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Journal Article

Predicting Stress vs. Strain Behaviors of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloy with Actual Pore Distribution

In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) microstructure-based finite element modeling method (i.e., extrinsic modeling method) is developed, which can be used in examining the effects of porosity on the ductility/fracture of Mg castings. For this purpose, AM60 Mg tensile samples were generated under high-pressure die-casting in a specially-designed mold. Before the tensile test, the samples were CT-scanned to obtain the pore distributions within the samples. 3D microstructure-based finite element models were then developed based on the obtained actual pore distributions of the gauge area. The input properties for the matrix material were determined by fitting the simulation result to the experimental result of a selected sample, and then used for all the other samples’ simulation. The results show that the ductility and fracture locations predicted from simulations agree well with the experimental results.
Journal Article

Loading Path Dependence of Forming Limit Diagram of a TRIP800 Steel

In this paper, the microstructure-based finite element modeling method is used in investigating the loading path dependence of formability of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. For this purpose, the effects of different loading path on the forming limit diagrams (FLD) of TRIP steels are qualitatively examined using the representative volume element (RVE) of a commercial TRIP800 steel. First, the modeling method was introduced, where a combined isotropic/kinematic hardening rule is adopted for the constituent phases in order to correctly describe the cyclic deformation behaviors of TRIP steels during the forming process with combined loading paths which may include the unloading between the two consecutive loadings. Material parameters for the constituent phases remained the same as those in the authors' previous study [ 1 ] except for some adjustments for the martensite phase due to the introduction of the new combined hardening rule.
Technical Paper

Particulate Characteristics for Varying Engine Operation in a Gasoline Spark Ignited, Direct Injection Engine

The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of particulate sizing and number count from a spark-ignited, direct-injection (SIDI) engine at different operating conditions. The engine is a 549 [cc] single-cylinder, four-valve engine with a flat-top piston, fueled by Tier II EEE. A baseline engine operating condition, with a low number of particulates, was established and repeatability at this condition was ascertained. This baseline condition is specified as 2000 rpm, 320 kPa IMEP, 280 [°bTDC] end of injection (EOI), and 25 [°bTDC] ignition timing. The particle size distributions were recorded for particle sizes between 7 and 289 [nm]. The baseline particle size distribution was relatively flat, around 1E6 [dN/dlogDp], for particle diameters between 7 and 100 [nm], before dropping off to decreasing numbers at larger diameters. Distributions resulting from a matrix of different engine conditions were recorded.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Volatiles and Fixed Carbon Combustion

Diesel particulate samples were collected from a light duty engine operated at a single speed-load point with a range of biodiesel and conventional fuel blends. The oxidation reactivity of the samples was characterized in a laboratory reactor, and BET surface area measurements were made at several points during oxidation of the fixed carbon component of both types of particulate. The fixed carbon component of biodiesel particulate has a significantly higher surface area for the initial stages of oxidation, but the surface areas for the two particulates become similar as fixed carbon oxidation proceeds beyond 40%. When fixed carbon oxidation rates are normalized to total surface area, it is possible to describe the oxidation rates of the fixed carbon portion of both types of particulates with a single set of Arrhenius parameters. The measured surface area evolution during particle oxidation was found to be inconsistent with shrinking sphere oxidation.
Technical Paper

Effects of Forming Induced Phase Transformation on Crushing Behavior of TRIP Steel

In this paper, results of finite element crash simulation are presented for a TRIP steel side rail with and without considering the phase transformation during forming operations. A homogeneous phase transformation model is adapted to model the mechanical behavior of the austenite-to-martensite phase. The forming process of TRIP steels is simulated with the implementation of the material model. The distribution and volume fraction of the martensite in TRIP steels may be greatly influenced by various factors during forming process and subsequently contribute to the behavior of the formed TRIP steels during the crushing process. The results indicate that, with the forming induced phase transformation, higher energy absorption of the side rail can be achieved. The phase transformation enhances the strength of the side rail.
Technical Paper

Effects of Manufacturing Processes and In-Service mperature Variations on the Properties of TRIP Steels

This paper examines some key aspects of the manufacturing process that “ Transformation Induced Plasticity” (TRIP) steels would be exposed to, and systematically evaluate how the forming and thermal histories affect final strength and ductility of the material. We evaluate the effects of in-service temperature variations, such as under hood and hot/cold cyclic conditions, to determine whether these conditions influence final strength, ductility and energy absorption characteristics of several available TRIP steel grades. As part of the manufacturing thermal environment evaluations, stamping process thermal histories are included in the studies. As part of the in-service conditions, different pre-straining levels are included. Materials from four steel suppliers are examined. The thermal/straining history versus material property relationship is established over a full range of expected thermal histories and selected loading modes.
Technical Paper

Failure Predictions for Aluminum Tube Hydroforming Processes

Two analytical tools for failure predictions in free-expansion tube hydroforming, namely “Process Window Diagram” (PWD) and forming limit curve (FLC), are discussed in this paper. The PWD represents the incipient failure conditions of buckling, wrinkling and bursting of free-expansion tube hydroforming processes in the plane of process parameters, e.g. internal pressure versus axial compression. The PWD is a useful tool for design engineers to quickly assess part producibility and process design for tube hydroforming. An attempt is also made to draw the differences between FLCs for sheet and tube so that the appropriate FLC could be used to estimate the bursting or fracture limits in free-expansion tube hydroforming processes.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) Process with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)

Since its invention fifteen years ago, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has found commercial applications in marine, aerospace, rail, and now automotive industries. Development of the FSW process for each new application, however, has remained largely empirical. Few detailed numerical modeling techniques have been developed that can explain and predict important features of the process physics. This is particularly true in the areas of material flow, mixing mechanisms, and void prediction. In this paper we present a novel modeling approach to simulate FSW processes that may have significant advantages over current traditional finite element or finite difference based methods. The proposed model is based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method.
Technical Paper

The Formability of Friction Stir Welds in Automotive Stamping Environments

Automobile body and truck cab structures are composed primarily of stampings formed from monolithic and constant gage blanks. Cost and weight penalties can arise when strength or other requirements in one small area of the part leads to the use of a material or gage that is overmatched to the needs of the rest of the stamping. Tailor Welded Blanks (TWBs) are hybrid sheet products composed of either different materials or different thickness sheets that are joined together, then subjected to a stamping operation to create a formed assembly. The strategy is employed generally to save weight and material costs in the formed assembly by placing higher strength or thicker sections only where needed. The forming or stamping process requires the joint to be severely deformed along with the parent sheets. Aluminum TWBs for automotive applications are particularly problematic because of the low formability of aluminum weld metal.
Technical Paper

Describing the Formability of Tailor Welded Blanks

This paper presents two methods of characterizing and describing the formability of tailor welded blanks (TWB). The first method involves using miniature tensile specimens, extracted from TWB weld material, to quantify mechanical properties and material imperfection within TWB welds. This technique combines statistical methods of describing material imperfection together with conventional M-K method modeling techniques to determine safe forming limit diagrams for weld material. The second method involves the use of an extended M-K method modeling technique, which places multiple material thickness and material imperfections inside one overall model of TWB performance. These methods of describing TWB formability and their application to specific aluminum TWB populations are described.
Technical Paper

Lean-NOx and Plasma Catalysis Over γ-Alumina for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications

The NOx reduction performance under lean conditions over γ-alumina was evaluated using a micro-reactor system and a non-thermal plasma-equipped bench test system. Various alumina samples were obtained from alumina manufacturers to assess commercial alumina materials. In addition, γ-alumina samples were synthesized at Caterpillar with a sol-gel technique in order to control alumina properties. The deNOx performances of the alumina samples were compared. The alumina samples were characterized with analytical techniques such as inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and surface area measurements (BET) to understand physical and chemical properties. The information derived from these techniques was correlated with the NOx reduction performance to identify key parameters of γ-alumina for optimizing materials for lean-NOx and plasma assisted catalysis.
Technical Paper

Effect of Windshield Design on High Speed Impact Resistance

An axisymmetric finite element model is generated to simulate the windshield glass damage propagation subjected to impact loading of a flying object. The windshield glass consists of two glass outer layers laminated by a thin poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) layer. The constitutive behavior of the glass layers is simulated using brittle damage mechanics model with linear damage evolution. The PVB layer is modeled with linear viscoelastic solid. The model is used to predict and examine through-thickness damage evolution patterns on different glass surfaces and cracking patterns for different windshield designs such as variations in thickness and curvatures.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Biaxial Strength of New vs. Used Windshields

This paper presents the strength data for conventional automotive windshields in both the new and used conditions. More specifically, the biaxial strength of outer surface of curved and symmetrically laminated windshield, measured in biaxial flexure, is reported. The relative contributions of inplane membrane stress, which can be significant for new windshields, and bending stress are quantified with the aid of strain gauge rosettes mounted on both the outer and inner surfaces of windshield. The strength distribution for new and used windshields, based on Weibull distribution function, is found to be multimodal indicating more than one family of surface flaws. Depending on handling damage during manufacturing, assembly and installation processes, the low strength region of new windshields can approach that of used windshields with 50,000+ road miles!
Technical Paper

Formability Investigation of Aluminum Extrusions under Hydroforming Conditions

The transportation industry is finding an ever-increasing number of applications for products manufactured using the tubular hydroforming process. Most of the current hydroforming applications use steel tubes. However, with the mounting regulatory pressure to reduce vehicle emissions, aluminum alloys appear attractive as an alternative material to reduce vehicle weight. The introduction of aluminum alloys to tubular hydroforming requires knowledge of their forming limits. The current work investigates the forming limits of AA6061 in both the T4 and T6 tempers under laboratory conditions. These experimental results are compared to theoretical forming limit diagrams calculated via the M-K method. Free hydroforming results and forming limit diagrams are also compared to components produced under commercial hydroforming conditions.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Failure Prediction for Automotive Windshields Based on Strength and Flaw Distributions

This paper describes a method for predicting structural failure probabilities for automotive windshields. The predictive model is supported by the data from strength tests performed on specimens of automotive glass. Evaluations of stresses can be based on finite element calculations, or measurements of the residual stresses that arise from fabrication. Failure probabilities for each subregion of a windshield are estimated from the local state of stress, the surface area or length (for edge elements) of the subregion, and statistical distributions of glass strengths. Example calculations are presented that show the relative contributions of edge stresses, surface stresses and residual stresses to calculated failure probabilities.