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Technical Paper

Next generation HEV powertrain design tools: roadmap and challenges

2019-10-28
2019-01-2602
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) represent a fundamental step in the global evolution towards transportation electrification. Nevertheless, they exhibit a remarkably complex design environments with respect to both traditional internal combustion engine vehicles and battery electric vehicles. Therefore, innovative and advanced design tools are crucially required to effectively handle the increased complexity of HEV development processes. This paper aims at providing a comprehensive overview of past and current advancements in HEV powertrain design methodologies. Subsequently, major simplifications and limits of current HEV design methodologies are detailed. The final part defines research challenges that need accomplishment to develop the next generation HEV architecture design tools.
Technical Paper

Driving Cycle and Elasticity Manoeuvre Simulation of a Small SUV Featuring an Electrically Boosted 1.0 L Gasoline Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0070
In order to meet the CO2 emission reduction targets, downsizing coupled with turbocharging has been proven as an effective way in reducing CO2 emissions while maintaining and improving vehicle driveability. As the downsizing becomes widely exploited, the increased boost levels entail the exploration of dual stage boosting systems. In a context of increasing electrification, the usage of electrified boosting systems can be effective in the improvement of vehicle performances. The aim of this work is therefore to evaluate, through numerical simulation, the impact of different voltage (12 V or 48 V) electric superchargers (eSC) on an extremely downsized 1.0L engine on vehicle performance and fuel consumption over different transient manoeuvres.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Experimental and Numerical Methodology for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles 0D Modelling

2019-09-09
2019-24-0072
Worldwide governments are constantly fostering actions aiming to achieve a sustainable transportation system that can comprise minimal pollutant and GHG emissions, with a special attention to the so called “real world” emissions, i.e. to the emissions achieved in the real driving conditions, outside of a protected and controlled testing environment. In this framework, interest in vehicle fleet electrification is rapidly growing, as it is seen as a way to simultaneously reduce pollutant and GHG emissions, while on the other hand OEMs are facing an enormous increase in the amount of tests which are needed to calibrate this new generation of electrified powertrains over a huge variety of different driving scenarios.
Technical Paper

Road to Virtual Tuning: New Physical Lump Model and Test Protocol to Support Damper Tuning in Hyundai Motor Europe Technical Center

2019-04-02
2019-01-0855
Vehicle dynamics is a fundamental part of vehicle performance. It combines functional requirements (i.e. road safety) with emotional content (“fun to drive”, “comfort”): this balance is what characterizes the car manufacturer (OEM) driving DNA. To reach the customer requirements on Ride & Handling, integration of CAE and testing is mandatory. Beside of cutting costs and time, simulation helps to break down vehicle requirements to component level. On chassis, the damper is the most important component, contributing to define the character of the vehicle, and it is defined late, during tuning, mainly by experienced drivers. Usually 1D lookup tables Force vs. Velocity, generated from tests like the standard VDA, are not able to describe the full behavior of the damper: different dampers display the same Force vs. Velocity curve but they can give different feeling to the driver.
Technical Paper

Calculating Heavy-Duty Truck Energy and Fuel Consumption Using Correlation Formulas Derived From VECTO Simulations

2019-04-02
2019-01-1278
The Vehicle Energy Consumption calculation Tool (VECTO) is used in Europe for calculating standardised energy consumption and CO2 emissions from Heavy-Duty Trucks (HDTs) for certification purposes. The tool requires detailed vehicle technical specifications and a series of component efficiency maps, which are difficult to retrieve for those that are outside of the manufacturing industry. In the context of quantifying HDT CO2 emissions, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission received VECTO simulation data of the 2016 vehicle fleet from the vehicle manufacturers. In previous work, this simulation data has been normalised to compensate for differences and issues in the quality of the input data used to run the simulations. This work, which is a continuation of the previous exercise, focuses on the deeper meaning of the data received to understand the factors contributing to energy and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Customer Oriented Vehicle Dynamics Assessment for Autonomous Driving in Highway

2019-04-02
2019-01-1020
Autonomous Driving is one of the main subjects of academic research and one important trend in the automotive industry. With the advent of self-driving vehicles, the interest around trajectory planning raises, in particular when a customer-oriented analysis is performed, since more and more the carmakers will have to pay attention to the handling comfort. With that in mind, an experimental approach is proposed to assess the main characteristics of human driving and gain knowledge to enhance quality of autonomous vehicles. Focusing on overtaking maneuvers in a highway environment, four comfort indicators are proposed aiming to capture the key aspects of the chosen paths of a heterogeneous cohort. The analysis of the distribution of these indicators (peak to peak lateral acceleration, RMS lateral acceleration, Smoothness and Jerk) allowed the definition of a human drive profile.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Methodology for 0D Map-Based Powertrain Modelling Applied to a 48 V Mild-Hybrid Diesel Passenger Car

2018-09-10
2018-01-1659
Nowadays, the 48 V vehicle architecture seems to be the perfect bridge between the 12 V system and the costly High Voltage (HV) electrification towards the crucial goal of CO2 and pollutants emissions reduction in combination with enhanced performance. However, this approach leads to an increased complexity in the interaction between different sub-systems targeting the optimization of the Energy Management System (EMS). Therefore, it becomes essential to perform a preliminary hardware assessment, exploring the interactions between the different components and quantifying the cost vs benefit trade-off. To this purpose, an integrated experimental/numerical methodology has been adopted: a comprehensive map-based Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) model has been built, allowing the simulation of a variety of hybrid architectures, including both HV and 48 V systems.
Technical Paper

Application of Adjoint Methods on Drag Reduction of Current Production Cars

2018-05-30
2018-37-0016
Automotive manufacturers are facing stronger and stronger pressure to optimize all aspects related to fuel consumption of cars, and aerodynamic drag makes no exception, due to increasing government enforcing rules for the reduction of the emissions and the increasing influence of aerodynamic performance on fuel consumption with WLTC and RDE driving cycles. Nowadays, CFD simulation is a common tool across automotive industries for the assessment and the optimization of vehicle resistance in the design phase. The full power of these numerical methods of studying many design variants in advance of experimental testing, however, can be fully exploited when coupled with optimization techniques, always keeping into account constraints and aesthetical demands. On the other hand, a massive use of CFD optimization can lead to unaffordable computational efforts or a limitation of the design exploration space.
Technical Paper

Mode-shifting Minimization in a Power Management Strategy for Rapid Component Sizing of Multimode Power Split Hybrid Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1018
The production of multi-mode power-split hybrid vehicles has been implemented for some years now and it is expected to continually grow over the next decade. Control strategy still represents one of the most challenging aspects in the design of these vehicles. Finding an effective strategy to obtain the optimal solution with light computational cost is not trivial. In previous publications, a Power-weighted Efficiency Analysis for Rapid Sizing (PEARS) algorithm was found to be a very promising solution. The issue with implementing a PEARS technique is that it generates an unrealistic mode-shifting schedule. In this paper, the problematic points of PEARS algorithm are detected and analyzed, then a solution to minimize mode-shifting events is proposed. The improved PEARS algorithm is integrated in a design methodology that can generate and test several candidate powertrains in a short period of time.
Technical Paper

A Deep Learning based Virtual Sensor for Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation: Experimental Results

2018-04-03
2018-01-1089
Modern vehicles have several active systems on board such as the Electronic Stability Control. Many of these systems require knowledge of vehicle states such as sideslip angle and yaw rate for feedback control. Sideslip angle cannot be measured with the standard sensors present in a vehicle, but it can be measured by very expensive and large optical sensors. As a result, state observers have been used to estimate sideslip angle of vehicles. The current state of the art does not present an algorithm which can robustly estimate the sideslip angle for vehicles with all-wheel drive. A deep learning network based sideslip angle observer is presented in this article for robust estimation of vehicle sideslip angle. The observer takes in the inputs from all the on board sensors present in a vehicle and it gives out an estimate of the sideslip angle. The observer is tested extensively using data which are obtained from proving grounds in high tire-road friction coefficient conditions.
Technical Paper

Driveline Backlash and Half-shaft Torque Estimation for Electric Powertrains Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-1345
The nonlinear behavior of automotive powertrains is mainly due to the presence of backlash between engaging components. In particular, during tip-in or tip-out maneuvers, backlash allows the generation of impacts that negatively affect the vehicle NVH performance. Due to the faster response of electric motors with respect to conventional internal combustion engines, this problem is even more critical for electric vehicles. In order to employ numerical optimal control methods for backlash compensation, the system states have to be known. In this paper, an electric powertrain is modeled as a two-mass oscillator with lumped backlash. This model estimates the system states when in no-contact mode while a Kalman filter that relies only on commonly available speed measurements is active in the contact phase. The powertrain model is validated using experimental data collected during vehicle testing and the online estimated half-shaft torque is shown.
Journal Article

Fuel Consumption Reduction on Heavy-Duty and Light-Duty Commercial Vehicles by Means of Advanced Central Tire Inflation Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-1334
Tire inflation pressure has a relevant impact on fuel consumption and tire wear, and therefore affects both CO2 emissions and the total cost of ownership (TCO). The latter is extremely important in the case of commercial vehicles, where the cost of fuel is responsible for about 30% of the TCO. A possible advanced central tire inflation system, which is able to inflate and deflate tires autonomously, as part of a smart energy management system and as an active safety device, has been studied. This system allows misuse due to underinflation to be avoided and adapts the tires to the current working conditions of the vehicle. For instance, the tire pressure can be adapted according to the carried load or during tire warm-up. An on board software is able to evaluate the working conditions of the vehicle and select the tire pressure that minimizes the energy expense, the TCO, or the braking distance, according to a multi-objective optimization strategy.
Technical Paper

Development through Simulation of a Turbocharged 2-Stroke G.D.I. Engine Focused on a Range-Extender Application

2017-11-05
2017-32-0121
An original 2-stroke prototype engine, equipped with an electronically controlled gasoline direct-injection apparatus, has been tested over the last few years, and the performances of these tests have been compared with those obtained using a commercial crankcase-scavenged 2-stroke engine. Very satisfactory results have been obtained, as far as fuel consumption and unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas are concerned. Large reductions in fuel consumption and in unburned hydrocarbons have been made possible, because the injection timing causes all the injected gasoline to remain in the combustion chamber, and thus to take part in the combustion process. Moreover, a force-feed lubrication system, like those usually exploited in mass-produced 4-stroke engines, has been employed, because of the presence of an external pump. In fact, it is no longer necessary to add oil to the gasoline in the engine, as the gasoline does not pass through the crankcase volume.
Technical Paper

Aeroelastic Behaviour of Flexible Wings Carrying Distributed Electric Propulsion Systems

2017-09-19
2017-01-2061
An accurate aeroelastic assessment of powered HALE aircraft is of paramount importance considering that their behaviour contrasts the one of conventional aircraft mainly due to the use of high aspect-ratio wings with distributed propulsion systems. This particular configuration shows strong dependency of the wing natural frequencies to the propulsion distribution and operating conditions. Numerical and experimental investigations are carried out to better understand the behaviour of flexible wings, focusing on the effect of distributed electric propulsion systems. Several configurations are investigated, including a single propulsion system using an engine pod (a weight with embedded electric motor, a propeller, and the wing-attached structure) installed at selected spanwise positions, and configurations with two and three propellers.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Modeling the Cat-Heating Transient Phase in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0010
This paper presents the modeling of the transient phase of catalyst heating on a high-performance turbocharged spark ignition engine with the aim to accurately predict the exhaust thermal energy available at the catalyst inlet and to provide a “virtual test rig” to assess different design and calibration options. The entire transient phase, starting from the engine cranking until the catalyst warm-up is completed, was taken into account in the simulation, and the model was validated using a wide data-set of experimental tests. The first step of the modeling activity was the combustion analysis during the transient phase: the burn rate was evaluated on the basis of experimental in-cylinder pressure data, considering both cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder variations.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Different Thermal Insulation Strategies for a Passenger Car Diesel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0021
One of the key technologies for the improvement of the diesel engine thermal efficiency is the reduction of the engine heat transfer through the thermal insulation of the combustion chamber. This paper presents a numerical investigation on the effects of the combustion chamber insulation on the heat transfer, thermal efficiency and exhaust temperatures of a 1.6 l passenger car, turbo-charged diesel engine. First, the complete insulation of the engine components, like pistons, liner, firedeck and valves, has been simulated. This analysis has showed that the piston is the component with the greatest potential for the in-cylinder heat transfer reduction and for Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) reduction, followed by firedeck, liner and valves. Afterwards, the study has been focused on the impact of different piston Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) on heat transfer, performance and wall temperatures.
Technical Paper

The Impact of WLTP on the Official Fuel Consumption and Electric Range of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Europe

2017-09-04
2017-24-0133
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are one of the main technology options for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions and helping vehicle manufacturers (OEMs) to meet the CO2 targets set by different Governments from all around the world. In Europe OEMs have introduced a number of PHEV models to meet their CO2 target of 95 g/km for passenger cars set for the year 2021. Fuel consumption (FC) and CO2 emissions from PHEVs, however, strongly depend on the way they are used and on the frequency with which their battery is charged by the user. Studies have indeed revealed that in real life, with poor charging behavior from users, PHEV FC is equivalent to that of conventional vehicles, and in some cases higher, due to the increased mass and the need to keep the battery at a certain charging level.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Lap-Time of a Rear Wheel Drive Electric Racing Vehicle by a Novel Motor Torque Control Strategy

2017-03-28
2017-01-0509
This paper presents a novel strategy for the control of the motor torques of a rear wheel drive electric vehicle with the objective of improving the lap time of the vehicle around a racetrack. The control strategy is based upon increasing the size of the friction circle by implementing torque vectoring and tire slip control. A two-level nested control strategy is used for the motor torque control. While the outer level is responsible for computing the desired corrective torque vectoring yaw moment, the inner level controls the motor torques to realize the desired corrective torque vectoring yaw moment while simultaneously controlling the wheel longitudinal slip. The performance of the developed controller is analyzed by simulating laps around a racetrack with a non-linear multi-body vehicle model and a professional human racing driver controller setting.
Journal Article

A Theoretical Investigation of the Influence of Powertrain Mounts on Transmission Torsional Dynamics

2017-03-28
2017-01-1124
This paper investigates the effect of the powertrain mounting system on the linear and nonlinear torsional dynamical behaviour of a transmission system. To this aim, two dynamic models, one with rigid mounts and the other with flexible mounts, are presented and compared: the first model considers only the torsional dynamics of transmission and driveline, while the second model includes also a 3 degrees-of-freedom powertrain block. The mechanical coupling and interaction between the powertrain block and transmission system is discussed and formulated. These models are then analyzed in terms of vibrational mode shapes, natural frequencies and Frequency Response Functions (FRFs); a sensitivity analysis of the main transmission parameters, e.g. the gear ratio, is also presented.
Journal Article

Development of a K-k-∊ Phenomenological Model to Predict In-Cylinder Turbulence

2017-03-28
2017-01-0542
The turbulent flow field inside the cylinder plays a major role in spark ignition (SI) engines. Multiple phenomena that occur during the high pressure part of the engine cycle, such as early flame kernel development, flame propagation and gas-to-wall heat transfer, are influenced by in-cylinder turbulence. Turbulence inside the cylinder is primarily generated via high shear flows that occur during the intake process, via high velocity injection sprays and by the destruction of macro-scale motions produced by tumbling and/or swirling structures close to top dead center (TDC) . Understanding such complex flow phenomena typically requires detailed 3D-CFD simulations. Such calculations are computationally very expensive and are typically carried out for a limited number of operating conditions. On the other hand, quasi-dimensional simulations, which provide a limited description of the in-cylinder processes, are computationally inexpensive.
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