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Technical Paper

Inertia Tensor and Center of Gravity Measurement for Engines and Other Automotive Components

2019-04-02
2019-01-0701
A machine has been developed to measure the complete inertia matrix; mass, center of gravity (CG) location, and all moments and products of inertia. Among other things these quantities are useful in studying engine vibrations, calculation of the torque roll axis, and in the placement of engine mounts. While the machine was developed primarily for engines it can be used for other objects of similar size and weight, and even smaller objects such as tires and wheels/rims. A key feature of the device is that the object, once placed on the test table, is never reoriented during the test cycle. This reduces the testing time to an hour or less, with the setup time being a few minutes to a few hours depending on the complexity of the shape of the object. Other inertia test methods can require up to five reorientations, separate CG measurement, and up to several days for a complete test.
Technical Paper

Determine 24 GHz and 77 GHz Radar Characteristics of Surrogate Grass

2019-04-02
2019-01-1012
Road Departure Mitigation System (RDMS) is a new feature in vehicle active safety systems. It may not rely only on the lane marking for road edge detection, but other roadside objects This paper discusses the radar aspect of the RDMS testing on roads with grass road edges. Since the grass color may be different at different test sites and in different seasons, testing of RDMS with real grass road edge has the repeatability issue over time and locations. A solution is to develop surrogate grass that has the same characteristics of the representative real grass. Radar can be used in RDMS to identify road edges. The surrogate grass should be similar to representative real grass in color, LIDAR characteristics, and Radar characteristics. This paper provides the 24 GHz and 77 GHz radar characteristic specifications of surrogate grass.
Technical Paper

Ultra-Low NOx Emission Prediction for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications Using a Map-Based Approach

2019-04-02
2019-01-0987
As vehicle emissions regulations become increasingly stringent, there is a growing need to accurately model aftertreatment systems to aid in the development of ultra-low NOx vehicles. Common solutions to this problem include the development of complex chemical models or expansive neural networks. This paper aims to present the development process of a simpler Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) conversion efficiency Simulink model for the purposes of modeling tail pipe NOx emission levels based on various inputs, temperature shifts and SCR locations, arrangements and/or sizes in the system. The main objective is to utilize this model to predict tail pipe NOx emissions of the EPA Federal Test Procedures for heavy-duty vehicles. The model presented within is focused exclusively on heavy-duty application compression ignition engines and their corresponding aftertreatment setups.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Harness Tightening Procedures for Child Restraint System (CRS) Sled Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0617
Sled testing procedures should reflect a rigorous level of repeatability across trials and reproducibility across testing facilities. Currently, different testing facilities use various methods to set the harness tension for child restraint system (CRS) sled tests. The objective of this study is to identify which harness tightening procedure(s) produce tensions within a reasonable target range while showing adequate reproducibility, repeatability, and ease-of-use. Five harness tightening procedures were selected: A) FMVSS 213 procedure, B) a 3-prong tension gauge, C) ECE R44/R129 procedure, D) two finger method, and E) pinch test. Two CRS models were instrumented with a tension load cell in the harness system. Seven sled room operators were recruited to perform each of the five harness tightening procedures for ten repetitions apiece on both instrumented CRS using a Hybrid III 3-year-old.
Technical Paper

Rear-Facing Child Restraint Systems in Rear Impact Sled Tests

2018-04-03
2018-01-1325
This study examines the performance of rear-facing child restraint systems (RF CRS) in moderate severity rear impact sled tests. The study also investigates the effects of RF CRS features on CRS kinematics and anthropomorphic test device (ATD) injury metrics in this scenario. Twelve tests were conducted at a moderate severity rear impact sled pulse (approximately 28.2 km/h and 18.4 g). Four models of RF CRS were tested in the rear outboard positions of a sedan seat. The CRABI 12-month-old and Hybrid III 3-year-old ATDs were instrumented with head and chest accelerometers, head angular rate sensors, six-axis upper neck load cells, and a chest linear potentiometer (3-year-old only). The effects of carry handle position, occupant size, presence of anti-rebound bar, Swedish style tethering, and lower anchor vs. seat belt installation were investigated. Data were also compared to pediatric injury assessment reference values (IARV).
Technical Paper

Kinematics Response of the PMHS Brain to Rotational Loading of the Head: Development of Experimental Methods and Analysis of Preliminary Data

2018-04-03
2018-01-0547
Experimentally derived brain response envelopes are needed to evaluate and validate existing finite element (FE) head models. Motion of the brain relative to the skull during rotational input was measured using high-speed biplane x-ray. To generate repeatable, reproducible, and scalable data, methods were developed to reduce experimental variance. An “extreme-energy” device was developed to provide a controlled input that is unaffected by specimen characteristics. Additionally, a stereotactic frame was used to deploy radiopaque markers at specific, pre-determined locations within the brain. One post-mortem human surrogate (PMHS) head specimen was subjected to repeat tests of a half-sine rotational speed pulse in the sagittal plane. The desired pulse had a peak angular speed of 40 rad/s and duration of 30 ms. Relative motion of the brain was quantified using radiopaque targets and high-speed biplane x-ray. Frontal and occipital intracranial pressure (ICP) were also measured.
Technical Paper

Application of Scaled Deflection Injury Criteria to Two Small, Fragile Females in Side Impact Motor Vehicle Crashes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0542
Thoracic injury criteria have been previously developed to predict thoracic injury for vehicle occupants as a function of biomechanical response. Historically, biomechanical testing of post-mortem human surrogates (PMHS) for injury criteria development has primarily been focused on mid-sized males. Response targets and injury criteria for other demographics, including small females, have been determined by scaling values from mid-sized males. The objective of this study was to explore the applicability of scaled injury criteria to their representative population. Two PMHS were subjected to a side-impact loading condition which replicates a near-side, MDB-to-vehicle impact for the driver. This was accomplished using the Advanced Side Impact System, or ASIS, on a HYGE sled. The sled acceleration matched the acceleration profile of an impacted vehicle, while the four pneumatic cylinders of the ASIS produced realistic door intrusion.
Journal Article

Ductile Fracture Prediction of Automotive Suspension Components

2017-03-28
2017-01-0318
Characterization of the plastic and ductile fracture behavior of a ferrous casting commonly used for the steering knuckle of an automotive suspension system is presented in this work. Ductile fracture testing for various coupon geometries was conducted to simulate a wide range of stress states. Failure data for the higher stress triaxiality were obtained from tension tests conducted on thin flat specimens, wide flat specimens and axisymmetric specimens with varying notch radii. The data for the lower triaxiality were generated from thin-walled tube specimens subjected to torsional loading and compression tests on cylindrical specimens. The failure envelopes for the material were developed utilizing the test data and finite element (FE) simulations of the corresponding test specimens. Experiments provided the load-displacement response and the location of fracture initiation.
Technical Paper

Test Scenarios, Equipment and Testing Process for LDW LDP Performance Evaluation

2015-04-14
2015-01-1404
In this paper, a series of design, development, and implementation details for testing and evaluation of Lane Departure Warning and Prevention systems are being discussed. The approach taken to generate a set of repeatable and relevant test scenarios and to formulate the test procedures to ensure the fidelity of the collected data includes initial statistical analysis of applicable statistics; growth and probabilistic pruning of a test matrix; simulation studies to support procedure design; and vehicle instrumentation for data collection. The success of this comprehensive approach strongly suggests that the steps illustrated in this paper can serve as guidelines towards a more general class of vehicular safety and advanced driver assistance systems evaluation.
Technical Paper

The Use of Single Moving Vehicle Testing to Duplicate the Dynamic Vehicle Response From Impacts Between Two Moving Vehicles

2002-03-04
2002-01-0558
The Federal Side Impact Test Procedure prescribed by FMVSS 214, simulates a central, orthogonal intersection collision between two moving vehicles by impacting the side of the stationary test vehicle with a moving test buck in a crabbed configuration. While the pre- and post-impact speeds of the vehicles involved in an accident can not be duplicated using this method, closing speeds, vehicle damage, vehicle speed changes and vehicle accelerations can be duplicated. These are the important parameters for the examination of vehicle restraint system performance and the prediction of occupant injury. The acceptability of this method of testing is not as obvious for the reconstruction of accidents where the impact is non-central, or the angle of impact is not orthogonal. This paper will examine the use of crash testing with a single moving vehicle to simulate oblique or non-central collisions between two moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Biologically Inspired, Intelligent Muscle Material for Sensing and Responsive Delivery of Countermeasures

2000-07-10
2000-01-2514
The design and development of new biologically inspired technologies based on intelligent materials that are capable of sensing the levels of target biomolecules and, if needed, trigger appropriate countermeasures to regulate biological processes and rhythms of the astronauts is being undertaken in our laboratories. This is accomplished by coupling biologically inspired sensors that monitor the levels of the target biomolecules with intelligent polymeric materials that can regulate the release of a countermeasure. The technology developed here integrates sensors and artificial muscle material into a self-regulating device that can perform with minimal crew intervention. Further, it takes advantage of microfabrication technology to construct lightweight and robust responsive delivery systems. These “intelligent” devices address the need for the control and regulation of biological processes and rhythms under spaceflight conditions.
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