Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Computational Chemistry Consortium: Surrogate Fuel Mechanism Development, Pollutants Sub-Mechanisms and Components Library

2019-09-09
2019-24-0020
The Computational Chemistry Consortium (C3) is dedicated to leading the advancement of combustion and emissions modeling. The C3 cluster combines the expertise of different groups involved in combustion research aiming to refine existing chemistry models and to develop more efficient tools for the generation of surrogate and multi-fuel mechanisms, and suitable mechanisms for CFD applications. In addition to the development of more accurate kinetic models for different components of interest in real fuel surrogates and for pollutants formation (NOx, PAH, soot), the core activity of C3 is to develop a tool capable of merging high-fidelity kinetics from different partners, resulting in a high-fidelity model for a specific application. A core mechanism forms the basis of a gasoline surrogate model containing larger components including n-heptane, iso-octane, n-dodecane, toluene and other larger hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Flow Structures on Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Swirl-Supported Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0009
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to describe the effect of in-cylinder flow structures on the formation and oxidation of soot in a swirl-supported light-duty diesel engine. The focus of the paper is on the effect of swirl motion and injection pressure on late cycle soot oxidation. The structure of the flow at different swirl numbers is studied to investigate the effect of varying swirl number on the coherent flow structures. These coherent flow structures are studied to understand the mechanism that leads to efficient soot oxidation in late cycle. Effect of varying injection pressure at different swirl numbers and the interaction between spray and swirl motions are discussed. The complexity of diesel combustion, especially when soot and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution.
Technical Paper

Validation of Diesel Combustion Models with Turbulence Chemistry Interaction and Detailed Kinetics

2019-09-09
2019-24-0088
Detailed and fast combustion models are necessary to support design of Diesel engines with low emission and fuel consumption. Over the years, the importance of turbulence chemistry interaction to correctly describe the diffusion flame structure was demonstrated by a detailed assessment with optical data from constant-volume vessel experiments. The main objective of this work is to carry out an extensive validation of two different combustion models which are suitable for the simulation of Diesel engine combustion. The first one is the Representative Interactive Flamelet model (RIF) employing direct chemistry integration. A single flamelet formulation is generally used to reduce the computational time but this aspect limits the capability to reproduce the flame stabilization process. To overcome such limitation, a second model called tabulated flamelet progress variable (TFPV) is tested in this work.
Technical Paper

A Coupled Tabulated Kinetics and Flame Propagation Model for the Simulation of Fumigated Medium Speed Dual-Fuel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0098
The present work describes the numerical modeling of medium-speed marine engines, operating in a fumigated dual-fuel mode, i.e. with the second fuel injected in the ports. This engine technology allows reducing engine-out emissions while maintaining the engine efficiency and can be fairly easily retrofitted from current diesel engines. The main premixed fuel that is added can be a low-carbon one and can additionally be of a renewable nature, thereby reducing or even completely removing the global warming impact. To fully optimize the operational parameters of such a large marine engine, computational fluid dynamics can be very helpful. Accurately describing the combustion process in such an engine is key, as the prediction of the heat release and the pollutant formation is crucial. Auto-ignition of the diesel fuel needs to be captured, followed by the combustion and flame propagation of the premixed fuel.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of Gas Exchange, Fuel-Air Mixing and Combustion in Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0095
Gasoline, direct injection engines represent one of the most widely adopted powertrain for passenger cars. However, further development efforts are necessary to meet the future fuel consumption and emission standards imposing an efficiency increase and a reduction of particulate matter emissions. Within this context, computational fluid dynamics is nowadays a consolidated tool to support engine design; this work is focused on the development of a set of CFD models for the prediction of combustion in modern GDI engines. The one-equation Weller model coupled with a zero-dimensional approach to handle initial flame kernel growth was applied to predict flame propagation. To account for mixture fraction fluctuations which might lead to the presence of soot precursor species, burned gas chemical composition is computed using tabulated kinetics with a presumed probability density function.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling and Validation of the ECN Spray G Experiment under a Wide Range of Operating Conditions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0130
The increasing diffusion of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines requires a more detailed and reliable description of the phenomena occurring during the fuel injection process. As well known the thermal and fluid-dynamic conditions present in the combustion chamber greatly influence the air-fuel mixture process deriving from GDI injectors. GDI fuel sprays typically evolve in wide range of ambient pressure and temperatures depending on the engine load. In some particular injection conditions, when in-cylinder pressure is relatively low, flash evaporation might occur significantly affecting the fuel-air mixing process. In some other particular injection conditions spray impingement on the piston wall might occur, causing high unburned hydrocarbons and soot emissions, so currently representing one of the main drawbacks of GDI engines.
Technical Paper

A Novel 1D Co-Simulation Framework for the Prediction of Tailpipe Emissions under Different IC Engine Operating Conditions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0147
The accurate prediction of pollutant emissions generated by IC engines is a key aspect to guarantee the respect of the emission regulation legislation. This paper describes the approach followed by the authors to achieve a strict numerical coupling of two different 1D modeling tools in a co-simulation environment, aiming at a reliable calculation of engine-out and tailpipe emissions. The main idea is to allow an accurate 1D simulation of the unsteady flows and wave motion inside the intake and exhaust systems, without resorting to an over-simplified geometrical discretization, and to rely on advanced thermodynamic combustion models and kinetic sub-models for the calculation of cylinder-out emissions. A specific fluid dynamic approach is then used to track the chemical composition along the exhaust duct-system, in order to evaluate the conversion efficiency of after-treatment devices, such as TWC, GPF, DPF, DOC, SCR and so on.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of Compact Heat Exchangers for I.C. Engine Oil Cooling

2019-09-09
2019-24-0179
This work describes the development of a computational model for the CFD simulation of compact heat exchangers applied for the oil cooling in internal combustion engines. Among the different cooler types, the present modeling effort will be focused on liquid-cooled solutions based on offset strip fins turbulators. The design of this type of coolers represents an issue of extreme concern, which requires a compromise between different objectives: high compactness, low pressure drop, high heat-transfer efficiency. In this work, a computational framework for the CFD simulation of compact oil-to-liquid heat exchangers, including offset-strip fins as heat transfer enhancer, has been developed. The main problem is represented by the need of considering different scales in the simulation, ranging from the characteristic size of the turbulator geometry (tipically μm - mm) to the full scale of the overall device (typically cm - dm).
Technical Paper

Development and Application of a Quasi-3D Model for the Simulation of Radial Compressors of Turbochargers for Internal Combustion Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0187
In this work the 3Dcell method, a quasi3D approach developed by the Internal Combustion Engine Group at Politecnico di Milano, has been extended and applied to the fluid dynamic simulation of turbocharging devices for internal combustion engines, focusing on the compressor side. The 3Dcell is based on a pseudo-staggered leapfrog method applied to the governing equation of a 1D problem arbitrarily oriented in space. The system of equations is solved referring to the relative system in the rotating zone, whereas the absolute reference system has been used elsewhere. The vaneless diffuser has been modelled resorting to the conservation of the angular momentum of the flow stream in the tangential direction, combined with the solution of the momentum equation in the radial direction.
Technical Paper

Hybrid URANS/LES Turbulence Modeling for Spray Simulation: A Computational Study

2019-04-02
2019-01-0270
Turbulence modeling for fuel spray simulation plays a prominent role in the understanding of the flow behavior in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). Currently, a lot of research work is actively spent on Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence modeling as a replacement option of standard Reynolds averaged approaches in the Eulerian-Lagrangian spray modeling framework, due to its capability to accurately describe flow-induced spray variability and to the lower dependence of the results on the specific turbulence model and/or modeling coefficients. The introduction of LES poses, however, additional questions related to the implementation/adaptation of spray-related turbulence sources and to the rise of conflicting numerics and grid requirements between the Lagrangian and Eulerian parts of the simulated flow.
Technical Paper

Industry 4.0 and Automotive 4.0: Challenges and Opportunities for Designing New Vehicle Components for Automated and/or Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0504
The paper deals with the “wise sensorization” of vehicle components. In the upcoming full digitalization of mobility, vehicle components are getting more and more sensorized. The problem is why, what, when and where vehicle components can be sensorized. The paper attempts a preliminary problem statement for the sensorization of vehicle components. A theoretical basic investigation is introduced, setting the main concepts on which extended sensorization is advisable or not. The paradigms of Industry 4.0 and Automotive 4.0 are addressed, namely sensors are proposed to be used both for monitoring the manufacturing process and for monitoring the service life of the component. In general, sensors are proposed to be used for multiple purposes. Two examples of sensorized components are briefly presented. One refers to a sensorized electric motor, the other one refers to a sensorized wheel.
Technical Paper

Direct Evaluation of Turbine Isentropic Efficiency in Turbochargers: CFD Assisted Design of an Innovative Measuring Technique

2019-04-02
2019-01-0324
Turbocharging is playing today a fundamental role not only to improve automotive engine performance, but also to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions for both Spark Ignition and Diesel engines. Dedicated experimental investigations on turbochargers are therefore necessary to assess a better understanding of its performance. The availability of experimental information on turbocharger steady flow performance is an essential requirement to optimize the engine-turbocharger matching, which is usually achieved by means of simulation models. This aspect is even more important when referred to the turbine efficiency, since its swallowing capacity can be accurately evaluated through the measurement of mass flow rate, inlet temperature and pressure ratio across the machine.
Technical Paper

Tire Ply-Steer, Conicity and Rolling Resistance - Analytical Formulae for Accurate Assessment of Vehicle Performance during Straight Running

2019-04-02
2019-01-1237
The aim of the paper is to provide simple and accurate analytical formulae describing the straight motion of a road vehicle. Such formulae can be used to compute either the steering torque or the additional rolling resistance induced by vehicle side-slip angle. The paper introduces a revised formulation of the Handling Diagram Theory to take into account tire ply-steer, conicity and road banking. Pacejka’s Handling Diagram Theory is based on a relatively simple fully non-linear single track model. We will refer to the linear part of the Handling Diagram, since straight motion will be considered only. Both the elastokinematics of suspension system and tire characteristics are taken into account. The validation of the analytical expressions has been performed both theoretically and after a subjective-objective test campaign. By means of the new and unreferenced analytical formulae, practical hints are given to set to zero the steering torque during straight running.
Technical Paper

Low Pressure-Driven Injection Characterization for SCR Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0994
Aqueous Urea is a non-toxic and stable ammonia carrier and its injection and mixing represent the basis for the most common de-NOx technology for mobile applications. The reactant feed preparation process is defined by evaporation, thermolysis and hydrolysis of the liquid mixture upstream the Selective Catalytic Reduction reactor, and it is strongly dependent on the interaction between spray and gaseous flow. Low-pressure driven injectors are the common industrial standard for these applications, and their behavior in almost-ambient pressure cross flows is significantly different from any in-cylinder application. For this reason, two substantially different injectors in terms of geometry and design are experimentally studied, characterizing drop sizes and velocities through Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) and liquid mass spatial distribution through Shadow Imaging (SI).
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Analysis of an Unmanned Cyclogiro Aircraft

2018-10-29
2018-01-6005
Very little is currently known of the aerodynamic interaction between neighboring cycloidal rotors. Such knowledge is, however, of crucial importance to tune the controller and rotor disposition of a cyclogiro aircraft. Thus, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed, validated, and used to analyze the D-Dalus L1 four-rotor unmanned aircraft operating under several configurations. The model solves the Euler equations using the OpenFOAM toolbox in order to provide fast results on a desktop computer. Validation is performed against thrust forces and flow streamlines obtained during wind tunnel experiments at various flight velocities. Numerical results from CFD match the trends of the experimental data. Flow behavior matches the video footage of the wind tunnel tests. Although boundary layer effects are neglected, satisfactory results are obtained both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emissions Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Oxygen-Enriched Air

2018-09-10
2018-01-1785
Oxygen enriched air (EA) is a well known industrial mixture in which the content of oxygen is higher respect the atmospheric one, in the range 22-35%. Oxygen EA can be obtained by desorption from water, taking advantage of the higher oxygen solubility in water compared to the nitrogen one, since the Henry constants of this two gases are different. The production of EA by this new approach was already studied by experimental runs and theoretical considerations. New results using salt water are reported. EA promoted combustion is considered as one of the most interesting technologies to improve the performance in diesel engines and to simultaneously control and reduce pollution. This paper explores, by means of 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations, the effects of EA on the performance and exhaust emissions of a high-speed direct-injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Spray Combustion Processes: Experiments and Numerical Simulations

2018-09-10
2018-01-1689
A contemporary approach for improving and developing the understanding of heavy-duty Diesel engine combustion processes is to use a concerted effort between experiments at well-characterized boundary conditions and detailed, high-fidelity models. In this paper, combustion processes of n-dodecane fuel sprays under heavy-duty Diesel engine conditions are investigated using this approach. Reacting fuel sprays are studied in a constant-volume pre-burn vessel at an ambient temperature of 900 K with three reference cases having specific combinations of injection pressure, ambient density and ambient oxygen concentration (80, 150 & 160 MPa - 22.8 & 40 kg/m3-15 & 20.5% O2). In addition to a free jet, two different walls were placed inside the combustion vessel to study flame-wall interaction.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation of the Impact of Electrical Heating on the Light-off of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2018-04-03
2018-01-0961
In the last years, as a response to the more and more restrictive emission legislation, new devices (SRC, DOC, NOx-trap, DPF) have been progressively introduced as standard components of modern after-treatment system for Diesel engines. In addition, the adoption of electrical heating is nowadays regarded with interest as an effective solution to promote the light-off of the catalyst at low temperature, especially at the start-up of the engine and during the low load operation of the engine typical of the urban drive. In this work, a state-of-the-art 48 V electrical heated catalyst is considered, in order to investigate its effect in increasing the abatement efficiency of a standard DOC. The electrical heating device considered is based on a metallic support, arranged in a spiral layout, and it is heated by the Joule effect due to the passage of the electrical current.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Sensitivity of Soot and NOx Formation to the Operating Conditions in Heavy Duty Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0177
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are employed to describe the effect of flow parameters on the formation of soot and NOx in a heavy duty engine under low load and high load. The complexity of diesel combustion, specially when soot, NOx and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution. In this work, Multiple Representative Interactive Flamelets (MRIF) method is employed to describe the chemical reactions, ignition, flame propagation and emissions in the engine. A phenomenological model for soot formation, including soot nucleation, coagulation and oxidation with O2 and OH is incorporated into the flamelet combustion model. Different strategies for modelling NOx are chosen to take into account the longer time scale for NOx formation. The numerical results are compared with experimental data to show the validity of the model for the cases under study.
Technical Paper

Combined Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the ECN Spray G under Different Engine-Like Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0281
A detailed understanding of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) techniques applied to spark-ignition (SI) engines is necessary as they allow for many technical advantages such as increased power output, higher fuel efficiency and better cold start performances. Within this context, the extensive validation of multi-dimensional models against experimental data is a fundamental task in order to achieve an accurate reproduction of the physical phenomena characterizing the injected fuel spray. In this work, simulations of different Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G conditions were performed with the Lib-ICE code, which is based on the open source OpenFOAM technology, by using a RANS Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to model the ambient gas-fuel spray interaction.
X