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Technical Paper

Instrumented steering wheel for accurate ADAS development

2019-04-02
2019-01-1241
The knowledge of the forces exerted by each hand of the driver at the steering wheel is useful for a better understanding of the driver steering action. This information is needed while developing haptic steering wheels useful for tuning Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). The actual forces applied by the driver’s hands can be measured by means of a new Instrumented Steering Wheel (ISW), that, by using two six axis load cells, can measure the three force components and the three moment components exerted by the two hands, separately. Additionally, the instrumented steering wheel allows to measure the grip force, defined as the holding force applied by each hand on the handle. A full compensation of the inertia forces due to the vehicle acceleration guarantees an extremely high level of accuracy in the measure of the forces exerted by the driver. The resolution is just 0.1 N. The ISW has been already used for a couple of ADAS activities.
Technical Paper

Tire ply-steer, conicity and rolling resistance - analytical formulas for accurate assessment of vehicle performance during straight running

2019-04-02
2019-01-1237
During straight-ahead running, the longitudinal axis of road vehicles - notably cars - is not parallel to road axis and sometimes a slight steering pull can be felt by the driver. This occurrence is general and is due both to road cross slope (road banking) and to tire characteristics, particularly ply-steer and conicity. In order to describe such a phenomenon, the paper introduces a new and relatively simple analytical model. Despite the linearity of the model, the solution provided is exact, since straight-ahead motion occurs with small angles and both the elastokinematics of suspension system and tire characteristics can be modelled by linearized equations. The validation of the analytical expressions is performed by using an MSC ADAMS full model of a car. By means of the new analytical formulae, the relationship between the tire ply-steer/conicity and the rolling resistance of the vehicle in studied.
Technical Paper

Low Pressure-Driven Injection Characterization for SCR Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0994
Aqueous Urea is a non-toxic and stable ammonia carrier and its injection and mixing represent the basis for the most common de-NOx technology for mobile applications. The reactant feed preparation process is defined by evaporation, thermolysis and hydrolysis of the liquid mixture upstream the Selective Catalytic Reduction reactor, and it is strongly dependent on the interaction between spray and gaseous flow. Low-pressure driven injectors are the common industrial standard for these applications, and their behavior in almost-ambient pressure cross flows is significantly different from any in-cylinder application. For this reason, two substantially different injectors in terms of geometry and design are experimentally studied, characterizing drop sizes and velocities through Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) and liquid mass spatial distribution through Shadow Imaging (SI).
Technical Paper

Hybrid URANS/LES Turbulence Modeling for Spray Simulation: A Computational Study

2019-04-02
2019-01-0270
Turbulence modeling for fuel spray simulation plays a prominent role in the understanding of the flow behavior in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). Currently, a lot of research work is actively spent on Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence modeling as a replacement option of standard Reynolds averaged approaches in the Eulerian-Lagrangian spray modeling framework, due to its capability to accurately describe flow-induced spray variability and to the lower dependence of the results on the specific turbulence model and/or modeling coefficients. The introduction of LES poses, however, additional questions related to the implementation/adaptation of spray-related turbulence sources and to the rise of conflicting numerics and grid requirements between the Lagrangian and Eulerian parts of the simulated flow.
Technical Paper

Direct Evaluation of Turbine Isentropic Efficiency in Turbochargers: CFD Assisted Design of an Innovative Measuring Technique

2019-04-02
2019-01-0324
Turbocharging is playing today a fundamental role not only to improve automotive engine performance, but also to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions for both Spark Ignition and Diesel engines. Dedicated experimental investigations on turbochargers are therefore necessary to assess a better understanding of its performance. The availability of experimental information on turbocharger steady flow performance is an essential requirement to optimize the engine-turbocharger matching, which is usually achieved by means of simulation models. This aspect is even more important when referred to the turbine efficiency, since its swallowing capacity can be accurately evaluated through the measurement of mass flow rate, inlet temperature and pressure ratio across the machine.
Technical Paper

Industry 4.0 and Automotive 4.0: Challenges and Opportunities for Designing New Vehicle Components for Automated and/or Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0504
The paper deals with the “wise sensorization” of vehicle components. In the upcoming full digitalization of mobility, vehicle components are getting more and more sensorized. The problem is why, what, when and where vehicle components can be sensorized. The paper attempts a preliminary problem statement for the sensorization of vehicle components. A theoretical basic investigation is introduced, setting the main concepts on which extended sensorization is advisable or not. The paradigms of Industry 4.0 and Automotive 4.0 are addressed, namely sensors are proposed to be used both for monitoring the manufacturing process and for monitoring the service life of the component. In general, sensors are proposed to be used for multiple purposes. Two examples of sensorized components are briefly presented. One refers to a sensorized electric motor, the other one refers to a sensorized wheel.
Technical Paper

Tempered Wire Fatigue Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0532
A new bench for the rotating bending fatigue tests of tempered steel wires is presented. The new bench is used to check the spring wire just before it is finally winded to realize a spring. The bench is basically a four-point bending machine. There are two main differences with respect to current bending machines. The first one is that the focus is on semi-finished components (more than 1 meter long), rather than standard small-scale specimens. The second one is that there is a non-linear configuration of the tested component due to its length. The bench design has provided some unreferenced features that make the bench quite accurate and effective in producing quick fatigue assessments. A rotor-dynamic study has allowed to perform tests at 50 Hz. As a preliminary application, some fatigue bending tests of tempered steel wires are described and discussed.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Spray Combustion Processes: Experiments and Numerical Simulations

2018-09-10
2018-01-1689
A contemporary approach for improving and developing the understanding of heavy-duty Diesel engine combustion processes is to use a concerted effort between experiments at well-characterized boundary conditions and detailed, high-fidelity models. In this paper, combustion processes of n-dodecane fuel sprays under heavy-duty Diesel engine conditions are investigated using this approach. Reacting fuel sprays are studied in a constant-volume pre-burn vessel at an ambient temperature of 900 K with three reference cases having specific combinations of injection pressure, ambient density and ambient oxygen concentration (80, 150 & 160 MPa - 22.8 & 40 kg/m3-15 & 20.5% O2). In addition to a free jet, two different walls were placed inside the combustion vessel to study flame-wall interaction.
Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emissions Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Oxygen-Enriched Air

2018-09-10
2018-01-1785
Oxygen enriched air (EA) is a well known industrial mixture in which the content of oxygen is higher respect the atmospheric one, in the range 22-35%. Oxygen EA can be obtained by desorption from water, taking advantage of the higher oxygen solubility in water compared to the nitrogen one, since the Henry constants of this two gases are different. The production of EA by this new approach was already studied by experimental runs and theoretical considerations. New results using salt water are reported. EA promoted combustion is considered as one of the most interesting technologies to improve the performance in diesel engines and to simultaneously control and reduce pollution. This paper explores, by means of 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations, the effects of EA on the performance and exhaust emissions of a high-speed direct-injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Suspension Systems: Some New Analytical Formulas for Describing the Dynamic Behavior

2018-04-03
2018-01-0554
The paper presents some new and unreferenced analytical formulae describing the dynamic behaviour of the suspension system of road or off-road vehicles. The quarter car model (2 degrees of freedom) is considered, the suspension can be either passive or active. Passive suspensions can be simplified as the spring-damper combination or the spring-damper combination with an additional in series spring (representing, e.g., the rubber bushing at the top of a McPherson strut or the rubber bushing at the end joints of the damper). The mathematical system is linear and the excitation is given by a random stationary and ergodic process. The standard deviations in analytical form are given referring to, respectively, the vehicle body acceleration, the relative displacement between sprung and unsprung mass, and the force at the ground. The so called invariant points of the frequency response functions are derived for both active and passive suspension.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Sensitivity of Soot and NOx Formation to the Operating Conditions in Heavy Duty Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0177
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are employed to describe the effect of flow parameters on the formation of soot and NOx in a heavy duty engine under low load and high load. The complexity of diesel combustion, specially when soot, NOx and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution. In this work, Multiple Representative Interactive Flamelets (MRIF) method is employed to describe the chemical reactions, ignition, flame propagation and emissions in the engine. A phenomenological model for soot formation, including soot nucleation, coagulation and oxidation with O2 and OH is incorporated into the flamelet combustion model. Different strategies for modelling NOx are chosen to take into account the longer time scale for NOx formation. The numerical results are compared with experimental data to show the validity of the model for the cases under study.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation of the Impact of Electrical Heating on the Light-off of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2018-04-03
2018-01-0961
In the last years, as a response to the more and more restrictive emission legislation, new devices (SRC, DOC, NOx-trap, DPF) have been progressively introduced as standard components of modern after-treatment system for Diesel engines. In addition, the adoption of electrical heating is nowadays regarded with interest as an effective solution to promote the light-off of the catalyst at low temperature, especially at the start-up of the engine and during the low load operation of the engine typical of the urban drive. In this work, a state-of-the-art 48 V electrical heated catalyst is considered, in order to investigate its effect in increasing the abatement efficiency of a standard DOC. The electrical heating device considered is based on a metallic support, arranged in a spiral layout, and it is heated by the Joule effect due to the passage of the electrical current.
Technical Paper

Combined Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the ECN Spray G under Different Engine-Like Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0281
A detailed understanding of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) techniques applied to spark-ignition (SI) engines is necessary as they allow for many technical advantages such as increased power output, higher fuel efficiency and better cold start performances. Within this context, the extensive validation of multi-dimensional models against experimental data is a fundamental task in order to achieve an accurate reproduction of the physical phenomena characterizing the injected fuel spray. In this work, simulations of different Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G conditions were performed with the Lib-ICE code, which is based on the open source OpenFOAM technology, by using a RANS Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to model the ambient gas-fuel spray interaction.
Technical Paper

A Review of the State of the Art of Electric Traction Motors Cooling Techniques

2018-04-03
2018-01-0057
This paper provides a review on state-of-art modern cooling systems employed for thermal cooling of electric motors for vehicle applications. In recent years, the pursue of a more sustainable and ecofriendly mobility has pushed the research towards the development of electric vehicle powertrain systems. Besides the evident advantages of the adoption of electric traction systems in terms of pollution and efficiency, the need of an effective cooling system for the electric machine components gained more and more importance in order to maintain high efficiency and ensure high durability. In fact, it is known that high temperatures can be harmful for the electric motor: besides the evident damages for mechanical parts, the influence on the permanent magnet properties is not negligible [1] [2]. In this fast-evolving environment, different solutions for the thermal problem have been researched and adopted, each one with its own pros and cons.
Technical Paper

Numerical Estimation of Asymmetry of In-Cylinder Flow in a Light Duty Direct Injection Engine with Re-Entrant Piston Bowl

2017-10-08
2017-01-2209
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) can be applied to decrease emissions and increase fuel efficiency in direct injection, compression ignition (DICI) combustion engines. PPC is strongly influenced by the mixing of fuel and oxidizer, which for a given fuel is controlled mainly by (a) the fuel injection, (b) the in-cylinder flow, and (c) the geometry and dynamics of the engine. As the injection timings can vary over a wide range in PPC combustion, detailed knowledge of the in-cylinder flow over the whole intake and compression strokes can improve our understanding of PPC combustion. In computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the in-cylinder flow is sometimes simplified and modeled as a solid-body rotation profile at some time prior to injection to produce a realistic flow field at the moment of injection. In real engines, the in-cylinder flow motion is governed by the intake manifold, the valve motion, and the engine geometry.
Journal Article

Geometric and Fluid-Dynamic Characterization of Actual Open Cell Foam Samples by a Novel Imaging Analysis Based Algorithm

2017-10-05
2017-01-9288
Metallic open-cell foams have proven to be valuable for many engineering applications. Their success is mainly related to mechanical strength, low density, high specific surface, good thermal exchange, low flow resistance and sound absorption properties. The present work aims to investigate three principal aspects of real foams: the geometrical characterization, the flow regime characterization, the effects of the pore size and the porosity on the pressure drop. The first aspect is very important, since the geometrical properties depend on other parameters, such as porosity, cell/pore size and specific surface. A statistical evaluation of the cell size of a foam sample is necessary to define both its geometrical characteristics and the flow pattern at a given input velocity. To this purpose, a procedure which statistically computes the number of cells and pores with a given size has been implemented in order to obtain the diameter distribution.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of Combustion Models for Diesel Engines Based on Tabulated Kinetics in a Wide Range of Operating Conditions

2017-09-04
2017-24-0029
Computational fluid dynamics represents a useful tool to support the design and development of Heavy Duty Engines, making possible to test the effects of injection strategies and combustion chamber design for a wide range of operating conditions. Predictive models are required to ensure accurate estimations of heat release and the main pollutant emissions within a limited amount of time. For this reason, both detailed chemistry and turbulence chemistry interaction need to be included. In this work, the authors intend to apply combustion models based on tabulated kinetics for the prediction of Diesel combustion in Heavy Duty Engines. Four different approaches were considered: well-mixed model, presumed PDF, representative interactive flamelets and flamelet progress variable. Tabulated kinetics was also used for the estimation of NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Wall Heat Flux Models for Full Cycle CFD Simulation of Internal Combustion Engines under Motoring Operation

2017-09-04
2017-24-0032
The present work details a study of the heat flux through the walls of an internal combustion engine. The determination of this heat flux is an important aspect in engine optimization, as it influences the power, efficiency and the emissions of the engine. Therefore, a set of simulation tools in the OpenFOAM® software has been developed, that allows the calculation of the heat transfer through engine walls for ICEs. Normal practice in these types of engine simulations is to apply a wall function model to calculate the heat flux, rather than resolving the complete thermo-viscous boundary layer, and perform simulations of the closed engine cycle. When dealing with a complex engine, this methodology will reduce the overall computational cost. It however increases the need to rely on assumptions on both the initial flow field and the behavior in the near-wall region.
Technical Paper

Gas Exchange and Injection Modeling of an Advanced Natural Gas Engine for Heavy Duty Applications

2017-09-04
2017-24-0026
The scope of the work presented in this paper was to apply the latest open source CFD achievements to design a state of the art, direct-injection (DI), heavy-duty, natural gas-fueled engine. Within this context, an initial steady-state analysis of the in-cylinder flow was performed by simulating three different intake ducts geometries, each one with seven different valve lift values, chosen according to an estabilished methodology proposed by AVL. The discharge coefficient (Cd) and the Tumble Ratio (TR) were calculated in each case, and an optimal intake ports geometry configuration was assessed in terms of a compromise between the desired intensity of tumble in the chamber and the satisfaction of an adequate value of Cd. Subsequently, full-cycle, cold-flow simulations were performed for three different engine operating points, in order to evaluate the in-cylinder development of TR and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) under transient conditions.
Journal Article

A Kinetic Modelling Study of Alcohols Operating Regimes in a HCCI Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0077
Pursuing a sustainable energy scenario for transportation requires the blending of renewable oxygenated fuels such as alcohols into commercial hydrocarbon fuels. From a chemical kinetic perspective, this requires the accurate description of both hydrocarbon reference fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, etc.) and oxygenated fuels chemistry. A recent systematic investigation of linear C2-C5 alcohols ignition in a rapid compression machine at p = 10-30 bar and T = 650- 900 K has extended the scarcity of fundamental data at such conditions, allowing for a revision of the low temperature chemistry for alcohol fuels in the POLIMI mechanism. Heavier alcohols such as n-butanol and n-pentanol present ignition characteristic of interest for application in HCCI engines, due to the presence of the hydroxyl moiety reducing their low temperature reactivity compared to the parent linear alkanes (i.e. higher octane number).
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