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Technical Paper

Intake O2 Concentration Estimation in a Turbocharged Diesel Engine through NOE

Diesel engines with their embedded control systems are becoming more and more complex as the emission regulations tighten, especially concerning NOx pollutants. The combustion and emission formation processes in diesel engines are closely correlated to the intake manifold O2 concentration. Consequently, the performance of the main engine controllers can be improved significantly, if a model-based or sensor-based estimation of the intake O2 concentration is available in the ECU. The paper addresses the modeling of the intake manifold O2 concentration in a turbocharged diesel engine. Dynamic models, compared to generally employed steady state maps, capture the dynamic effects occurring over transients. It is right in the transient that the major deviations from the stationary maps are found. The dynamic model will positively affect the control system making it more effective.
Technical Paper

Multitarget Evaluation of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain Architectures Considering Fuel Economy and Battery Lifetime

Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrains are characterized by a complex design environment as a result of both the large number of possible layouts and the need for dedicated energy management strategies. When selecting the most suitable hybrid powertrain architecture at an early design stage of HEVs, engineers usually focus solely on fuel economy (directly linked to tailpipe emissions) and vehicle drivability performance. However, high voltage batteries are a crucial component of HEVs as well in terms of performance and cost. This paper introduces a multitarget assessment framework for HEV powertrain architectures which considers both fuel economy and battery lifetime. A multi-objective formulation of dynamic programming is initially presented as an off-line optimal HEV energy management strategy capable of predicting both fuel economy performance and battery lifetime of HEV powertrain layout options.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of the Coulomb Counting Method and of the Estimation of the Electrified-Vehicles Electricity Balance in the WLTP

The battery of a vehicle with an electrified powertrain (Hybrid Electric Vehicle or Battery Electric Vehicle), is required to operate with highly dynamic power outputs, both for charging and discharging operation. Consequently, the battery current varies within an extensive range during operation and the battery temperature also changes. In some cases, the relationship between the current flow and the change in the electrical energy stored seems to be affected by inefficiencies, in literature described as current losses, and nonlinearities, typically associated with the complex chemical and physical processes taking place in the battery. When calculating the vehicle electrical energy consumption over a trip, the change in the electrical energy stored at vehicle-level has to be taken into account. This quantity, what we could call the vehicle electricity balance, is typically obtained through a time-based integration of the battery current of all the vehicle batteries during operation.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Programming Algorithm for HEV Powertrains Using Battery Power as State Variable

One of the first steps in powertrain design is to assess its best performance and consumption in a virtual phase. Regarding hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), it is important to define the best mode profile through a cycle in order to maximize fuel economy. To assist in that task, several off-line optimization algorithms were developed, with Dynamic Programming (DP) being the most common one. The DP algorithm generates the control actions that will result in the most optimal fuel economy of the powertrain for a known driving cycle. Although this method results in the global optimum behavior, the DP tool comes with a high computational cost. The charge-sustaining requirement and the necessity of capturing extremely small variations in the battery state of charge (SOC) makes this state vector an enormous variable. As things move fast in the industry, a rapid tool with the same performance is required.
Technical Paper

Supercar Hybridization: A Synergic Path to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Improve Performance

The trend towards powertrain electrification is expected to grow significantly in the next future also for super-cars. The aim of this paper is therefore to assess, through numerical simulation, the impact on both fuel economy and performance of different 48 Volt mild hybrid architectures for a high-performance sport car featuring a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition (TDISI) engine. In particular the hybrid functionalities of both a P0 (Belt Alternator Starter - BAS) and a P2 (Flywheel Alternator Starter - FAS) architecture were investigated and optimized for this kind of application through a global optimization algorithm. The analysis pointed out CO2 emission reductions potential of about 6% and 25% on NEDC, 7% and 28% on WLTC for P0 and P2 respectively. From the performance perspective, a 10% reduction in the time-to-torque was highlighted for both architectures in a load step maneuver at 2000 RPM constant speed.
Technical Paper

The Impact of WLTP on the Official Fuel Consumption and Electric Range of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Europe

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are one of the main technology options for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions and helping vehicle manufacturers (OEMs) to meet the CO2 targets set by different Governments from all around the world. In Europe OEMs have introduced a number of PHEV models to meet their CO2 target of 95 g/km for passenger cars set for the year 2021. Fuel consumption (FC) and CO2 emissions from PHEVs, however, strongly depend on the way they are used and on the frequency with which their battery is charged by the user. Studies have indeed revealed that in real life, with poor charging behavior from users, PHEV FC is equivalent to that of conventional vehicles, and in some cases higher, due to the increased mass and the need to keep the battery at a certain charging level.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Side Slip and Roll Angle Estimation

Vehicle dynamics estimation has been the subject of study for some years now. If on-board vehicle control systems can be provided with information such as side slip angle, lateral force etc. then stability of the vehicle can be improved. To estimate these dynamic variables different observers have been used e.g., sliding mode, fuzzy logic, neural networks etc. In this article the authors propose an extended Kalman filter to estimate vehicle side slip angle. Roll angle is estimated using vertical loads as input. First, a linear Kalman filter is used to filter out the vertical forces and estimate roll angle. This information is then used to estimate the vehicle side slip angle. To take into account the nonlinearities concerning lateral vehicle dynamics, Pacejka magic formula is used to model lateral forces. Estimated results are then compared with simulations, showing good accuracy.
Journal Article

An Unsupervised Machine-Learning Technique for the Definition of a Rule-Based Control Strategy in a Complex HEV

An unsupervised machine-learning technique, aimed at the identification of the optimal rule-based control strategy, has been developed for parallel hybrid electric vehicles that feature a torque-coupling (TC) device, a speed-coupling (SC) device or a dual-mode system, which is able to realize both actions. The approach is based on the preliminary identification of the optimal control strategy, which is carried out by means of a benchmark optimizer, based on the deterministic dynamic programming technique, for different driving scenarios. The optimization is carried out by selecting the optimal values of the control variables (i.e., transmission gear and power flow) in order to minimize fuel consumption, while taking into account several constraints in terms of NOx emissions, battery state of charge and battery life consumption.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Slender Beam-Wise Schemes for Structural Behavior of Flexible UAS Wings

The innovative highly flexible wings made of extremely light structures, yet still capable of carrying a considerable amount of non- structural weights, requires significant effort in structural simulations. The complexity involved in such design demands for simplified mathematical tools based on appropriate nonlinear structural schemes combined with reduced order models capable of predicting accurately their aero-structural behaviour. The model presented in this paper is based on a consistent nonlinear beam-wise scheme, capable of simulating the unconventional aeroelastic behaviour of flexible composite wings. The partial differential equations describing the wing dynamics are expanded up to the third order and can be used to explore the effect of static deflection imposed by external trim, the effect of gust loads and the one of nonlinear aerodynamic stall.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on a 3D Wing Section Hosting Multiple SJAs for Stall Control Purpose

Flow control over aerodynamic shapes in order to achieve performance enhancements has been a lively research area for last two decades. Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs) are devices able to interact actively with the flow around their hosting structure by providing ejection and suction of fluid from the enclosed cavity containing a piezo-electric oscillating membrane through dedicated orifices. The research presented in this paper concerns the implementation of zero-net-mass-flux SJAs airflow control system on a NACA0015, low aspect ratio wing section prototype. Two arrays with each 10 custom-made SJAs, installed at 10% and 65% of the chord length, make up the actuation system. The sensing system consists of eleven acoustic pressure transducers distributed in the wing upper surface and on the flap, an accelerometer placed in proximity of the wing c.g. and a six-axis force balance for integral load measurement.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear MIMO Data-Driven Control Design for the Air and Charging Systems of Diesel Engines

Emission requirements for diesel engines are becoming increasingly strict, leading to the increase of engine architecture complexity. This evolution requires a more systematic approach in the development of control systems than presently adopted, in order to achieve improved performances and reduction of times and costs in design, implementation and calibration. To this end, large efforts have been devoted in recent years to the application of advanced Model-Based MIMO control systems. In the present paper a new MIMO nonlinear feedback control is proposed, based on an innovative data-driven method, which allows to design the control directly from the experimental data acquired on the plant to be controlled. Thus, the proposed control design does not need the intermediate step of a reliable plant model identification, as required by Model-Based methods.
Technical Paper

Effective Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation using DVS Technology

The vehicle sideslip angle is one of the most important variables for evaluating vehicle dynamics. The potential value of such a variable for obtaining significant improvements over current stability control systems is widely recognized. However, its direct measurement requires the use of complex and expensive devices which cannot be used in production cars. Large research efforts has been devoted to the problem of estimating the sideslip angle from other variables currently measured by standard Electronic Stability Control (ESC) sensors. However, at the best of author's knowledge, until now no application to production cars is known. In this paper, a new sideslip angle estimation technology is presented.
Technical Paper

Optimization of IDRApegasus: Fuel Cell Hydrogen Vehicle

Given the growing concern for environmental issues, the automotive industry is working more deeply on the development of innovative technologies that reduce gas emissions and fuel consumption. Many car manufacturers have identified hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and fuel cell vehicles as the most promising solutions alternatives. IDRApegasus is a fuel cell hydrogen vehicle developed at the Politecnico of Turin. It participated at the Shell Eco-marathon Europe in Rotterdam (Netherlands) from 17-19 May 2012, a competition for low energy consumption vehicles and also an educational project that joins the value of sustainable development with a vehicle that will use the smallest amount of fuel and produce the lowest emissions possible.
Technical Paper

Integrated Active and Passive Systems for a Side Impact Scenario

The paper presents a simulation methodology created to support an integrated safety system development process which was tested for the side impact collision load case. The methodology is based on the coupled and complementary use of two software packages: PreScan and Madymo. PreScan was utilized for designing two traffic scenarios and the sensing and control systems for the side collision recognition, while Madymo was utilized for assessing the effects of pre-crash deployment of thorax airbag. The collision conditions from the scenarios were used as input to define a Madymo side collision model of the host vehicle and to investigate and optimize several airbag deployment parameters: pre-crash deployment time, airbag permeability, vent hole size and vent hole opening time.
Technical Paper

Ground Testing of the ETF Unmanned Airship Technology Demonstrator

This paper deals with the ground testing of the technological demonstrator of the innovative remotely controlled ETF airship1. The testing activities are intended to validate the flight control system of the ETF, which is based on the thrust vectoring technology and represents one of the major innovations of the ETF design, together with the airship architecture. A research team of the Aeronautical and Space Department of the Polytechnic of Turin, in collaboration with Nautilus, a small Italian private company, has been working since a few years on the ETF (Elettra Twin Flyers). This airship is remotely-piloted, with high maneuverability capabilities and good operative features also in adverse atmospheric conditions2. The Nautilus new concept airship features architecture and appropriate command system, which should enable the vehicle to maneuver in forward, backward and sideward flight and hovering with any heading, both in normal and severe wind conditions.
Technical Paper

Energy Storage: Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems for Space Exploration

Future exploration missions, including human missions to the Moon and Mars, are expected to have increasingly demanding operational requirements. Generating electrical power, and also maintaining a specific thermal environment, are both critical capabilities for any mission. In the case of exploration, both a wide range of mission types (robotic, human, ISRU etc.) and a variety of environments exist: from interplanetary space, to the shadow of a lunar crater, to the attenuated and red-shifted lighting on the Martian surface, power requirements must be met. This objective could be met with different technologies. The choice is dictated by the operating conditions and the different types of mission. TAS-I is historically mainly involved in missions related to the space exploration with the presence of astronauts. A typical example is the exploration of the Moon with the installation on the Moon surface of a base inclusive of pressurized habitats and rovers.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Energy-Efficient Management of a Light-Duty Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

The paper presents the main results of a study on the simulation of energy efficient management of on-board electric and thermal systems for a medium-size passenger vehicle featuring a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. A set of advanced technologies has been considered on the basis of very aggressive fuel economy targets: base-engine downsizing and friction reduction, combustion optimization, active thermal management, enhanced aftertreatment and downspeeding. Mild-hybridization has also been added with the goal of supporting the downsized/downspeeded engine performance, performing energy recuperation during coasting phases and enabling smooth stop/start and acceleration. The simulation has implemented a dynamic response to the required velocity and manual gear shift profiles in order to reproduce real-driver behavior and has actuated an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM).
Technical Paper

A Prototype Vehicle for Powertrain and Chassis Control System Tests

A prototype vehicle (PV) is equipped to test powertrain and active chassis systems with innovative control strategies for safety and energy saving. Additional sensors installed on-board allow the measurement and estimation of new information useful to the vehicle dynamic control. The PV was based on a serial production passenger car with Electronic Stability Control (ESC). Testing activities on Controller Area Network (CAN) and ESC Electronic Control Unit (ECU) are carried out to compare the vehicle dynamic performance obtainable using serial production rather than customized control strategies, while maintaining the same hardware. The PV is also utilized to provide reverse engineering analysis about the implemented control strategy for the ESC working in serial production mode.
Technical Paper

NEEXT : New Electric Experience For Traction

Electric scooters are suited to mobility in zones with environmental traffic limitations, and particularly for city centers with very poor room for parking. Aim of this paper is the illustration of the performance that can be obtained from a purposely designed electric scooter. The features of the main components of the scooter driveline: battery package, converter, motor and control will be described.
Journal Article

Experimental and Computational Analysis of Different EGR Systems for a Common Rail Passenger Car Diesel Engine

Different EGR system layouts (a Long Route, a Short Route, and a combination of the two) were evaluated by means of both numerical simulation and experimental tests. In particular, a one-dimensional fluid-dynamic engine model was built in order to evaluate the potential of a Long Route EGR system as well as the potential of different EGR combinations between Long and Short Route. By means of the one-dimensional model, used as a virtual test bench, the estimations of the NOx emissions, based on the Extended Zeldovich Mechanism (EZM), for the different solutions, were compared and valuable information for the calibration of the coordinated EGR LR, EGR SR and Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) control systems was obtained.