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Technical Paper

CFD Modeling and Validation of the ECN Spray G Experiment under a Wide Range of Operating Conditions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0130
The increasing diffusion of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines requires a more detailed and reliable description of the phenomena occurring during the fuel injection process. As well known the thermal and fluid-dynamic conditions present in the combustion chamber greatly influence the air-fuel mixture process deriving from GDI injectors. GDI fuel sprays typically evolve in wide range of ambient pressure and temperatures depending on the engine load. In some particular injection conditions, when in-cylinder pressure is relatively low, flash evaporation might occur significantly affecting the fuel-air mixing process. In some other particular injection conditions spray impingement on the piston wall might occur, causing high unburned hydrocarbons and soot emissions, so currently representing one of the main drawbacks of GDI engines.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Control-Oriented Analytic Engine Simulator

2019-09-09
2019-24-0002
Due to the recent anti-pollution policies, the performance increase in Spark Ignition (SI) engines is currently under the focus of automotive manufacturers. This trend drives control systems designers to investigate accurate solutions and build more sophisticated algorithms to increase the efficiency of this kind of engines. The development of a control strategy is composed of several phases and steps, and the first part of such process is typically spent in defining and investigating the logic of the strategy. During this phase it is often useful to have a light engine simulator, which allows to have robust synthetic combustion data with a low calibration and computational effort. In the first part of this paper, a description of the control-oriented ANalytical Engine SIMulator (ANESIM) is carried out.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Water and EGR Effects on Combustion Characteristics of GDI Engines Using a Chemical Kinetics Approach

2019-09-09
2019-24-0019
The modern spark ignition engines, due to the introduced strategies for limiting the consumption without reducing the power, are sensitive to both the detonation and the increase of the inlet turbine temperature. In order to reduce the risk of detonation, the use of dilution with the products of combustion (EGR) is an established practice that has recently improved with the use of water vapor obtained via direct or indirect injection. The application and optimization of these strategies cannot ignore the knowledge of physical quantities characterizing the combustion such as the laminar flame speed and the ignition delay, both are intrinsic property of the fuel and are function of the mixture composition (mixture fraction and dilution) and of its thermodynamic conditions. The experimental measurements of the laminar flame speed and the ignition delay available in literature, rarely report the effects of dilution by EGR or water vapor.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a Model-Based Water Injection Combustion Control System for On-Board Application

2019-09-09
2019-24-0015
Water Injection (WI) has become a key technology for increasing combustion efficiency in modern GDI turbocharged engines. In fact, the addition of water mitigates significantly the occurrence of knock, reduces exhaust gas temperatures, and opens the possibility to reach optimum heat release phasing even at high load. This work presents the latest development of a model-based WI controller, and its experimental validation on a GDI TC engine. The controller is based on a novel approach that involves an analytic combustion model to define the spark advance (SA) required to reach a combustion phase target, considering injected water mass effects. The calibration and experimental validation of the proposed controller is shown in detail in the paper.
Technical Paper

Review of Combustion Indexes Remote Sensing Applied to Different Combustion Types

2019-04-02
2019-01-1132
This paper summarizes the main studies carried out by the authors for the development of indexes for remote combustion sensing applicable to different combustion types, i.e. conventional gasoline and diesel combustions, diesel PCCI and dual fuel gasoline-diesel RCCI. It is well-known that the continuous development of modern Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) management systems is mainly aimed at complying with upcoming increasingly stringent regulations throughout the world, both for pollutants and CO2 emissions. Performing an efficient combustion control is crucial for efficiency increase and pollutant emissions reduction. Over the past years, the authors of this paper have developed several techniques to estimate the most important combustion indexes for combustion control, without using additional cylinder pressure sensors but only using the engine speed sensor (always available on board) and accelerometers (usually available on-board for gasoline engines).
Technical Paper

Low Pressure-Driven Injection Characterization for SCR Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0994
Aqueous Urea is a non-toxic and stable ammonia carrier and its injection and mixing represent the basis for the most common de-NOx technology for mobile applications. The reactant feed preparation process is defined by evaporation, thermolysis and hydrolysis of the liquid mixture upstream the Selective Catalytic Reduction reactor, and it is strongly dependent on the interaction between spray and gaseous flow. Low-pressure driven injectors are the common industrial standard for these applications, and their behavior in almost-ambient pressure cross flows is significantly different from any in-cylinder application. For this reason, two substantially different injectors in terms of geometry and design are experimentally studied, characterizing drop sizes and velocities through Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) and liquid mass spatial distribution through Shadow Imaging (SI).
Technical Paper

A Review of the State of the Art of Electric Traction Motors Cooling Techniques

2018-04-03
2018-01-0057
This paper provides a review on state-of-art modern cooling systems employed for thermal cooling of electric motors for vehicle applications. In recent years, the pursue of a more sustainable and ecofriendly mobility has pushed the research towards the development of electric vehicle powertrain systems. Besides the evident advantages of the adoption of electric traction systems in terms of pollution and efficiency, the need of an effective cooling system for the electric machine components gained more and more importance in order to maintain high efficiency and ensure high durability. In fact, it is known that high temperatures can be harmful for the electric motor: besides the evident damages for mechanical parts, the influence on the permanent magnet properties is not negligible [1] [2]. In this fast-evolving environment, different solutions for the thermal problem have been researched and adopted, each one with its own pros and cons.
Technical Paper

Remote Sensing Methodology for the Closed-Loop Control of RCCI Dual Fuel Combustion

2018-04-03
2018-01-0253
The continuous development of modern Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) management systems is mainly aimed at complying with upcoming increasingly stringent regulations throughout the world. Performing an efficient combustion control is crucial for efficiency increase and pollutant emissions reduction. These aspects are even more crucial for innovative Low Temperature Combustions (such as RCCI), mainly due to the high instability and the high sensitivity to slight variations of the injection parameters that characterize this kind of combustion. Optimal combustion control can be achieved through a proper closed-loop control of the injection parameters. The most important feedback quantities used for combustion control are engine load (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure or Torque delivered by the engine) and center of combustion (CA50), i.e. the angular position in which 50% of fuel burned within the engine cycle is reached.
Technical Paper

Predictive Energy Management Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Fuel Economy Improvement and Battery Capacity Sensitivity Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0998
This paper shows the influence of different battery charge management strategies on the fuel economy of a hybrid parallel axle-split vehicle in a real driving scenario, for a vehicle control system that has the additional possibility to split the torque between front and rear axles. The first section regards the validation of a self-developed Model in the Loop (MiL) environment of a P1-P4 plug-in hybrid electric car, using experimental data of a New European Driving Cycle test. In its original version, which is implemented on-board the vehicle, the energy management supervisor implements a heuristic, or rule-based, Energy Management Strategy (EMS). During this project, a different EMS has been developed, consisting of a sub-optimal control scheme called Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS), explained in detail in the second section.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation of the Impact of Electrical Heating on the Light-off of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2018-04-03
2018-01-0961
In the last years, as a response to the more and more restrictive emission legislation, new devices (SRC, DOC, NOx-trap, DPF) have been progressively introduced as standard components of modern after-treatment system for Diesel engines. In addition, the adoption of electrical heating is nowadays regarded with interest as an effective solution to promote the light-off of the catalyst at low temperature, especially at the start-up of the engine and during the low load operation of the engine typical of the urban drive. In this work, a state-of-the-art 48 V electrical heated catalyst is considered, in order to investigate its effect in increasing the abatement efficiency of a standard DOC. The electrical heating device considered is based on a metallic support, arranged in a spiral layout, and it is heated by the Joule effect due to the passage of the electrical current.
Technical Paper

Statistical Analysis of Knock Intensity Probability Distribution and Development of 0-D Predictive Knock Model for a SI TC Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0858
Knock is a non-deterministic phenomenon and its intensity is typically defined by a non-symmetrical distribution, under fixed operating conditions. A statistical approach is therefore the correct way to study knock features. Typically, intrinsically deterministic knock models need to artificially introduce Cycle-to-Cycle Variation (CCV) of relevant combustion parameters, or of cycle initial conditions, to generate different knock intensity values for a given operating condition. Their output is limited to the percentage of knocking cycles, once the user imposes an arbitrary knock intensity threshold to define the correlation between the number of knocking events and the Spark Advance (SA). In the first part of the paper, a statistical analysis of knock intensity is carried out: for different values of SA, the probability distributions of an experimental Knock Index (KI) are self-compared, and the characteristics of some percentiles are highlighted.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Knock Damage Mechanisms on a GDI TC Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0060
The recent search for extremely efficient spark-ignition engines has implied a great increase of in-cylinder pressure and temperature levels, and knocking combustion mode has become one of the most relevant limiting factors. This paper reports the main results of a specific project carried out as part of a wider research activity, aimed at modelling and real-time controlling knock-induced damage on aluminum forged pistons. The paper shows how the main damage mechanisms (erosion, plastic deformation, surface roughness, hardness reduction) have been identified and isolated, and how the corresponding symptoms may be measured and quantified. The second part of the work then concentrates on understanding how knocking combustion characteristics affect the level of induced damage, and which parameters are mainly responsible for piston failure.
Journal Article

A Control-Oriented Knock Intensity Estimator

2017-09-04
2017-24-0055
The performance optimization of modern Spark Ignition engines is limited by knock occurrence: heavily downsized engines often are forced to work in the Knock-Limited Spark Advance (KLSA) range. Knock control systems monitor the combustion process, allowing to achieve a proper compromise between performance and reliability. Combustion monitoring is usually carried out by means of accelerometers or ion sensing systems, but recently the use of cylinder pressure sensors is also becoming frequent in motorsport applications. On the other hand, cylinder pressure signals are often available in the calibration stage, where SA feedback-control based on the pressure signal can be used to avoid damages to the engine during automatic calibration. A predictive real-time combustion model could help optimizing engine performance, without exceeding the allowed knock severity.
Journal Article

Technology Comparison for Spark Ignition Engines of New Generation

2017-09-04
2017-24-0151
New gasoline engine design is highly influenced by CO2 and emission limits defined by legislations, the demand for real conditions fuel economy, higher torque, higher specific power and lower cost. To reach the requirements coming from the end-users and legislations, especially for SI engines, several technologies are available, such as downsizing, including turbocharging in combination with direct injection. These technologies allow to solve the main issues of gasoline engines in terms of efficiency and performance which are knocking, part-load losses, and thermal stress at high power conditions. Moreover, other possibilities are under evaluation to allow further steps of enhancement for the even more challenging requirements. However, the benefits and costs given by the mix of these technologies must be accurately evaluated by means of objective tools and procedures in order to choose among the best alternatives.
Journal Article

Combustion Indexes for Innovative Combustion Control

2017-09-04
2017-24-0079
The continuous development of modern Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) management systems is mainly aimed at combustion control improvement. Nowadays, performing an efficient combustion control is crucial for drivability improvement, efficiency increase and pollutant emissions reduction. These aspects are even more crucial when innovative combustions (such as LTC or RCCI) are performed, due to the high instability and the high sensitivity with respect to the injection parameters that are associated to this kind of combustion. Aging of all the components involved in the mixture preparation and combustion processes is another aspect particularly challenging, since not all the calibrations developed in the setup phase of a combustion control system may still be valid during engine life.
Technical Paper

Evolution of the Ride Comfort of Alfa Romeo Cars since 1955 until 2005

2017-03-28
2017-01-1484
The ride comfort of three Alfa Romeo cars, namely Giulietta (1955), Alfetta (1972) and 159 (2005) has been assessed both objectively and subjectively. The three cars belong to the same market segment. The aim is to let young engineers or graduate students understand how technology has evolved and eventually learn a lesson from the assessed trend. A number of cleats have been fixed at the ground and the three cars have traversed such uneven surface. The objective assessment of the ride comfort has been performed by means of accelerometers fixed at the seat rails, additionally a special dummy developed at Politecnico di Milano has been employed. The subjective assessment has been performed by a panel of passengers. The match between objective and subjective ratings is very good. Simple mathematical models have been employed to establish a (successful) comparison between experimental and computational results. The ride comfort differs substantially among the cars.
Technical Paper

Knock Control Based on Engine Acoustic Emissions: Calibration and Implementation in an Engine Control Unit

2017-03-28
2017-01-0785
In modern turbocharged downsized GDI engines the achievement of maximum thermal efficiency is precluded by the occurrence of knock. In-cylinder pressure sensors give the best performance in terms of abnormal combustion detection, but they are affected by long term reliability issues and still constitute a considerable part of the entire engine management system cost. To overcome these problems, knock control strategies based on engine block vibrations or ionization current signals have been developed and are widely used in production control units. Furthermore, previous works have shown that engine sound emissions can be real-time processed to provide the engine management system with control-related information such as turbocharger rotational speed and knock intensity, demonstrating the possibility of using a multi-function device to replace several sensors.
Technical Paper

Application of Acoustic and Vibration-Based Knock Detection Techniques to a High Speed Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0786
Knock control systems based on engine block vibrations analysis are widely adopted in passenger car engines, but such approach shows its main limits at high engine speeds, since knock intensity measurement becomes less reliable due to the increased background mechanical noise. For small two wheelers engines, knock has not been historically considered a crucial issue, mainly due to small-sized combustion chambers and mixture enrichment. Due to more stringent emission regulations and in search of reduced CO2 emissions, an effective on-board knock controller acquires today greater importance also for motorcycle applications, since it could protect the engine when different fuel types are used, and it could significantly reduce fuel consumption (by avoiding lambda enrichment and/or allowing higher compression ratios to be adopted). These types of engines typically work at high rotational speeds and the reduced signal to noise ratio makes knock onset difficult to identify.
Journal Article

Investigation on Pre-Ignition Combustion Events and Development of Diagnostic Solutions Based on Ion Current Signals

2017-03-28
2017-01-0784
Pre-ignition combustions are extremely harmful and undesired, but the recent search for extremely efficient spark-ignition engines has implied a great increase of the in-cylinder pressure and temperature levels, forcing engine operation to conditions that may trigger this type of anomalous combustion much more frequently. For this reason, an accurate on-board diagnosis system is required to adopt protective measures, preventing engine damage. Ion current signal provides relevant information about the combustion process, and it results in a good compromise between cost, durability and information quality (signal to noise ratio levels). The GDI turbocharged engine used for this study was equipped with a production ion current sensing system, while in-cylinder pressure sensors were installed for research purposes, to better understand the pre-ignition phenomenon characteristics, and to support the development of an on-board diagnostic system solely based on ion current measurements.
Journal Article

A 1D/Quasi-3D Coupled Model for the Simulation of I.C. Engines: Development and Application of an Automatic Cell-Network Generator

2017-03-28
2017-01-0514
Nowadays quasi-3D approaches are included in many commercial and research 1D numerical codes, in order to increase their simulation accuracy in presence of complex shape 3D volumes, e.g. plenums and silencers. In particular, these are regarded as valuable approaches for application during the design phase of an engine, for their capability of predicting non-planar waves motion and, on the other hand, for their low requirements in terms of computational runtime. However, the generation of a high-quality quasi-3D computational grid is not always straightforward, especially in case of complex elements, and can be a time-consuming operation, making the quasi-3D tool a less attractive option. In this work, a quasi-3D module has been implemented on the basis of the open-source CFD code OpenFOAM and coupled with the 1D code GASDYN.
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