cost. To minimize the cost of running expensive computer simulations, approximate models of the original model (often called surrogate models or metamodels) can provide sufficient accuracy at a lower computing overhead compared to repeated runs of a full simulation. Metamodel accuracy improves if constructed using space-filling designs of experiments (DOEs). The latter provide a collection of sample points in the design space preferably covering the entire space.
Journal Article

Reliability and Cost Trade-Off Analysis of a Microgrid

2018-04-03
2018-01-0619
Optimizing the trade-off between reliability and cost of operating a microgrid, including vehicles as both loads and sources, can be a challenge. Optimal energy management is crucial to develop strategies to improve the efficiency and reliability of microgrids, as well as new communication networks to support optimal and reliable operation. Prior approaches modeled the grid using MATLAB, but did not include the detailed physics of loads and sources, and therefore missed the transient effects that are present in real-time operation of a microgrid. This article discusses the implementation of a physics-based detailed microgrid model including a diesel generator, wind turbine, photovoltaic array, and utility. All elements are modeled as sources in Simulink. Various loads are also implemented including an asynchronous motor. We show how a central control algorithm optimizes the microgrid by trying to maximize reliability while reducing operational cost.
Journal Article

Efficient Global Surrogate Modeling Based on Multi-Layer Sampling

2018-04-03
2018-01-0616
Global surrogate modeling aims to build surrogate model with high accuracy in the whole design domain. A major challenge to achieve this objective is how to reduce the number of function evaluations to the original computer simulation model. To date, the most widely used approach for global surrogate modeling is the adaptive surrogate modeling method. It starts with an initial surrogate model, which is then refined adaptively using the mean square error (MSE) or maximizing the minimum distance criteria. It is observed that current methods may not be able to effectively construct a global surrogate model when the underlying black box function is highly nonlinear in only certain regions. A new surrogate modeling method which can allocate more training points in regions with high nonlinearity is needed to overcome this challenge. This article proposes an efficient global surrogate modeling method based on a multi-layer sampling scheme.
Technical Paper

Optimal Water Jacket Flow Distribution Using a New Group-Based Space-Filling Design of Experiments Algorithm

2018-04-03
2018-01-1017
The availability of computational resources has enabled an increased utilization of Design of Experiments (DoE) and metamodeling (response surface generation) for large-scale optimization problems. Despite algorithmic advances however, the analysis of systems such as water jackets of an automotive engine, can be computationally demanding in part due to the required accuracy of metamodels. Because the metamodels may have many inputs, their accuracy depends on the number of training points and how well they cover the entire design (input) space. For this reason, the space-filling properties of the DoE are very important. This paper utilizes a new group-based DoE algorithm with space-filling groups of points to construct a metamodel. Points are added sequentially so that the space-filling properties of the entire group of points is preserved. The addition of points is continuous until a specified metamodel accuracy is met.
Technical Paper

Design and Validation of a GT Power Model of the CFR Engine towards the Development of a Boosted Octane Number

2018-04-03
2018-01-0214
Developments in modern spark ignition (SI) engines such as intake boosting, direct-injection, and engine downsizing techniques have demonstrated improved performance and thermal efficiency, however, these strategies induce significant deviation in end-gas pressure/temperature histories from those of the traditional Research and Motor Octane Number (RON and MON) standards. Attempting to extrapolate the anti-knock performance of fuels tested under the traditional RON/MON conditions to boosted operation has yielded mixed results in both SI and advanced compression ignition (ACI) engines. This consideration motivates the present work with seeks to establish a pathway towards the development of the test conditions of a boosted octane number, which would better correlate to fuel performance at high intake pressure conditions.
Journal Article

Time-Dependent Reliability Analysis Using a Modified Composite Limit State Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-0206
Recent developments in time-dependent reliability have introduced the concept of a composite limit state. The composite limit state method can be used to calculate the time-dependent probability of failure for dynamic systems with limit-state functions of input random variables, input random processes and explicit in time. The probability of failure can be calculated exactly using the composite limit state if the instantaneous limit states are linear, forming an open or close polytope, and are functions of only two random variables. In this work, the restriction on the number of random variables is lifted. The proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient for linear instantaneous limit state functions of any number of random variables. An example on the design of a hydrokinetic turbine blade under time-dependent river flow load demonstrates the accuracy of the proposed general composite limit state approach.
Technical Paper

CAN Crypto FPGA Chip to Secure Data Transmitted Through CAN FD Bus Using AES-128 and SHA-1 Algorithms with A Symmetric Key

2017-03-28
2017-01-1612
Robert Bosch GmBH proposed in 2012 a new version of communication protocol named as Controller area network with Flexible Data-Rate (CANFD), that supports data frames up to 64 bytes compared to 8 bytes of CAN. With limited data frame size of CAN message, and it is impossible to be encrypted and secured. With this new feature of CAN FD, we propose a hardware design - CAN crypto FPGA chip to secure data transmitted through CAN FD bus by using AES-128 and SHA-1 algorithms with a symmetric key. AES-128 algorithm will provide confidentiality of CAN message and SHA-1 algorithm with a symmetric key (HMAC) will provide integrity and authentication of CAN message. The design has been modeled and verified by using Verilog HDL – a hardware description language, and implemented successfully into Xilinx FPGA chip by using simulation tool ISE (Xilinx).
Journal Article

Reanalysis of Linear Dynamic Systems using Modified Combined Approximations with Frequency Shifts

2016-04-05
2016-01-1338
Weight reduction is very important in automotive design because of stringent demand on fuel economy. Structural optimization of dynamic systems using finite element (FE) analysis plays an important role in reducing weight while simultaneously delivering a product that meets all functional requirements for durability, crash and NVH. With advancing computer technology, the demand for solving large FE models has grown. Optimization is however costly due to repeated full-order analyses. Reanalysis methods can be used in structural vibrations to reduce the analysis cost from repeated eigenvalue analyses for both deterministic and probabilistic problems. Several reanalysis techniques have been introduced over the years including Parametric Reduced Order Modeling (PROM), Combined Approximations (CA) and the Epsilon algorithm, among others.
Journal Article

An Improved Reanalysis Method Using Parametric Reduced Order Modeling for Linear Dynamic Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-1318
Finite element analysis is a standard tool for deterministic or probabilistic design optimization of dynamic systems. The optimization process requires repeated eigenvalue analyses which can be computationally expensive. Several reanalysis techniques have been proposed to reduce the computational cost including Parametric Reduced Order Modeling (PROM), Combined Approximations (CA), and the Modified Combined Approximations (MCA) method. Although the cost of reanalysis is substantially reduced, it can still be high for models with a large number of degrees of freedom and a large number of design variables. Reanalysis methods use a basis composed of eigenvectors from both the baseline and the modified designs which are in general linearly dependent. To eliminate the linear dependency and improve accuracy, Gram Schmidt orthonormalization is employed which is costly itself.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Heat Generation in a Lithium Ion Cell

2015-09-15
2015-01-2420
The heat generation rate of a lithium ion cell was estimated using a reversible heat generation rate equation. Because the equation is based on the energy conservation law, the influence of kinetically slow processes should be considered. In this analysis, the influence of kinetically slow processes is present but it is small within the domain of the test measurements. This approximation can be of significant usefulness for modeling the thermal response of single cells and multi-cell batteries.
X