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Technical Paper

Intelligent Vehicle Monitoring for Safety and Security

2019-04-02
2019-01-0129
The challenges posed by connected and autonomous vehicles fall beyond the scope of current version of ISO 26262. According to the current functional safety standard, controllability, largely affected by human intervention, is a large contributor to the definition of the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL). Since the driver involvement in CAVs will decrease in future, this gives no clear definition for future functional safety design. On the other hand, CAVs bring additional capabilities such as advance sensors, telematics-based connectivity etc. which can be used to devise efficient approaches to address functional safety (FuSa) challenges. The caveat to these additional capabilities is issues like cybersecurity, complexity, etc.
Technical Paper

Inertia Tensor and Center of Gravity Measurement for Engines and Other Automotive Components

2019-04-02
2019-01-0701
A machine has been developed to measure the complete inertia matrix; mass, center of gravity (CG) location, and all moments and products of inertia. Among other things these quantities are useful in studying engine vibrations, calculation of the torque roll axis, and in the placement of engine mounts. While the machine was developed primarily for engines it can be used for other objects of similar size and weight, and even smaller objects such as tires and wheels/rims. A key feature of the device is that the object, once placed on the test table, is never reoriented during the test cycle. This reduces the testing time to an hour or less, with the setup time being a few minutes to a few hours depending on the complexity of the shape of the object. Other inertia test methods can require up to five reorientations, separate CG measurement, and up to several days for a complete test.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Design and Implementation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0496
In this manuscript a design and implementation of CACC on an autonomous vehicle platform (2017 Ford Fusion) is presented. The developed CACC controls the intervehicle distance between the target vehicle and ego vehicle using a feedforward PD controller. In this design the feedforward information is the acceleration of the target vehicle which is communicated through Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) modem. The manuscript explains the detailed architecture of the designed CACC with used hardware and methods for the both simulation and experiments. Also, an approach to overcome detection failures at the curved roads is presented to improve overall quality of the designed CACC system. As a result, the initial simulation and experimental results with the designed CACC system is presented in the paper. The presented results indicate that CACC improves the car following performance of the ego vehicle as compared to the classical Adaptive Cruise Controller.
Technical Paper

Development of Virtual Fuel Economy Trend Evaluation Process

2019-04-02
2019-01-0510
With the advancement of the autonomous vehicle development, the different possibilities of improving fuel economy have increased significantly by changing the driver or powertrain response under different traffic conditions. Development of new fuel-efficient driving strategies requires extensive experiments and simulations in traffic. In this paper, a fuel efficiency simulator environment with existing simulator software such as Simulink, Vissim, Sumo, and CarSim is developed in order to reduce the overall effort required for developing new fuel-efficient algorithms. The simulation environment is created by combining a mid-sized sedan MATLAB-Simulink powertrain model with a realistic microscopic traffic simulation program. To simulate the traffic realistically, real roads from urban and highway sections are modeled in the simulator with different traffic densities.
Technical Paper

System Engineering of an Advanced Driver Assistance System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0876
Current Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) often interact with the driver; aiding with either warnings or direct intervention. This work explores the development of an ADAS system to provide lane departure warning, forward collision warning, and a recommended following distance for a custom plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle. The system utilizes off-the-shelf hardware with in-house computer vision and sensor fusion algorithms to create a low-cost SAE Level 0 driver assistance system. The system utilizes a radar sensor as well as a camera to detect, classify, and track target vehicles. This work will illustrate the systems engineering methods used for outlining customer requirements, technical requirements, component selection, software development, simulation, vehicle fitment, and validation. Similar system engineering processes could be implemented for higher level SAE systems.
Technical Paper

FMVSS 126 Sine with Dwell ESC Regulation Test for Autonomous Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-1011
Electronic stability control (ESC) has been an essential part of road vehicle safety for almost three decades. In April of 2007, the United States federal government issued a regulation to test the validity of ESC in development vehicles, and the regulation is called Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 126 in North America (NA), and an equivalent test in other countries outside of NA called ECE13-H (Economic Commission for Europe). While these standards have been used to certify ESC in development passenger cars for over a decade, this has not yet been scrutinized for the application of autonomous vehicles. Autonomous cars have sensors and control systems which can be used to improve ESC, where commercial standard vehicles do not.
Technical Paper

Determine 24 GHz and 77 GHz Radar Characteristics of Surrogate Grass

2019-04-02
2019-01-1012
Road Departure Mitigation System (RDMS) is a new feature in vehicle active safety systems. It may not rely only on the lane marking for road edge detection, but other roadside objects This paper discusses the radar aspect of the RDMS testing on roads with grass road edges. Since the grass color may be different at different test sites and in different seasons, testing of RDMS with real grass road edge has the repeatability issue over time and locations. A solution is to develop surrogate grass that has the same characteristics of the representative real grass. Radar can be used in RDMS to identify road edges. The surrogate grass should be similar to representative real grass in color, LIDAR characteristics, and Radar characteristics. This paper provides the 24 GHz and 77 GHz radar characteristic specifications of surrogate grass.
Technical Paper

High Speed Ridged Fasteners for Multi-Material Joining

2019-04-02
2019-01-1117
Automobile manufacturers are reducing the weight of their vehicles in order to meet strict fuel economy legislation. To achieve this goal, a combination of different materials such as steel, aluminum and carbon fiber composites are being considered for use in vehicle bodies. The ability to join these different materials is an ongoing challenge and an area of research for automobile manufacturers. Multiridged fasteners are a viable option for this type of multi-material joining. Commercial systems exist and are being used in the industry, however, new ridged nail designs offer the potential for improvement in several areas. The goal of this paper is to prototype and test a safer flat-end fastener whilst not compromising on strength characteristics, to prevent injury to factory workers. The nails were prototyped using existing RIVTAC® nails.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Control, and Adaptation for Shift Quality Control of Automatic Transmissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-1129
The parameters determining shift quality control in automatic transmissions are determined as part of the calibration of the transmission control. The resulting control system typically has three components: feedforward control, where the control output is determined before a gearshift; feedback control, where the control output is determined during the gearshift based on sensed feedback; and learning control (adaptation), where the feedforward or feedback controller parameters are modified after the current gearshift has ended and before the next similar gearshift begins. Gearshifts involving the same ratio change are referred to here as similar gearshifts, though such gearshifts may involve differences in other variables such as vehicle speed or engine torque.
Technical Paper

Application of Collision Probability Estimation to Calibration of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-1133
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are designed and calibrated rigorously to provide them with the robustness against highly uncertain environments that they usually operate in. Typical calibration procedures for such systems rely extensively on track (controlled environment) testing, which is time-consuming, expensive, and sometimes cannot cover all the critical test scenarios that could be encountered by ADAS in the real world. Therefore, virtual (simulation-based) testing and validation has been gaining more prominence and emphasis for ensuring high coverage along with easier scalability and usage. This paper attempts to provide an alternative approach for calibrating ADAS in the controller validation phase by the aid of simulated test case scenarios. The study executes characterization of the uncertainty in the position and heading of the ego and the obstacle vehicles.
Technical Paper

Ensuring Fuel Economy Performance of Commercial Vehicle Fleets Using Blockchain Technology

2019-04-02
2019-01-1078
In the past, research on blockchain technology has addressed security and privacy concerns within intelligent transportation systems for critical V2I and V2V communications that form the backbone of Internet of Vehicles. Within trucking industry, a recent trend has been observed towards the use of blockchain technology for operations. Industry stakeholders are particularly looking forward to refining status quo contract management and vehicle maintenance processes through blockchains. However, the use of blockchain technology for enhancing vehicle performance in fleets, especially while considering the fact that modern-day intelligent vehicles are prone to cyber security threats, is an area that has attracted less attention. In this paper, we demonstrate a case study that makes use of blockchains to securely optimize the fuel economy of fleets that do package pickup and delivery (P&D) in urban areas.
Technical Paper

Use of Hardware in the Loop (HIL) Simulation for Developing Connected Autonomous Vehicle (CAV) Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-1063
Many smart cities and car manufacturers have been investing in Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) applications by integrating the Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) technology to improve the fuel economy, safety, and ride comfort for the end users. For example, Columbus, OH, USA is placing DSRC Road Side Units (RSU) to the traffic lights which will publish traffic light Signal Phase and Timing (SPaT) information. With DSRC On Board Unit (OBU) equipped vehicles, people will start benefiting from this technology. In this paper, to accelerate the V2I application development for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAV), a Hardware in the Loop (HIL) simulator with DSRC RSU and OBU is presented. The developed HIL simulator environment is employed to implement, develop and evaluate V2I connected vehicle applications in a fast, safe and cost-effective manner.
Technical Paper

Application of Adversarial Networks for 3D Structural Topology Optimization

2019-04-02
2019-01-0829
Topology optimization is a branch of structural optimization which solves an optimal material distribution problem. The resulting structural topology, for a given set of boundary conditions and constraints, has an optimal performance (e.g. minimum compliance). Conventional 3D topology optimization algorithms achieve quality optimized results; however, it is an extremely computationally intensive task which is, in general, impractical and computationally unachievable for real-world structural optimal design processes. Therefore, the current development of rapid topology optimization technology is experiencing a major drawback. To address the issues, a new approach is presented to utilize the powerful abilities of large deep learning models to replicate this design process for 3D structures. Adversarial models, primarily Wasserstein Generative Adversarial Networks (WGAN), are constructed which consist of 2 deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) namely, a discriminator and a generator.
Technical Paper

Design of a Grid-Friendly DC Fast Charge Station with Second Life Batteries

2019-04-02
2019-01-0867
DC-fast charge (DCFC) may be amenable for widespread EV adoption. However, there are potential challenges associated with implementation and operation of the DCFC infrastructures. The integration of energy storage systems can limit the scale of grid installation required for DCFC and enable more efficient grid energy usage. In addition, second-life batteries (SLBs) can find application in DCFC, significantly reducing installation cost when compared to solutions based on new battery packs. However, both system architecture and control strategy require optimization to ensure an optimal use of SLBs, including degradation and thermal aspects. This study proposes an application of automotive SLBs for DCFC stations where high power grid connection is not available or feasible. Several SLBs are connected to the grid by means of low power chargers (e.g. L2 charging station), and a DC/DC converter controls the power to the EV power dispenser.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Collision Avoidance in a Connected Vehicle Environment

2019-04-02
2019-01-0488
Connected vehicle (CV) technology is among the most heavily researched areas in both the academia and industry. The vehicle to vehicle (V2V), vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle to pedestrian (V2P) communication capabilities enable critical situational awareness. In some cases, these vehicle communication safety capabilities can overcome the shortcomings of other sensor safety capabilities because of external conditions such as 'No Line of Sight' (NLOS) or very harsh weather conditions. Connected vehicles will help cities and states reduce traffic congestion, improve fuel efficiency and improve the safety of the vehicles and pedestrians. On the road, cars will be able to communicate with one another, automatically transmitting data such as speed, position, and direction, and send alerts to each other if a crash seems imminent. The main focus of this paper is the implementation of Cooperative Collision Avoidance (CCA) for connected vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Unified, Scalable and Replicable Approach to Development, Implementation and HIL Evaluation of Autonomous Shuttles for Use in a Smart City

2019-04-02
2019-01-0493
As the technology in autonomous vehicle and smart city infrastructure is developing fast, the idea of smart city and automated driving has become a present and near future reality. Both Highway Chauffeur and low speed shuttle applications are tested recently in different research to test the feasibility of autonomous vehicles and automated driving. Based on examples available in the literature and the past experience of the authors, this paper proposes the use of a unified computing, sensing, communication and actuation architecture for connected and automated driving. It is postulated that this unified architecture will also lead to a scalable and replicable approach. Two vehicles representing a passenger car and a small electric shuttle for smart mobility in a smart city are chosen as the two examples for demonstrating scalability and replicability.
Technical Paper

Discrete-time Robust PD Controlled System with DOB/CDOB Compensation for High Speed Autonomous Vehicle Path Following

2019-04-02
2019-01-0674
In recent years, there has been increasing research on automated driving technology. Autonomous vehicle path following performance is one of significant consideration. This paper presents discrete time design of robust PD controlled system with disturbance observer (DOB) and communication disturbance observer (CDOB) compensation to enhance autonomous vehicle path following performance. Although always implemented on digital devices, DOB and CDOB structure are usually designed in continuous time in the literature and also in our previous work. However, it requires high sampling rate for continuous-time design block diagram to automatically convert to corresponding discrete-time controller using rapid controller prototyping systems. In this paper, direct discrete time design is carried out. Digital PD feedback controller is designed based on the nominal plant using the proposed parameter space approach.
Technical Paper

Ultra-Low NOx Emission Prediction for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications Using a Map-Based Approach

2019-04-02
2019-01-0987
As vehicle emissions regulations become increasingly stringent, there is a growing need to accurately model aftertreatment systems to aid in the development of ultra-low NOx vehicles. Common solutions to this problem include the development of complex chemical models or expansive neural networks. This paper aims to present the development process of a simpler Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) conversion efficiency Simulink model for the purposes of modeling tail pipe NOx emission levels based on various inputs, temperature shifts and SCR locations, arrangements and/or sizes in the system. The main objective is to utilize this model to predict tail pipe NOx emissions of the EPA Federal Test Procedures for heavy-duty vehicles. The model presented within is focused exclusively on heavy-duty application compression ignition engines and their corresponding aftertreatment setups.
Technical Paper

A Framework for Model Based Detection of Misfire in a Gasoline Engine with Dynamic Skip Fire

2019-04-02
2019-01-1288
A framework is proposed for model-based misfire detection in gasoline engines with dynamic skip fire by employing a novel control oriented engine model. The model-based techniques form compact description of plant behavior and have a number of well known benefits. The performance requirements and environment legislation resulted in a rigorous research on misfire detection due to which an extensive literature can be found for the problem of misfire detection in all-cylinder firing gasoline engines. Since there is no fix cylinder activation/de-activation sequence in dynamic skip fire engines. So, the problem of misfire detection in dynamic skip fire engines departs from its trivial nature. In the proposed framework, ‘cylinder skip sequence’ is also fed to the engine model along-with conventional engine inputs. The First Principle based Engine Model constructs the crankshaft angular speed fluctuation pattern for a given cylinder skip sequence.
Technical Paper

Reducing Fuel Consumption by Using Information from Connected and Automated Vehicle Modules to Optimize Propulsion System Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-1213
Global regulatory targets and customer demand are driving the automotive industry to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. Methods for achieving increased efficiency include improvements in the internal combustion engine and an accelerating shift toward electrification. A key enabler to maximizing the benefit from these new powertrain technologies is proper systems integration work - including developing optimized controls for the propulsion system as a whole. The next step in the evolution of improving the propulsion management system is to make use of available information not typically associated with the powertrain. Advanced driver assistance systems, vehicle connectivity systems and cloud applications can provide information to the propulsion management system that allows a shift from instantaneous optimization of fuel consumption, to optimization over a route. In the current paper, we present initial work from a project being done as part of the DOE ARPA-E NEXTCAR program.
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